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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Denni Arli, Fandy Tjiptono, Aaron Tkaczynski and Marat Bakpayev

The concept of grit has been receiving increased attention in recent years. Grit is a trait that enables individuals to persevere while facing challenges and obstacles in…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of grit has been receiving increased attention in recent years. Grit is a trait that enables individuals to persevere while facing challenges and obstacles in life, sometimes “winning at any cost”. The purpose of the study is to understand how ethical views may vary among different groups of people segmented on grittiness. Our key argument is that grittier segment is more inclined towards Machiavellian factors (amorality, desire for control, desire for status, distrust of others) and materialism.

Design/methodology/approach

Data derived from self-administered questionnaires completed by convenience samples of Indonesians living in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY), a region commonly considered as the miniature of Indonesia. Turning to market segmentation tools (n = 467), we first segment people based on their level of grittiness and, subsequently, investigate each segment's perception towards various Machiavellian factors (amorality, desire for control, distrust of others) and materialistic attitudes.

Findings

The study identified three segments of grittiness: The Least Gritty (the Good), The More Gritty (the Bad) and The Most Gritty (the Ugly). The results of this study showed the dark side of grit. Individuals with higher grit traits are more likely to behave unethically which could be referred to as “bad” and “ugly”. To help them succeed, cheating and lying are more likely considered acceptable by gritty individuals compared to less gritty “good” individuals.

Practical implications

Merely focussing on grit–be it grit promotion or training–may produce individuals who achieve success at all costs and disregard ethical values. An implication from the study is not to discourage developing grit in individuals but instead to add and emphasise ethical components. This implication is especially critical for educators and managers developing grit as a part of their activities.

Originality/value

The results of this study will have important theoretical implications and managerial implications educators balancing the consequences of teaching grit, but also for managers interested in understanding employees' level of grit within their workplaces along with ethical considerations.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2013

Aaron Tkaczynski

An extant scale concerning festival performance (FESTPERF) was developed to measure service quality perceptions of attendees to an Australian jazz and blues festival…

Abstract

An extant scale concerning festival performance (FESTPERF) was developed to measure service quality perceptions of attendees to an Australian jazz and blues festival. Despite its noted applicability to music festivals, the study by Tkaczynski and Stokes (2010) focused on one festival of a particular type, and the generalizability of its findings to multiple special events and nonmusic events remains untested. To address these research limitations, this study applied FESTPERF to a theater performance and a film festival. One-hundred and sixty valid responses were collected and analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. It was identified that three factors, human service, venue, and performance, represented attendees’ perception of service quality at these special events. The performance factor was also significantly related to satisfaction and repurchase intent. Results from this study provided justification for the usage of the items proposed in the FESTPERF instrument to be applied to different special event settings with some minor modifications. Opportunities for future research are outlined and the limitations of this study are also provided.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-746-7

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Aaron Tkaczynski and Sharyn Rundle‐Thiele

This paper aims to recommend a two‐step approach to destination segmentation that incorporates the views both of multiple stakeholders and of tourists.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to recommend a two‐step approach to destination segmentation that incorporates the views both of multiple stakeholders and of tourists.

Design/methodology/approach

Step one applies a case study approach incorporating semi‐structured interviews with 13 destination stakeholders. Step two involves segmenting tourists to the destination based on a questionnaire survey developed from the semi‐structured interviews. The study compares and contrasts the result with the current DMO approach.

Findings

The two‐step approach produces three segments for the destination under study using four segmentation bases and ten variables. The DMO approach also utilizes all four segmentation bases but produces six segments with five different variables. The DMO approach captures fewer tourists visiting the destination.

Research limitations/implications

This study considers one regional Australian destination. Future research is recommended in a range of alternative destinations to further understand the two‐step segmentation approach. It is recommended that the two‐step approach should be extended to destination branding and positioning.

Originality value

Segmentation guides positioning and branding strategies and the proposed two‐step approach may assist destination stakeholders to reach more of the types of tourists who are likely to visit the destination.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2012

Aaron Tkaczynski and Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

This chapter aims to compare two data collection methods to ascertain whether the method impacts the segments derived for events. A total of 1,180 onsite surveys were…

Abstract

This chapter aims to compare two data collection methods to ascertain whether the method impacts the segments derived for events. A total of 1,180 onsite surveys were collected during a music festival and 522 online surveys were completed by attendees a fortnight after the event ended. Both sets of data were analyzed separately using TwoStep cluster analysis. Four valid segments were identified in both models. In each case 4 segmentation bases and 12 variables represented the final solutions with minimal but observable differences. Of note, a difference in the size of the clusters was identified. Furthermore, in a few instances a category that was ranked first for the onsite approach fell to second, or vice versa. Both online and onsite data collection methods are capable of providing data for segmentation purposes with a high degree of accuracy observed between data collection methods. Researchers must be aware that the choice of data collection will have a minor influence on the segments derived. Ideally researchers should seek to collect data using multiple data collection methods to gain a more holistic view of festival attendees.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-936-3

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2017

Qing Ye and Aaron Tkaczynski

An increasing number of environmental threats towards tourism landmarks have significantly raised public concerns about tourists being environmentally responsible…

Abstract

An increasing number of environmental threats towards tourism landmarks have significantly raised public concerns about tourists being environmentally responsible. Negative ecological consequences from tourism-related activities have triggered the growing usage of environmental-focused events such as Earth Hour as a means to promote pro-environmental behaviour. Despite their size, increasing holiday behaviour and their marketplace dominance within the next decade, students’ environmental beliefs and their interest in participating in environmental-focused events such as Earth Hour is relatively unknown. This academic limitation and potential theoretical and practical implications provide the impetus for this study. Based on a sample of 410 students, three environment belief factors of students were determined. Further, students’ concerns for the environment were derived from the environmental vulnerability factor. Students’ beliefs do not directly impact their decision to participate in environmental-focused events or their awareness of the theme of Earth Hour. However, environment vulnerability influenced students’ intention to participate in future Earth Hour events. Recommendations are made, while future research opportunities are also outlined.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-488-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Sharyn Rundle-Thiele, Krzysztof Kubacki, Aaron Tkaczynski and Joy Parkinson

The purpose of this paper is to: first, illustrate how market segmentation using two-step cluster analysis can be used to identify segments in the context of physical…

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1953

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to: first, illustrate how market segmentation using two-step cluster analysis can be used to identify segments in the context of physical activity; second, identified segments are used to offer practical implications for social marketers working in the area of physical activity.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 1,459 respondents residing within 20 kilometres of the Melbourne Central Business District participated in an online survey. The questions in the survey included items relating to respondents’ health perceptions, health knowledge, attitudes, intentions to start a new physical activity, demographics, place of residence and self-reported physical activity. Two-step cluster analysis using the log-likelihood measure was used to reveal natural groupings in the data set.

Findings

This research has identified four distinctive segments in the context of physical activity, namely: Young Disinteresteds, Successful Enthusiasts, Vulnerables and Happy Retirees.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in March and some sports were not in season at the time of the study, therefore future research should extend the current sample to take seasonality and geography into account and to ensure the clusters are fully representative of the Australian population.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by outlining a two-step cluster analytic approach to segmentation that can be used by social marketers to identify valuable segments when developing social marketing programmes.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Lisa Ruhanen, Noel Scott, Brent Ritchie and Aaron Tkaczynski

Despite the proliferation of the governance concept in the broader academic literature, there is little agreement on definitions, scope and what actually constitutes…

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5733

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the proliferation of the governance concept in the broader academic literature, there is little agreement on definitions, scope and what actually constitutes governance. This is arguably due to the fact that empirical research on the topic, with some exceptions, is generally limited to case studies without use of any common conceptual framework. This is certainly the case in other fields of study and is becoming increasingly obvious in tourism research also. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to explore and synthesize the governance literature with the objective of identifying the key elements and dimensions of governance.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the two “parent” bodies of literature originating in the political sciences and corporate management fields of study, the paper provides a review and synthesis of the governance concept with the objective of identifying the primary elements and factors that have been employed in studies of governance to date.

Findings

A review of 53 published governance studies identified 40 separate dimensions of governance. From this review, the six most frequently included governance dimensions were: accountability, transparency, involvement, structure, effectiveness and power.

Originality/value

A synthesis of the governance literature has not been undertaken to date, either in the tourism literature or in other fields of study, and in doing so the authors provide a basis for tourism researchers to draw on a set of comparable conceptual dimensions in future research. Comparable dimensions which can be replicated and tested in empirical research will add additional depth and rigor to studies in this field.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2012

Abstract

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-936-3

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2013

Abstract

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-746-7

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2017

Abstract

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-488-2

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