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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Efe Can Gürcan

What is the historical, normative and institutional setting that helps leading Latin American and Eurasian countries to implement a post-hegemonic agenda and contribute to…

Abstract

What is the historical, normative and institutional setting that helps leading Latin American and Eurasian countries to implement a post-hegemonic agenda and contribute to the multipolarization of global politics? Post-hegemony describes a situation in which the unipolar organization of the world political economy is challenged by a plurality of alternative projects, without however being entirely replaced by another system. Emblematic of post-hegemonic initiatives is the rise of the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa countries who have taken the lead in creating alternative institutions that constrain US global hegemony, while however failing to spearhead a coherent, uniform and confrontational opposition movement. Regarding post-hegemonic regionalism, Latin American regionalism – as represented by Bolivarian Alliance for Our America (ALBA) – is characterized by a social justice-driven agenda that refutes US neoliberal hegemony, whereas the peculiarity of Eurasian regionalism – as represented by Shanghai Cooperation Organization – lies in its security-oriented focus that confronts US interventionism and international terrorism. An underlying commonality of both Latin American and Eurasian experiences is that they constitute a multi-front struggle centered on four main areas: culture, economy, financial cooperation, and regional defense. They both hinge on a strong normative framework and firm commitment in the regionalization of an endogenous culture, educational cooperation, and defense system. They all accord primary importance to social, financial, and infrastructural development. Overall, these experiences suffer from unresolved tensions between national sovereignty and supranationalism alongside the predominance of charismatic leaders inhibiting institutionalization. The limitations and contradictions of post-hegemonic transformations also include Latin America’s inability to resolve the question of extractivism, Eurasia’s neglect of the question of democratic participation, and both regionalism’s failure to offer a coherent alternative model of economic development to US hegemonism.

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Class History and Class Practices in the Periphery of Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-592-5

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2020

Khaled M.M. Koriem, Hend N. Saleh and Marwa A. El-Attar

This paper aims to evaluate systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum sodium/potassium levels and cardiac antioxidants after Artemisia herba-alba oral administration in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum sodium/potassium levels and cardiac antioxidants after Artemisia herba-alba oral administration in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).

Design/methodology/approach

Hypertension is a silent killer disease. The SHR model was used in this study due to the similarity of high blood pressure in human and rat. The SBP, serum sodium and potassium, urinary sodium and potassium, cardiac antioxidants and heart histology were examined in SHR after oral administration with 10 and 20% of the LD50 of Artemisia herba-alba during four weeks.

Findings

The LD50 of Artemisia herba-alba was found to be 1000 mg/kg. Doses of 100 mg/kg (10% LD50) and 200 mg/kg (20% LD50) were considered in the present study. The oral administration of SHR rats with Artemisia extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg decreased (p < 0.01) the body weights, SBP and serum sodium and potassium. Meanwhile, cardiac superoxide dismutase and gluthatione peroxidase were increased in SHR-treated rats. Histology of SHR cardiac tissues showed tissue degenerative but oral intake of 100 and 200 mg/kg artemisia exhibited normal muscle fibers, acidophilic cytoplasm and central nuclei.

Originality/value

The cardiovascular diseases are the first reason for high death rate in Western countries and collapsing economies due to hypertensive patients suffering high health-care costs. The advantage of hypertension Herba l treatment occurred due to its cheap and available source. Artemisia herba-alba leaves restored SBP, attenuated serum sodium/potassium levels and prevented cardiac oxidative stress in SHR.

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Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 1 September 2015

The future of the Venezuela-dependent ALBA.

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2018

Bella Belerivana Nujen, Deodat Edward Mwesiumo, Hans Solli-Sæther, Andrea Blindheim Slyngstad and Lise Lillebrygfjeld Halse

The purpose of this study is to delineate key aspects of backshoring readiness and discuss how such aspects contribute to a smooth shift-back from global sourcing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to delineate key aspects of backshoring readiness and discuss how such aspects contribute to a smooth shift-back from global sourcing operations. It aims to answer the following questions: which factors constitute backshoring readiness and how these factors affect the backshoring transition.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on theory departure from the organizational readiness field and the emerging field on backshoring, a conceptual model is developed. A multiple qualitative case study is then conducted to exemplify the backshoring readiness factors delineated in the study.

Findings

The study indicates that due to previous outsourcing, limitations concerning the availability of firms’ capabilities are affected by ownership structures and that backshoring appears to be time-sensitive. The study delineates three key aspects of backshoring readiness and proposes a comprehensive understanding of readiness as an important construct to enhance successful backshoring.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are limited by the nature of this conceptual study, the restriction to a high-cost context and the small number of cases. Therefore, conclusions and proposed recommendations need to be further investigated in preferably larger samples of case studies.

Practical implications

By introducing contextual variables that go beyond traditional cost considerations, this work should be of special interest for both practitioners and academics, because the absorptive capacity for the exploitation of cutting-edge knowledge is globally scarce and hence rather expensive in Western countries compared with traditionally low-cost countries. Another practical contribution of this study is the conceptual backshoring readiness framework itself, as it can guide firms acquainting themselves with the resource availability in their home environment.

Originality/value

The research defines key resources needed to facilitate backshoring readiness in a conceptual framework developed from literature, which is then exemplified by a case study. This framework conceptualizes backshoring readiness as aspects of requirements to knowledge, technology and supplier infrastructures. Furthermore, the readiness framework developed provides firms and their managers with six recommendations that can enable a rigorous evaluation of a firm’s readiness to embark on backshoring and reflect on the aspect of fitness of its current strategies.

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Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5364

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Carlos Riojas and Angélica Basulto

This chapter's objective is to analyze, with a long-term perspective, the formation of an entrepreneurial culture in Mexico's Midwest, specifically in the state of…

Abstract

This chapter's objective is to analyze, with a long-term perspective, the formation of an entrepreneurial culture in Mexico's Midwest, specifically in the state of Jalisco, in terms of the geographical environment, the culture in general, and the local economic institutions that, when viewed interconnectedly, will globally impact the practices, representations, and imaginaries of persons who at a given time have made the decision to undertake profitable economic activities – individual and collective entrepreneurs, in other words. To this end, we have divided the text into two sections. In the first, we conceptually review what we understand as entrepreneurial culture; in principle, we deconstruct its terms and then conjugate them from a social science perspective. We also emphasize the importance of studying the milieu as a scenario of action with different arenas, where a variety of agents have been involved. In the second part, without sidelining conceptual analysis, we present concrete empirical evidence of the role played by culture and local economic institutions that shape entrepreneurial culture in Midwestern Mexico over time, specifically in Jalisco. The text ends with some final considerations.

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Book part
Publication date: 2 November 2009

Gerd Sammer

More than ever before, public transit must compete in the transport market. This competition is, on the one hand, against steadily increasing car traffic; and on the other…

Abstract

More than ever before, public transit must compete in the transport market. This competition is, on the one hand, against steadily increasing car traffic; and on the other hand, between public transit operators. This, in turn, leads to new demands regarding the type, content and quality of data needed for planning and management. Frequently, traditional travel behaviour surveys do not provide sufficiently accurate and detailed information about public transit demand. To plan public transit, frequently a precise description of all trip stages, including the first and the last mile, is necessary. To achieve this, an adaptation of the traditional survey methods is necessary. In many countries, public transit associations have been established to integrate services offered by individual public transit operators with the help of through-ticketing and a coordination of lines and timetables into what looks, to the user, like a single system. To distribute revenue among the operators involved, detailed surveys of passengers are needed. Measuring the quality of public transit service and surveying customer satisfaction are new tasks. Such data are the basis for quality assurance and are essential for gaining and keeping customers of the public transit system. New technologies such as the Global Positioning System, automated passenger counts and Smart Card Payment Systems offer new possibilities to collect data more efficiently and cost-effectively. This article covers essential aspects of surveys and the collection of data that are crucial for the planning and management of public transit; it points to state-of-the-art methods and offers potential solutions.

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Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84-855844-1

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Marina Mattera, Federico Soto Gonzalez, Carmen Alba Ruiz-Morales and Luana Gava

The purpose of this study is to analyse how implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies following United Nations’ Global Compact (UNGC) guidelines can…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse how implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies following United Nations’ Global Compact (UNGC) guidelines can contribute to firm’s performance during a global crisis, such as the case of COVID-19. Based on the triple bottom line theoretical framework, this work explores the relation between the creation of value and sustainable business models with long-term strategies and strong policy commitments, and their performance in the stock market years later during a crisis. By doing so, new insights on strategic management to create value and consolidate sustainable business models are provided.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study analyses firms within the context of the European Union, considering the involvement of the region in achieving sustainable development. In particular, the long-term impact in the usage of the UNGC management model and the firm's sustainability performance based on the results during COVID-19 crisis. To achieve this goal, energy firms operating in Spain and subscribing to UNGC were evaluated, specifically those publicly listed in the IBEX35, benchmark index of Spain's Stock Market Interconnection System. In addition, firms were also considered regarding the strong impact within their industries not only nationally but also worldwide.

Findings

Findings show long-term CSR strategies and a strong commitment to sustainable development contribute to firm’s overcoming periods of economic crisis. In addition, considering the environmental impact of the firms’ actions, transition to sustainable business and widening portfolio in the case of energy firms proved to have a positive impact in overcoming a hard context such as COVID-19. The virtuous cycle can be created by honouring the social contract, yet the tools and management models shall be further tailored to ensure an effective win-win situation.

Originality/value

This study evaluates a company's strategic involvement in sustainability, considering the UNGC 10 principles and SDG and the effects of these strategies in the long-term. Specifically, the role of UNGC management model is evaluated in designing effective policies that can help firms better overcome a context of crisis such as COVID-19. Consequently, researchers studying business strategy can incorporate the findings in strategic planning. Practitioners can learn the implications of CSR strategic planning in the long-term. Moreover, work illustrates corporate results in sustainability matters after the first decade of the UNGC management model and the impact of a crisis context.

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Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 24 December 2021

Marina Mattera, Carmen Alba Ruiz-Morales, Luana Gava and Federico Soto

The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the implementation of sustainable business models contributes to improving a firm’s performance during a global crisis…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the implementation of sustainable business models contributes to improving a firm’s performance during a global crisis, such as the one caused by COVID-19. Based on the triple bottom line theory, the paper explores the relation between the creation of value through solid corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies, United Nations (UN) Global Compact’s (GC) business model proposals and Global Reporting Initiative’s (GRI) reporting scheme.

Design/methodology/approach

The present paper studies companies within the European Union, focusing specifically on the long-term impact of using the world’s most widely used standards for sustainability reporting – the GRI’s standards and/or the UNGC management models, as well as on the firm’s performance based on the financial results during COVID-19 crisis. To achieve this goal, the study analyses the share price of firms publicly listed in the FTSEMIB (benchmark index of Italy’s largest trading platform) out of those companies that are implementing the UN and GRI’s tools.

Findings

Findings show how a commitment to sustainable business models and long-term CSR strategies can contribute to firm’s ability to overcome periods of economic crisis. Furthermore, implementing GRI standards and UNGC guidelines within the business model seems to have a positive impact in overcoming a hard context such as COVID-19. In addition, it contributes to a better understanding of stakeholders’ needs, consumer profiling and value creation.

Originality/value

This study evaluates firms’ business models, considering the effects of decisions made in the context of COVID-19. The role of UNGC and GRI is evaluated in terms of their contribution to firms’ financial performance and corporate reputation during a context of hardship. Consequently, this study contributes to academia and practice, adding value in areas related to strategic planning and business model design.

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Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Chengming Hu and Shu Cole

This research examines impacts from tourists’ destination knowledge and destination interest upon Generation Z’s recognition memory of advertisement for a new travel…

Abstract

This research examines impacts from tourists’ destination knowledge and destination interest upon Generation Z’s recognition memory of advertisement for a new travel destination (Taiwan). The findings of this study indicated that participants with high destination knowledge are more likely to exhibit a lower level of new travel destination advertising recognition than participants with low destination knowledge, while the destination interest is low. Practical and theoretical implications of this outcome for destination marketers and tourism scholars are suggested to better understand and anticipate the processes of tourists’ learning and retaining of new travel destination information.

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Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-956-9

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Arnout van de Rijt

Empirical studies show substantial variation across immigrants in the rate and direction of assimilation along various dimensions (e.g., cross-ethnic contact, language…

Abstract

Purpose

Empirical studies show substantial variation across immigrants in the rate and direction of assimilation along various dimensions (e.g., cross-ethnic contact, language, identity). To explain this variation, past research has focused on identifying exogenous factors, such as discrimination, human capital, and settlement intention. In this chapter we argue that variation in immigrant outcomes emerges endogenously through positive interaction effects between dimensions of assimilation. We propose a new assimilation model in which processes of social influence and selection into congruent social environments give rise to multiple long-term equilibria. In this model, migrants who are already assimilated along many dimensions tend to also adapt along other dimensions, while less assimilated migrants become more strongly embedded in their ethnic group.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the assimilation model, we derive a number of hypotheses, which we evaluate using trend analysis and dynamic panel regression on data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.

Findings

The data mostly confirm the hypotheses, providing overall support for the assimilation model.

Research implications

Our theory and findings suggest that immigrants would follow divergent assimilation trajectories even in the absence of a priori population heterogeneity in external factors.

Social implications

The positive interaction effects between cultural and structural dimensions of assimilation suggest that mixed policies that promote integration while seeking to prevent loss of identity go against the natural tendency for cultural and structural assimilation to go hand in hand.

Originality/value

The present chapter proposes a novel model of immigrant assimilation and an empirical test.

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Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-976-8

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