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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Abbas Ahmad Adamu, Norazilawati Muhamad Sarih and Seng Neon Gan

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste from soft drink bottles was incorporated into palm olein alkyd to produce new polyol for use in polyurethane resins as surface…

Abstract

Purpose

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste from soft drink bottles was incorporated into palm olein alkyd to produce new polyol for use in polyurethane resins as surface protection on metal surfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Alkyd was prepared from palm olein, glycerol and phthalic anhydride. PET underwent simultaneous glycolysis and transesterification reactions with the alkyd. Varying the amount of PET has led to polyols with different viscosities. Polyurethane resins were produced by reacting the polyols with toluene diisocyanate. The resins were coated on mild steel panels and cured. Performances of the cured films were tested.

Findings

The polyurethanes (PU) resin cured to a harder film with better thermal stability. Films showed excellent adhesion properties, while higher content of PET exhibited higher pencil hardness, better water, salt, acid and alkali resistance.

Research limitations/implications

Other vegetable oils could also be used. The alkyd structure could be changed by formulation to have different functionality and the ability to incorporate higher amount of PET waste. Rate of glycolysis of PET could be increased by higher amount of ethylene glycol.

Practical implications

This method has managed to use waste PET in producing new polyol and PU resins. The cured films exhibit good mechanical and chemical properties, as well as excellent adhesion and thermal stability.

Social implications

The non-biodegradable PET has created environmental pollution problems connected to littering and illegal landfilling. It has become necessary to pay greater attention to recycling PET bottles for obtaining valuable products.

Originality/value

This approach is different from the earlier reports, where PET was recycled to recover the raw materials.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2019

Solomon Olusola Babatunde and Damilola Ekundayo

In developing countries, adoption of building information modelling (BIM) concept within the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) curricula in universities is…

Abstract

Purpose

In developing countries, adoption of building information modelling (BIM) concept within the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) curricula in universities is a relatively new effort, and subsequently, studies on the status of BIM implementation in universities are rare. This study, therefore, becomes imperative with a view to identifying and examining the barriers to the incorporation of BIM into quantity surveying (QS) undergraduate curriculum in Nigerian universities.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a questionnaire survey, which was targeted at the academia and students from two selected universities offering QS honours degree programme. Data collected were analysed using mean score, Mann–Whitney test and factor analysis.

Findings

The study identified 30 barriers, and the analysis of the ranking revealed that 17 (out of 30) identified barriers were considered as the most serious barriers. The study, through factor analysis, grouped the 30 identified barriers into six major factors.

Practical implications

The findings provide greater insights and empirical evidence on the major barriers to implementation of BIM education in developing countries.

Originality/value

The identified barriers are relevant not only to QS education but also to other related disciplines within the AEC context. These findings would be of great value to academic staff and university management board to develop strategies for incorporating BIM into AEC disciplines curricula in developing countries at large.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2020

Oludolapo Ibrahim Olanrewaju, Nicholas Chileshe, Sunday Ajiboye Babarinde and Malindu Sandanayake

The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the perceptions of constructional professionals on barriers to implementation of building information modeling (BIM…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the perceptions of constructional professionals on barriers to implementation of building information modeling (BIM) within the Nigerian construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A scoping literature review was conducted to identify the fourteen barriers to implementation of BIM, which were employed to design a questionnaire survey. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, mean score, Kruskal–Wallis test, analysis of variance and multivariate techniques such as factor analysis.

Findings

The descriptive and empirical analysis demonstrated a disparity of ranking of the 14 barriers factors among the groups; however no statistically significant differences among the 14 barriers to BIM. Based on the mean score ranking results, only three (out of 14) barriers are identified as critical (mean score greater than 3.5): few studies available on BIM and lack of knowledge, inexistence or inadequate government policies, and high cost of implementation. The results of the one-sample t-tests show that they were statistically significant differences in 10 out of 14 barriers as follows: few studies available on BIM and lack of knowledge, lack of demand for use and acceptance of BIM, inadequate contractual coordination, lack of specified standards, cost of data and information sharing, technological availability issues, reluctance of other stakeholders, business and cultural changes, data and intellectual property issues, and interoperability issues. The study, through factor analysis, categorized the fourteen barriers to BIM implementation into four principal factors. The factors are: technology and business-related barriers; training and people-related barriers; cost and standards-related barriers; and process and economic-related barriers.

Practical implications

The identification and assessment of the key barriers to BIM implementation would be useful for the construction professionals and other stakeholder of the construction industry with the view to advance BIM adoption in Nigeria. This could also be extended to other developing countries through considerations of the local economic conditions, given the status of BIM as being in the germinating stage of development in Africa.

Originality/value

The study provides insights on the barriers to BIM implementation across the Nigerian construction sector environments. The innovative aspect of the study is the identification of the ordered and grouped (composite) set of barriers to BIM which could be used to developing appropriate mitigating solutions.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Buba Musa Pulka, Azahari Ramli and Armanurah Mohamad

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating influence of the external environment on the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies, entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating influence of the external environment on the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies, entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial network, government business support and SMEs performance. The objectives of the study are achieved using the resource-based view and dynamic capability theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey method of research was used by personally administering questionnaires to the respondents. Multistage sampling techniques are used in selecting 470 SMEs owners/managers that participated in the survey. SPSS 24 and PLS-SEM 3.0 were used in the analysis of the data.

Findings

In the Nigerian context, the findings indicated that EC, EO and GBS directly influence the SMEs performance. Surprisingly, SMEs performance is not influenced by EN. Similarly, EE significantly moderated the relationship between EC, GBS and SMEs performance. On the contrary, EE does not have any moderating influence on the relationship between EO, EN and SMEs performance.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to northeastern Nigeria. The study is limited to the EC, EO, EN GBS EE and SMEs performance and the use of cross-sectional data. The findings imply that SMEs owners/managers need a high level of entrepreneurial competencies and government business support to achieve a better performance especially in an external environment that is characterised by dynamism, diversity, complexity and hostility. Hence, providing support for both RBV and DCT.

Practical implications

Thus, the study offers additional empirical evidence from Nigeria and also expands knowledge and understanding in this field. The findings offer owners/managers, government agencies, financial institutions and other stakeholders of SMEs strategies EC, EO, GBS and EE to achieve a better SMEs performance.

Originality/value

The conceptual framework of the study is unique, and the study was conducted in northeastern Nigeria which is grossly underrepresented in the literature. It also provided understanding on the moderating influence of EE on the framework.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

Najiyah Safwa Khashi'ie, Norihan M. Arifin, John H. Merkin, Rusya Iryanti Yahaya and Ioan Pop

The purpose of this paper is to numerically analyze the stagnation point flow of Cu-Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid with mixed convection past a flat plate and circular cylinder.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to numerically analyze the stagnation point flow of Cu-Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid with mixed convection past a flat plate and circular cylinder.

Design/methodology/approach

The similarity equations that reduced from the boundary layer and energy equations are solved using the bvp4c solver. The duality of solutions is observed within the specific range of the control parameters, namely, mixed convection parameter λ, curvature parameter γ and nanoparticles volumetric concentration ϕ1 for alumina, while for copper ϕ2. The stability analysis is also designed to justify the particular solutions’ stability. Additionally, the idea to obtain the solution for large value of λ and γ is also presented in this paper.

Findings

Two solutions exist in opposing and assisting flows up to a critical value λc where λc lies in the opposing region. An upsurge of the curvature parameter tends to extend the critical value (delay the separation process), whilst increase the heat transfer performance of the working fluid. Meanwhile, the application of hybrid Cu-Al2O3/water nanofluid also can decelerate the separation of laminar boundary layer flow and produce higher heat transfer rate than the Cu–water nanofluid and pure water.

Originality/value

The results are new and original. This study benefits to the other researchers, specifically in the observation of the fluid flow characteristics and heat transfer rate of the hybrid nanofluid. Also, this paper features with the mathematical formulation for the solution with large values of λ and γ.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Joel R. Evans and Anil Mathur

The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed and critical look at the evolution of online survey research since Evans and Mathur’s (2005) article on the value of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed and critical look at the evolution of online survey research since Evans and Mathur’s (2005) article on the value of online surveys. At that time, online survey research was in its early stages. Also covered are the present and future states of online research. Many conclusions and recommendations are presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The look back focuses on online surveys, strengths and weaknesses of online surveys, the literature on several aspects of online surveys and online survey best practices. The look ahead focuses on emerging survey technologies and methodologies, and new non-survey technologies and methodologies. Conclusions and recommendations are provided.

Findings

Online survey research is used more frequently and better accepted by researchers than in 2005. Yet, survey techniques are still regularly transformed by new technologies. Non-survey digital research is also more prominent than in 2005 and can better track actual behavior than surveys can. Hybrid surveys will be widespread in the future.

Practical implications

The paper aims to provide insights for researchers with different levels of online survey experience. And both academics and practitioners should gain insights.

Social implications

Adhering to a strong ethics code is vital to gain respondents’ trust and to produce valid results.

Originality/value

Conclusions and recommendations are offered in these specific areas: defining concepts, understanding the future role of surveys, developing and implementing surveys and a survey code of ethics. The literature review cites more than 200 sources.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2020

Natalia C. Roşca, Alin V. Roşca, Amin Jafarimoghaddam and Ioan Pop

The purpose of this paper is to study the laminar boundary layer cross flow and heat transfer on a rotational stagnation-point flow over either a stretching or shrinking…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the laminar boundary layer cross flow and heat transfer on a rotational stagnation-point flow over either a stretching or shrinking porous wall submerged in hybrid nanofluids. The involved boundary layers are of stream-wise type with stretching/shrinking process along the surface.

Design/methodology/approach

Using appropriate similarity variables the partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary (similarity) differential equations. The reduced system of equations is solved analytically (by high-order perturbed field propagation for small to moderate stretching/shrinking parameter and low-order perturbation for large stretching/shrinking parameter) and numerically using the function bvp4c from MATLAB for different values of the governing parameters.

Findings

It was found that the basic similarity equations admit dual (upper and lower branch) solutions for both stretching/shrinking surfaces. Moreover, performing a linear stability analysis, it was confirmed that the upper branch solution is realistic (physically realizable), while the lower branch solution is not physically realizable in practice. These dual solutions will be studied in the present paper.

Originality/value

The authors believe that all numerical results are new and original and have not been published before for the present problem.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2020

Najiyah Safwa Khashi’ie, Norihan Md Arifin, Ioan Pop, Roslinda Nazar, Ezad Hafidz Hafidzuddin and Nadihah Wahi

This paper aims to scrutinize the analysis of non-axisymmetric Homann stagnation point flow and heat transfer of hybrid Cu-Al2O3/water nanofluid over a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to scrutinize the analysis of non-axisymmetric Homann stagnation point flow and heat transfer of hybrid Cu-Al2O3/water nanofluid over a stretching/shrinking flat plate.

Design/methodology/approach

The similarity transformation which fulfils the continuity equation is opted to transform the coupled momentum and energy equations into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions which are elucidated in the tables and graphs are obtained using the bvp4c solver.

Findings

Non-unique solutions (first and second) are feasible for both stretching and shrinking cases within the specific values of the parameters. First solution is the physical/real solution based on the execution of stability analysis. An upsurge of the ratio of the ambient fluid strain rate to the plate strain rate can delay the boundary layer separation, whereas a boost of the ratio of the ambient fluid shear rate to the plate strain rate only accelerates the separation of boundary layer. The heat transfer rate of hybrid nanofluid is greater for the stretching case than the shrinking case. However, for the shrinking case, the heat transfer rate intensifies with the increment of the copper (Cu) nanoparticles volume fraction, whereas a contrary result is found for the stretching case.

Originality/value

The present numerical results are original and new. It can contribute to other researchers on electing the relevant parameters to optimize the heat transfer process in the modern industry, and the right parameters to generate non-unique solution so that no misjudgment on flow and heat transfer features.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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