Search results1 – 10 of over 2000
Purpose – This chapter provides details of research that attempts to relate traffic operational conditions on uninterrupted flow facilities (e.g., freeways and…
Purpose – This chapter provides details of research that attempts to relate traffic operational conditions on uninterrupted flow facilities (e.g., freeways and expressways) with real-time crash likelihood. Unlike incident detection, the purpose of this line of work is to proactively assess crash likelihood and potentially reduce the likelihood through proactive traffic management techniques, including variable speed limit and ramp metering among others.
Methodology – The chapter distinguishes between the traditional aggregate crash frequency-based approach to safety evaluation and the approach needed for real-time crash risk estimation. Key references from the literature are summarised in terms of the reported effect of different traffic characteristics that can be derived in near real-time, including average speed, temporal variation in speed, volume and lane-occupancy, on crash occurrence.
Findings – Traffic and weather parameters are among the real-time crash-contributing factors. Among the most significant traffic parameters is speed particularly in the form of coefficient of variation of speed.
Research implications – In the traffic safety field, traditional data sources are infrastructure-based traffic detection systems. In the future, if automatic traffic detection systems could provide reliable data at the vehicle level, new variables such as headway could be introduced. Transferability of real-time crash prediction models is also of interest. Also, the potential effects of different management strategies to reduce real-time crash risk could be evaluated in a simulation environment.
Practical implications – This line of research has been at the forefront of bringing data mining and other machine-learning techniques into the traffic management arena. We expect these analysis techniques to play a more important role in real-time traffic management, not just for safety evaluation but also for congestion pricing and alternate routing.
Purpose – Intersections are hazardous locations and to improve their safety we need to understand the factors contributing to crashes at these locations and provide evidence-based recommendations to reduce them. This chapter provides a summary of the findings on infrastructure-related factors contributing to crashes at urban and rural intersections and some discussions on the implications and potential countermeasures.
Approach – A review of the literature on intersection crashes was performed to identify the infrastructure-related crash-contributing factors. Some discussions on the implications and potential countermeasures are then provided.
Findings – The factors contributing to road crashes are diverse and complex. While the safety effects of a few factors (e.g., exposure and speed) are relatively consistent, many factors have different impacts on crash frequency and severity (e.g., types of intersection) and different impacts on urban and rural intersections (e.g., bus stops).
Research Implications – More studies are needed on developing a stronger theoretical or conceptual foundation on the effects of roadway designs and traffic controls on different dimensions of safety (e.g., exposure, frequency, severity, etc.), types of crashes (e.g., head-on, rear-end, etc.) or road users involved (e.g., drivers, pedestrians, cyclists, etc.).
Practical Implications – Transport engineers need to be aware that some treatments may have different effects on different crash types and road users involved. Even though the overall safety may be improved by the treatments designed, they need to consider and mitigate any unintended consequences to satisfy the Pareto improvement principle and the social equity criterion.
Political tussles between the current and former presidents of Mauritania
The hand-picked successor of outgoing President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, Ould Ghazouani is expected to provide significant policy continuity. The transition will, however…
In this paper, the electrical parameters of the duct electrostatic precipitators with bundle wires, as discharge electrodes, are calculated and reported. Variation of…
In this paper, the electrical parameters of the duct electrostatic precipitators with bundle wires, as discharge electrodes, are calculated and reported. Variation of mobility for both ions and particles in the space surrounding the energized subwires is taken into consideration. The method used is based on numerically solving the main set of equations, defining the ionized field surrounding the subwires of the bundle wire‐duct electrostatic precipitators (BWDEP) with the presence of dust particles. This method predicts the electrical performance in the BWDEP irrespective of the number of subwires per bundle. The corona onset voltage around the periphery of each subwire of the bundled discharge electrodes of the duct electrostatic precipitators is determined. It changes from point to point at the subwire surface. The effects of different numbers of subwires per bundled electrode, as well as the subwires arrangement, on the electrical performance of the BWDEP are also reported and discussed in this paper. The present findings are correlated to the physics of the electrical corona discharge.
Purpose – Urban and suburban arterials carry a large share of urban traffic and contend with a relatively large proportion of transport network crashes. Road crashes and…
Purpose – Urban and suburban arterials carry a large share of urban traffic and contend with a relatively large proportion of transport network crashes. Road crashes and their consequent societal costs diminish the sustainability of transportation systems, highlighting the need to identify road safety problems and their corresponding solutions. This chapter briefly outlines problems and solutions associated with crash risk on urban and suburban arterials. In addition, this chapter studies and discusses several safety countermeasures – ranging from local treatments to integral frameworks – and their effectiveness on improving traffic safety of urban and suburban arterials.
Approach – Crash occurrence on urban and suburban arterials is affected by numerous contributing factors. This chapter pays attention primarily to the effects of traffic characteristics and road design features. In this regard, several pertinent variables which have been extensively examined in the literature are reviewed and their contributions to the safety of urban and suburban arterials are discussed.
Findings – A review of the literature identifies a number of variables as influential factors of crashes on urban and suburban arterials. Although the associations of some variables (e.g., traffic volume) are consistent with expectations, others (e.g., lane width and speed) show mixed and sometimes counterintuitive results. These findings signify that additional research is needed to reveal the correct functional form and magnitude of these relationships.
Practical implications – The results show that while the general direction and magnitude of effects of some engineering and management-related treatments are known, additional research is needed to consolidate the impact and effectiveness of integrated approaches.
Since leaving office last year, the former leader has been marginalised by his successor and erstwhile ally, Mohamed Ould Ghazouani. Despite an array of challenges…
In this paper a modified numerical method for calculating the precipitation efficiency of wire‐duct electrostatic precipitators is reported. Variation of mobility for both…
In this paper a modified numerical method for calculating the precipitation efficiency of wire‐duct electrostatic precipitators is reported. Variation of mobility for both ions and particles in space surrounding the energized wires is taken into consideration. This method is based on solving numerically the main set of equations, defining the ionized field with presence of dust particles. The precipitation efficiency of the electrostatic precipitators is determined for the cement industry. The effect of different geometrical parameters on the precipitation efficiency is also reported. The precipitation efficiency of the wire‐duct electrostatic precipitator as influenced by both the applied voltage and the gas flow speed is discussed in this paper. The present findings are correlated to the physics of electrical corona discharge.