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Article

Ailing Wang, Yong Deng, Kaihong Li, Wenlei Li, Dongliang Yu, Gan Cui, JianGuo Liu and Zili Li

Alternating current (AC) corrosion is a type of corrosion that occurs in buried pipelines under AC stray current interference, which can increase the hydrogen…

Abstract

Purpose

Alternating current (AC) corrosion is a type of corrosion that occurs in buried pipelines under AC stray current interference, which can increase the hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity of pipelines. However, rare research works have been conducted on the hydrogen permeability characteristics of pipeline steel under AC stray current interference. The purpose of this paper is to study hydrogen permeation behavior of X80 steel under AC stray current interference.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the hydrogen permeation behavior of X80 steel under AC interference is studied by AC hydrogen charging experiment in a dual electrolytic cell. The relationship between hydrogen evolution rate and hydrogen permeation flux is studied using the gas collection method. The difference between AC hydrogen permeability and direct current (DC) hydrogen permeability is also discussed.

Findings

The anodic dissolution caused by AC corrosion promotes the chemical desorption reaction of the adsorbed hydrogen atoms on the surface, reducing the hydrogen atom absorption ratio by 70%. When the AC is smaller than 150░ A/m2, the hydrogen permeation process is controlled by the hydrogen atom generation rate, and the hydrogen permeation flux increases with the increase in hydrogen atom generation rate. When the AC exceeds 400░ A/m2, the hydrogen permeation process is controlled by the absorption ratio. The hydrogen permeation flux decreases with the decrease in the absorption ratio. Under AC interference, there is a maximum hydrogen permeation flux that linearly correlates to the H+ concentration in the solutions.

Originality/value

The high-strength steel is very sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement, and X80 steel has been widely used in oil and gas pipelines. To date, no research has been conducted on the hydrogen permeation behavior of pipeline steel under AC interference, and the hydrogen permeability characteristics of pipeline steel under AC interference are not clear. The research results of this paper are of great significance for ensuring the intrinsic safety of high-strength pipelines under AC stray current interference.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

Yanbao Guo, Hai Tan, Deguo Wang and Tao Meng

With the rapid development of rail transportation and energy-delivery systems, such as buried oil and gas pipelines and high-voltage transmission lines, the alternating…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid development of rail transportation and energy-delivery systems, such as buried oil and gas pipelines and high-voltage transmission lines, the alternating current (AC) corrosion of buried steel pipelines is becoming more serious. This paper aims to study the corrosion behaviours of Q235 buried steel pipelines induced by the alternating stray current, with a set of indoor simulated experiment apparatuses.

Design/methodology/approach

The corrosion of the coating holidays of the buried steel pipelines at various AC current densities from 0 to 200 A/m2 in the soil-simulating environment was revealed by the electrochemical and weight-loss methods.

Findings

The results showed that the corrosion potential of the steel shifted negatively obviously and the corrosion rate of the steel increased with the increasing of AC current density. At a low AC current density, the negative deviation of the corrosion potential of the steel was small and the increase of corrosion rate was slight. However, the negative deviation of the corrosion potential was remarkable and the corrosion rate was greatly increased at a relative higher AC current density. The geometrical shape of the corrosion images indicated the corrosion forms changed from uniform corrosion to local corrosion due to the increase of AC interference.

Originality/value

Investigation results are of benefit to provide a new strategy to forecast and evaluate the AC-induced corrosion of the buried pipelines which could improve the safety of pipeline transportation.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

Arash Kiyoumarsi, Abolfazl Nazari, Mohammad Ataei, Hamid Khademhosseini Beheshti and Rahmat‐Allah Hooshmand

The purpose of this paper is to present a 3D finite element model of the electromagnetic fields in an AC three‐phase electric arc furnace (EAF). The model includes the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a 3D finite element model of the electromagnetic fields in an AC three‐phase electric arc furnace (EAF). The model includes the electrodes, arcs, and molten bath.

Design/methodology/approach

The electromagnetic field in terms of time in AC arc is also modeled, utilizing a 3D finite element method (3D FEM). The arc is supposed to be an electro‐thermal unit with electrical power as input and thermal power as output. The average Joule power, calculated during the transient electromagnetic analysis of the AC arc furnace, can be used as a thermal source for the thermal analysis of the inner part of furnace. Then, by attention to different mechanisms of heat transfer in the furnace (convection and radiation from arc to bath, radiation from arc to the inner part of furnace and radiation from the bath to the sidewall and roof panel of the furnace), the temperature distribution in different parts of the furnace is calculated. The thermal model consists of the roof and sidewall panels, electrodes, bath, refractory, and arc. The thermal problem is solved in the steady state for the furnace without slag and with different depths of slag.

Findings

Current density, voltage and magnetic field intensity in the arcs, molten bath and electrodes are predicted as a result of applying the three‐phase AC voltages to the EAF. The temperature distribution in different parts of the furnace is also evaluated as a result of the electromagnetic field analysis.

Research limitations/implications

This paper considers an ideal condition for the AC arc. Non‐linearity of the arc during the melting, which leads to power quality disturbances, is not considered. In most prior researches on the electrical arc furnace, a non‐linear circuit model is usually used for calculation of power quality phenomena distributions. In this paper, the FEM is used instead of non‐linear circuits, and calculated voltage and current densities in the linear arc model. The FEM results directly depend on the physical properties considered for the arc.

Originality/value

Steady‐state arc shapes, based on the Bowman model, are used to calculate and evaluate the geometry of the arc in a real and practical three‐phase AC arc furnace. A new approach to modeling AC arcs is developed, assuming that the instantaneous geometry of the AC arc at any time is constant and is similar to the geometry of a DC arc with the root mean square value of the current waveform of the AC arc. A time‐stepping 3D FEM is utilized to calculate the electromagnetic field in the AC arc as a function of time.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article

Qingmiao Ding, Zili Li, Tao Shen and Gan Cui

This paper aims to research the corrosion behavior of the metal under the disbonded coatings interfered with AC through electrochemical method.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to research the corrosion behavior of the metal under the disbonded coatings interfered with AC through electrochemical method.

Design/methodology/approach

The corrosion behavior of the metal under disbond coating interfered with alternate stray current (AC) was studied by electrochemical methods using the rectangular coating disbonded simulator. The obtained data from electrode potential test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curves in simulated soil solution indicated that under the natural corrosion condition, the self-corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the metal at different depths under disbond coating had obviously changed if there was AC interference.

Findings

The self-corrosion potential of the metal at the same depths under disbond coating shifted negatively with the rising of the AC voltage. Under the condition of cathode polarization, there was still obvious potential gradient with the extension of the deep peeling of the coating gap, and the corrosion current density of the test points was minimum, and the protection effect was best when the cathode protection potential was −1.0 V. When the metal was applied with over-protection, the corrosion rate of the metal increased as AC stray current flowing through it increased.

Originality/value

This paper used the rectangular aperture device to study the corrosion behavior of X80 steel under the disbonded coatings through electrochemical methods when the AC stray current interference voltage was 0V, 1V, 5V or 10V and the protection potential was 0V, −0.9V, −1.0V, −1.2V or −1.3V, respectively. There is great significance to the safe operation and long-term service of pipeline steel in soil environment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

Hailing Li, Hongxia Wan, Shengrong Wang, Cuiwei Du and Dawei Zhang

This paper aims to investigate the effect of alternating current (AC) on corrosion, it is not yet clear about the exact mechanism of the corrosion induced by AC. Previous…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of alternating current (AC) on corrosion, it is not yet clear about the exact mechanism of the corrosion induced by AC. Previous reports indicated that AC corrosion was similar to the effect of continuous cathodic and anodic polarization on the corrosion process of the metals. Wan et al. studied the effect of negative half-wave AC on stress corrosion cracking behavior and mechanism of X80 pipeline steel in near-neutral solution.

Design/methodology/approach

This study attempted to understand the AC-induced corrosion by imposing the half-cycle AC on the X80 pipeline steel in an acid bicarbonate solution. The AC corrosion mechanism was determined by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements, as well as surface characterization.

Findings

The results show that the positive half-cycle AC accelerated the uniform corrosion in the NaHCO3 solution, the negative half-cycle AC would decrease the uniform corrosion and local corrosion was increased and some Ca and Mg deposited on the surface of X80 steel, so the corrosion rate decreased by negative half-cycle AC. The corrosion product was composed of α-FeOOH under the application of positive half-cycle AC. The oxygen reduction led to a local increase of pH near the electrode surface and led to the formation of α-FeOOH, which enhanced the protectability of corrosion products.

Originality/value

Researchers studied the effect of negative half-wave AC on stress corrosion cracking behavior and mechanism of X80 pipeline steel in near-neutral solution. However, the AC behavior and corrosion mechanism in acid solution are unknown. So to make clear about the corrosion behavior of metals in different polarization states and the mechanism involved, diode technology was used to research the AC corrosion, half-wave AC was applied on the metals after the full-wave rectified.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

Erwan Collet, Bernard Delores, Michel Gabillard and Isabelle Ragault

Shows how observations (1993‐1999) and on‐site and laboratory measurements (1993‐1996) have made it possible to define certain prevalent parameters concerning AC corrosion…

Abstract

Shows how observations (1993‐1999) and on‐site and laboratory measurements (1993‐1996) have made it possible to define certain prevalent parameters concerning AC corrosion risks. These are from the evaluation and prevention of AC corrosion risks as practised by Gaz de France.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

JiaYu Zhou, Zili Li, JianGuo Liu, Xiao Xing, Gan Cui, ShouXin Zhang, Ran Cheng and YiShu Wang

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of alternating current (AC) interference on hydrogen evolution reaction of X80 steel.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of alternating current (AC) interference on hydrogen evolution reaction of X80 steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The hydrogen evolution potential was obtained by cathodic potentiodynamic polarization curve. The instantaneous potential under AC interference was obtained by high-frequency acquisition with three-electrode system. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization curves were used to study the influence mechanism of AC interference on instantaneous potential.

Findings

It was concluded that the hydrogen evolution reaction could occur on X80 steel under AC interference. There were critical AC current densities of about 100 to 200 A/m2, beyond which the cathode reaction of X80 steel changed from oxygen absorption to hydrogen evolution. Besides the pH value, the initial polarization potential EZ and impedance module of the steel/electrolyte interface under AC interference were also the factors that affected the critical AC densities in different solutions.

Originality/value

This research quantified the hydrogen evolution capacity of X80 steel under AC interference, which could be applied to clear the effect of AC interference on hydrogen evolution reaction.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

N. Kouloumbi, G. Batis, N. Kioupis, N. Kioupis and P. Asteridis

The aim of this fieldwork was the study of the effect of 50Hz AC, induced by high‐voltage power lines, on the cathodic protection system of a natural gas pipeline. The…

Abstract

The aim of this fieldwork was the study of the effect of 50Hz AC, induced by high‐voltage power lines, on the cathodic protection system of a natural gas pipeline. The effectiveness of cathodic protection was checked through in situ long‐term monitoring and analysis of pipeline electrical parameters. The results gave an insight into the problems of the cathodic protection system operation, caused by AC interference. An AC and DC potential interdependence was observed, that previously has hardly been reported, and was scrutinized in relation to cathodically protected pipelines. The effects of the AC‐interference and low frequency DC potential fluctuations, as well as the potential deviations from the protection potential, are examined. These phenomena are associated with corrosion susceptibility and difficulties in obtaining reliable cathodic protection measurements.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

Daoyu Hu, Jianwen Zhang, Feng Gu and Zhuyong Li

The purpose of this study is to propose a modeling method of the equivalent circuit for a new type of high-temperature superconducting partial-core transformer (HTS-PCT…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a modeling method of the equivalent circuit for a new type of high-temperature superconducting partial-core transformer (HTS-PCT) made of ReBCO-coated conductors.

Design/methodology/approach

The modeling process is based on the “Steinmetz” equivalent circuit. The impedance components in the circuit are obtained by the calculations of the core losses and AC losses of the HTS windings by using theoretical methods. An iterative computation is also used to decide the equivalent resistances of the AC losses of the primary and secondary HTS windings. The reactance components in the circuit are calculated from the energy stored in the magnetic fields by finite element method. The validation of the modeling method is verified by experimental results

Findings

The modeling method of the equivalent circuit of HTS-PCT is valid, and an equivalent circuit for HTS-PCT is presented.

Practical implications

The equivalent circuit of HTS-PCT could be obtained by the suggested modeling method. Then, it is easy to analyze the characteristics of the HTS-PCT by its equivalent circuit. Moreover, the modeling method could also be useful for the design of a specific HTS-PCT.

Originality/value

The study proposes a modeling method of the HTS-PCT made of the second-generation HTS tapes, i.e. ReBCO-coated conductors.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Rohollah Abdollahi

For direct torque controlled induction motor drives, an effective solution to eliminate harmonics is the use of multipulse alternating current (AC)-direct current (DC…

Abstract

Purpose

For direct torque controlled induction motor drives, an effective solution to eliminate harmonics is the use of multipulse alternating current (AC)-direct current (DC) converters. Many researchers have used different configurations based on 24- and 30-pulse rectifications for improved power quality. However, the total harmonic distortion (THD) of AC mains current with these topology is more than 4 per cent when operating at a light load. For mitigating the THD problems observed in the input currents, Abdollahi propose 40-, 72- and 88-pulse AC-DC converters, while the power quality enhancement was the main concern. It is known that by increasing the number of pulses further results in reduction in current harmonics, but this is accompanied by an increase in cost and complexity. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to design a new delta/hexagon transformer based 36-pulse AC-DC converter for harmonic reduction without increasing the cost and complexity.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed converter consists of two paralleled 18-pulse AC-DC converters involving a nine-phase shifted uncontrolled diode bridges with an interphase transformer circuit.

Findings

In this paper, the proposed scheme is simulated by matrix laboratory (MATLAB)/SIMULINK considering different loading scenarios. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the power quality indices and satisfies the The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)-519 requirements at the point of common coupling. Also, a laboratory prototype is implemented using the proposed design, and the experimental results confirm the simulation results under different loading conditions.

Originality/value

The proposed solution is a tradeoff among the pulse number, the transformer platform, the complexity of the scheme and the cost. The proposed scheme has an optimized configuration in this regard.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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