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Albert A. Okunade, Xiaohui You and Kayhan Koleyni

The search for more effective policies, choice of optimal implementation strategies for achieving defined policy targets (e.g., cost-containment, improved access, and…

Abstract

The search for more effective policies, choice of optimal implementation strategies for achieving defined policy targets (e.g., cost-containment, improved access, and quality healthcare outcomes), and selection among the metrics relevant for assessing health system policy change performance simultaneously pose continuing healthcare sector challenges for many countries of the world. Meanwhile, research on the core drivers of healthcare costs across the health systems of the many countries continues to gain increased momentum as these countries learn among themselves. Consequently, cross-country comparison studies largely focus their interests on the relationship among health expenditures (HCE), GDP, aging demographics, and technology. Using more recent 1980–2014 annual data panel on 34 OECD countries and the panel ARDL (Autoregressive Distributed Lag) framework, this study investigates the long- and short-run relationships among aggregate healthcare expenditure, income (GDP per capita or per capita GDP_HCE), age dependency ratio, and “international co-operation patents” (for capturing the technology effects). Results from the panel ARDL approach and Granger causality tests suggest a long-run relationship among healthcare expenditure and the three major determinants. Findings from the Westerlund test with bootstrapping further corroborate the existence of a long-run relationship among healthcare expenditure and the three core determinants. Interestingly, GDP less health expenditure (GDP_HCE) is the only short-run driver of HCE. The income elasticity estimates, falling in the 1.16–1.46 range, suggest that the behavior of aggregate healthcare in the 34 OECD countries tends toward those for luxury goods. Finally, through cross-country technology spillover effects, these OECD countries benefit significantly from international investments through technology cooperations resulting in jointly owned patents.

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Article

Mohsen Ahmadi and Rahim Taghizadeh

The purpose of this paper is to focus on modeling economy growth with indicators of knowledge-based economy (KBE) introduced by World Bank for a case study in Iran during…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on modeling economy growth with indicators of knowledge-based economy (KBE) introduced by World Bank for a case study in Iran during 1993-2013.

Design/methodology/approach

First, for grouping and reducing the number of variables, Tukey method and the principal component analysis are used. Also for modeling, 67 per cent of data is used for training in the two approaches of ARDL bounds testing and gene expression programming (GEP) and 33 per cent of them for testing the models. Then, the result models are compared with fitness function and Akaike information criteria (AIC).

Findings

The GEP model with fitness 945.7461 for training data and 954.8403 for testing data from 1000 is better than ARDL bounds testing model with fitness 335.5479 from 1000. In addition, according to model comparison tools (AIC), the GEP model has an extremely larger weight in comparison with ARDL bounds model. Therefore, the GEP model is introduced for future use in academia.

Practical implications

Knowledge and information is one of the most basic sources of wealth in economists’ sight. Thus, using KBE indicators appears essential in economic growth regarding daily progress in knowledge processes and its different theories. It is also extremely important to determine an appropriate model for KBE indicators which play a highly important role in the allocation of the economic resources of the country in an optimal manner.

Originality/value

This paper introduced a novel expression for economy growth using KBE indicators. All the data and the indicators are extracted from Word Bank service between 1993 and 2013.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article

Lord Mensah, Divine Allotey, Emmanuel Sarpong-Kumankoma and William Coffie

This paper aims to test whether a debt threshold of public debt has any effect on economic growth in Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test whether a debt threshold of public debt has any effect on economic growth in Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied the panel autoregressive distributed models on 38 African countries with annual data from 1970 to 2015. It was established that the threshold and the trajectory of debt has an impact on economic growth.

Findings

Specifically, the authors found that public debt hampers economic growth when the depth is in the region of 20 to 80 per cent of GDP. Based on debt trajectory, this study established that increasing public debt beyond 50 to 80 per cent of GDP adversely affects economic growth in Africa. The study also finds that the persistent rise in debt also has adverse effect on economic growth in the African countries in the sample. It must be known to policymakers that the threshold of debt in developing countries, and for that matter African countries, are less than that of developed countries.

Practical implications

This study suggests threshold effects between 20 and 50 per cent; this should be a guide for policymakers in the accumulation of debt stock. Interestingly, the findings suggest some debt trajectory effect, which policymakers might consider by increasing efforts to reduce debt levels when they fall between 50 to 80 per cent of GDP. This implies that reducing such debt levels can help African countries increase their economic growth.

Originality/value

The study is unique because it seeks to add new evidence on the relationship between public debt and growth in the African region, by considering the impact of the persistent growth of public debt on economic growth.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article

Vedat Yorucu

The purpose of this study is to analyze the determinants of changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for Turkey by utilizing the autoregressive distributed lag approach…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the determinants of changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for Turkey by utilizing the autoregressive distributed lag approach to investigate the long-run equilibrium relationships of CO2 emissions between foreign tourist arrivals (FTAs) and electricity consumption (ELC). The results reveal that foreign tourists and ELC are significant determinants of a long-run equilibrium relationship with CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production and CO2 emissions from transport for Turkey, respectively. The results of the conditional error correction models (CECM) confirm that there are long-run causal relationships from the growing number of foreign tourist arrivals and the increase of ELC toward the growth of CO2 emissions during 1960-2010. The results of autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) error correction models for CO2 emissions also validate significant dynamic relationships between CO2 emissions, ELC and tourist arrivals in the short run.

Design/methodology/approach

ARDL modeling and Bounds test approach were used in this study.

Findings

Rapid tourism development in Turkey has triggered CO2 emissions. The growth of CO2 emissions in Turkey threatens sustainability. The hypothesis of “The growth of CO2 emissions in Turkey” is validated. Tourist arrivals, ELC and CO2 emissions are co-integrated. CECMs confirm the growth of CO2 emissions during 1960-2010. ARDL modeling shows significant relationships between CO2 emissions and other variables.

Originality/value

Results of ARDL error correction models for CO2 emissions validate the hypothesis that there are significant dynamic relationships between CO2 emissions, ELC and tourist arrivals in Turkey for the short run.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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Article

Aravind M. and Jayaram Nayar

The Oman economy is dominated by production and export of petroleum products and an overdependence on oil revenue, which may have contributed to the continuance of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The Oman economy is dominated by production and export of petroleum products and an overdependence on oil revenue, which may have contributed to the continuance of the “resource curse” phenomenon. The purpose of this research is to examine the co-integration of oil with macroeconomic indicators of Oman and of suggesting some policy reform measures to trim down overdependence on oil.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors culled out data from the annual reports published by the Central Bank of Oman from 1975 to 2016. Considering oil price and oil export volume as regressors, the long-term integration with other macroeconomic indicators was examined by using the bound test. Further, auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) model was also derived to check the impact of these cross-sectional relations.

Findings

Oil price is observed to have a strong long-term significant relation with all the macroeconomic variables used in this study. However, the volumes of oil exports do not appear to have significant influence on GDP and consumption but do naturally sway other variables. This indicates that less elasticity of consumption to the flow of macro income, because the consumption in the Omani economy is driven by perceived future income. Oil export revenue is not seems to be much impacting on the real sector as the deficits are funded by the government through compensatory spending. Oil prices and oil exports have exhibited a strong long-term integration with variables such as gross domestic savings (GDS), credit to government (C2G), credit to private (C2P), demand deposits (DD) and time deposits (TD). This hints that oil boom does constitute the key source of funding of the financial sector of Oman.

Research limitations/implications

This study offers a generalized submission to support the real sector of Oman to lead out of a resource curse through diversification. The study however does not provide industrial groupings to assess the impact of fluctuations in oil prices.

Originality/value

This research has confirmed the existence of “resource movement” effect and “spending effect” in Oman economy. The nation needs to take radical measures to come out of this phenomenon. For addressing this we have suggested the modified version of Shumpeterian model of creative destruction. In this model we call for demolishing the oil dependent structure with a diversification structure. The new move can bring more positive effect on real and financial sectors of the economy.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Content available
Article

Canh Thi Nguyen and Lua Thi Trinh

The purpose of this paper is to assess both short and long-term influences of public investment on economic growth and test the hypothesis that whether public investment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess both short and long-term influences of public investment on economic growth and test the hypothesis that whether public investment promotes or demotes private investment in Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the approach of autoregressive distributed lag model and Vietnam’s macro data in the period of 1990-2016, to evaluate the short and long-term effects of public investment on economic growth and private investment. The model evaluates the impact of public investment on economic growth and private investment based on the neoclassical theories. The public investment which strongly affects economic growth is also reflected by aggregate supply and demand. Public investment directly impacts aggregate demand as a government expenditure and aggregate supply as a production function (capital factor).

Findings

The results from this research indicate that public investment in Vietnam in the past period does affect economic growth in the pattern of an inverted-U shape as of Barro (1990), with positive effects mostly occurring from the second year and negative effects of constraining long-term growth. Meanwhile, investment from the private sector, state-owned enterprises, and FDI has positive effects on short-term economic growth and state-owned capital stock has positive impacts on economic growth in both the short and long run. The estimated influence of public investment on private investment also shows a similar inverted-U shape in which public investment have crowding-in private investment short-term but crowding-out in the long run.

Practical implications

The empirical findings in this study can be used for conducting a more efficient policy in restructuring the state sector investment in Vietnam.

Originality/value

The main contributions in this study are: to evaluate the impacts of public investment on economic growth and private investment, the authors extracted public investment in infrastructure from aggregate investment of state sector (as previous studies used); the authors also uses state-owned capital stock variable including cumulative public investment and state-owned enterprises investment suggesting that this could control for the different orders of integration between the stock and flow variable and improve the experimental characteristics of the equation to a higher degree.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

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Article

Bisharat Hussain Chang, Niaz Ahmed Bhutto, Jamshid Ali Turi, Shabir Mohsin Hashmi and Raheel Gohar

This study examines the short-run and long-run impact of macroeconomic variables such as industrial production index, inflation, exchange rate, interest rate, foreign…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the short-run and long-run impact of macroeconomic variables such as industrial production index, inflation, exchange rate, interest rate, foreign direct investment and trade balance, on KSE 100 index and sectorial stock indices under bearish, bullish and normal states of the stock market prices. Moreover, we take into account the effect of three crises observed from 2005 to 2009.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses quantile autoregressive distributed lag (QARDL) model for examining the short-run and long-run effect across various quantiles of the dependent variables and compare its' results standard autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model.

Findings

ARDL estimates indicate that, in the long-run, industrial production index, trade balance and foreign direct investment significantly affect stock prices. These findings remain same when three crises have been taken into consideration. In addition, estimates from QARDL model indicate that, in the short-run, the effect of exchange rate, interest rate, consumer price index and foreign direct investment, varies across bearish, bullish and normal states of the overall stock prices. Moreover, the short-run findings for Auto Assembler, Cement, Commercial Banks sector are consistent with overall stock indices, whereas other sectors, such as, Oil and Gas and Power Generation and distribution are asymmetrically affected by all macroeconomic variables. In the long-run, the effect of all macro-variables varies across different states of the stock markets except industrial production index for Auto Assembler sector, Oil and Gas sector and composite index of KSE 100 index.

Originality/value

We take into account the effect of three crises observed from 2005 to 2009 and also examine the macroeconomic effect across bullish, bearish and normal states of the sectorial stock indices and composite index of Pakistan stock exchange. Finally, we use novel approach, called QARDL model, which has several advantages over other techniques.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

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Article

Hayelom Yrgaw Gereziher and Naser Yenus Nuru

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of foreign exchange reserve accumulation in a foreign exchange constrained economy, namely Ethiopia, over…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of foreign exchange reserve accumulation in a foreign exchange constrained economy, namely Ethiopia, over the period of 1981 up to 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model is used. Besides, standard unit-root tests such as augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips–Perron (PP) tests are employed to check for the stationarity of the series.

Findings

According to the results of unit-root tests, our variables are found to be a mixture of I(0) and I(1), and none of our series is I(2). The results of our ARDL model indicates, in the short run, foreign exchange reserve accumulation of Ethiopia is negatively and significantly affected by inflation rate and exchange rate. But, in the long run, inflation rate affects foreign exchange reserve positively and significantly. Additionally, in the long run, external debt affects foreign exchange reserve positively. Similar to its effect in the short run, exchange rate also affects foreign exchange reserve negatively in the long run.

Originality/value

This paper has its originality as it contributes in reasoning out the factors determining, both in the short-run and long-run, foreign exchange deficiency in any developing country with foreign exchange deficiency, taking Ethiopian economy as a case study, and fills the scarce literature on the determinants of foreign exchange reserve accumulation in a developing country.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

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Article

Massomeh Hajilee, Mahsa Oroojeni Mohammad Javad and Linda A. Hayes

Individuals' health is considered one of the major determinants of higher levels of productivity and economic development. Over the past century, the widespread occurrence…

Abstract

Purpose

Individuals' health is considered one of the major determinants of higher levels of productivity and economic development. Over the past century, the widespread occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has been a serious threat to economic development around the globe and has caused a dramatic fall in the life expectancy rate in many nations. This is the first study that examines the impact of HIV prevalence on health expenditure at the national level employing two linear and nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models and simultaneously tests the long-run and short-run relationship for five selected developed countries. The authors employ annual data from 1981 to 2016. They find that HIV prevalence has a significant impact on health expenditure in the short-run and long-run in all five countries using the linear model and four of the countries in the nonlinear model. They find that HIV/AIDS prevalence has a significant short-run and long-run asymmetric impact on health expenditure of almost all selected developed economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors are employing two linear and nonlinear ARDL models and simultaneously test the long-run and short-run relationship for five selected developed countries.

Findings

The authors find that HIV/AIDS prevalence has a significant short-run and long-run asymmetric impact on health expenditure of almost all selected developed economies.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first research work that empirically examines the link between HIV prevalence and health expenditure for this group of countries using linear and nonlinear ARDL approach for short run and long run.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article

Serdar Ongan and Ismet Gocer

This paper aims to investigate the presence of the Fisher effect for the USA from a new methodological perspective differing it from all previous studies using the common…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the presence of the Fisher effect for the USA from a new methodological perspective differing it from all previous studies using the common linear representation of the Fisher equation.

Design/methodology/approach

The nonlinear ARDL model, recently developed by Shin et al. (2014), is applied for the 10-year US Government bond rates over the period of 1985M1-2017M10.

Findings

The empirical findings indicate that the US Federal Reserve (FED) is a more predominant arbiter in the determination of interest rates during periods of declining inflation rates than periods of rising inflation rates. This finding may allow the FED to apply more proactive and prudent monetary policy. Additionally, this study newly describes and introduces a different version of the partial Fisher effect and extends the Fisher equation to some degree in terms of the partial Fisher effect.

Originality/value

To the best the authors’ knowledge, this method is applied for the first time in testing the Fisher effect for the USA.

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