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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Aaron W. Andreason

Ineffective expatriate performance and premature returns have been found to relate primarily to an inability to adjust to the foreign environment rather than a lack of…

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Abstract

Ineffective expatriate performance and premature returns have been found to relate primarily to an inability to adjust to the foreign environment rather than a lack of technical competence. Research has identified three dimensions of expatriate adjustment: adjustment to work, adjustment to interactions with people in the foreign country and general adjustment to the culture and living conditions. Five major factors that have been found to influence these dimensions of adjustment and research using these factors provides a framework to help international firms understand and take a more active role in facilitating expatriate adjustment.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2005

Joseph Chwo‐ming Yu, Chin‐Hua Yi, Yu‐Ching Chiao and Yu‐Chen Wei

An investigation into the factors affecting the adaptation of spouses of Taiwan expatriates allowed for their modes of adaptation to be classified into ‘adjustment’…

Abstract

An investigation into the factors affecting the adaptation of spouses of Taiwan expatriates allowed for their modes of adaptation to be classified into ‘adjustment’, ‘reaction’ and ‘withdrawal’. Albeit a sample of 15 spouses were interviewed using a semi‐structured questionnaire, the research findings indicate that if an expatriate’s spouse is characterized as having high cultural flexibility, high social orientation, a high degree of willingness to communicate, a high conflict resolution orientation, low ethnocentricity and a high orientation towards knowledge, the overseas adaptation tends to be of the ‘adjustment’ mode. Research propositions based on case findings and relevant literature are derived here for future more in‐depth study.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 15 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Denni Arli, Fandy Tjiptono, Aaron Tkaczynski and Marat Bakpayev

The concept of grit has been receiving increased attention in recent years. Grit is a trait that enables individuals to persevere while facing challenges and obstacles in…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of grit has been receiving increased attention in recent years. Grit is a trait that enables individuals to persevere while facing challenges and obstacles in life, sometimes “winning at any cost”. The purpose of the study is to understand how ethical views may vary among different groups of people segmented on grittiness. Our key argument is that grittier segment is more inclined towards Machiavellian factors (amorality, desire for control, desire for status, distrust of others) and materialism.

Design/methodology/approach

Data derived from self-administered questionnaires completed by convenience samples of Indonesians living in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY), a region commonly considered as the miniature of Indonesia. Turning to market segmentation tools (n = 467), we first segment people based on their level of grittiness and, subsequently, investigate each segment's perception towards various Machiavellian factors (amorality, desire for control, distrust of others) and materialistic attitudes.

Findings

The study identified three segments of grittiness: The Least Gritty (the Good), The More Gritty (the Bad) and The Most Gritty (the Ugly). The results of this study showed the dark side of grit. Individuals with higher grit traits are more likely to behave unethically which could be referred to as “bad” and “ugly”. To help them succeed, cheating and lying are more likely considered acceptable by gritty individuals compared to less gritty “good” individuals.

Practical implications

Merely focussing on grit–be it grit promotion or training–may produce individuals who achieve success at all costs and disregard ethical values. An implication from the study is not to discourage developing grit in individuals but instead to add and emphasise ethical components. This implication is especially critical for educators and managers developing grit as a part of their activities.

Originality/value

The results of this study will have important theoretical implications and managerial implications educators balancing the consequences of teaching grit, but also for managers interested in understanding employees' level of grit within their workplaces along with ethical considerations.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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