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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Pierandrea Dal Fabbro, Andrea La Gala, Willem Van De Steene, Dagmar R. D’hooge, Giovanni Lucchetta, Ludwig Cardon and Rudinei Fiorio

This study aims to evaluate and compare the macroscopic properties of commercial acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) processed by two different types of additive…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate and compare the macroscopic properties of commercial acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) processed by two different types of additive manufacturing (AM) machines. The focus is also on the effect of multiple closed-loop recycling of ABS.

Design/methodology/approach

A conventional direct-drive, Cartesian-type machine and a Bowden, Delta-type machine with an infrared radiant heating system are used to manufacture test specimens molded in ABS. Afterward, multiple closed-loop recycling cycles are conducted, involving consecutive AM (four times) and recycling (three times). The rheological, mechanical, morphological and physicochemical properties are investigated.

Findings

The type of machine affects the quality of the produced parts. The machine containing an infrared radiant system in a temperature-controlled chamber produces parts showing higher mechanical properties and filling fraction, although it increases the yellowing. Closed-loop recycling of ABS for AM is applicable for at least two cycles, inducing a slight increase in tensile modulus (ca. 5%) and in tensile strength (ca. 13%) and a decrease in the impact strength (ca. 14%) and melt viscosity. An increase in the filling fraction of the AM parts promotes an increase in tensile strength and tensile modulus, although it does not influence the impact strength. Furthermore, multiple closed-loop recycling does not affect the overall chemical structure of ABS.

Practical implications

Controlling the environmental temperature and using infrared radiant heating during AM of ABS improves the quality of the produced parts. Closed-loop recycling of ABS used in AM is feasible up to at least two recycling steps, supporting the implementation of a circular economy for polymer-based AM.

Originality/value

This study shows original results regarding the assessment of the effect of different types of AM machines on the main end-use properties of ABS parts and the influence of multiple closed-loop recycling on the characteristics of ABS fabricated by the most suited AM machine with an infrared radiant heating system and a temperature-controlled environment.

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Piotr Czyżewski, Marek Bieliński, Dariusz Sykutera, Marcin Jurek, Marcin Gronowski, Łukasz Ryl and Hubert Hoppe

The aim of this paper is presenting a new application of material obtained from the acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) recycling process from electronic equipment…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is presenting a new application of material obtained from the acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) recycling process from electronic equipment housings. Elements of computer monitors were used to prepare re-granulate, which in turn was used to manufacture a filament for fused filament fabrication (FFF) additive manufacturing technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The geometry of test samples (i.e. dumbbell and bar) was obtained in accordance with the PN-EN standards. Samples made with the FFF technology were used to determine selected mechanical properties and to compare the results obtained with the properties of ABS re-granulate mould pieces made with the injection moulding technology. The GATE device manufactured by 3Novatica was used to make the prototypes with the FFF technology. Processing parameters were tested with the use of an Aflow extrusion plastometer manufactured by Zwick/Roell and other original testing facilities. Tests of mechanical properties were performed with a Z030 universal testing machine, a HIT 50P pendulum impact tester and a Z3106 hardness tester manufactured by Zwick/Roell.

Findings

The paper presents results of tests performed on a filament obtained from the ABS re-granulate and indicates characteristic processing properties of that material. The properties of the new secondary material were compared with the available original ABS materials that are commonly used in the additive technology of manufacturing geometrical objects. The study also presents selected results of tests of functional properties of ABS products made in the FFF technology.

Originality/value

The test results allowed authors to assess the possibility of a secondary application of used elements of electronic equipment housings in the FFF technology and to compare the strength properties of products obtained with similar products made with the standard injection moulding technology.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Book part
Publication date: 13 September 2018

Lionel Taito-Matamua, Simon Fraser and Jeongbin Ok

This research addresses the grave issue of plastic waste in the Pacific. By using Samoa as a case study, it was considered that distributed recycling combined with 3D…

Abstract

This research addresses the grave issue of plastic waste in the Pacific. By using Samoa as a case study, it was considered that distributed recycling combined with 3D printing offers an opportunity to (1) repurpose and add new value to this difficult waste stream and (2) engage diverse local communities in Samoa by combining notions of participatory design with traditional Samoan social concepts. Fieldwork in Samoa established the scope of the issue through interviews with stakeholders in government, waste management businesses, the arts and crafts community and education. Based on the information obtained from the fieldwork, potential product areas and designs were explored through material and 3D printing experiments using low-cost, open-source equipment. The experiments informed the design of speculative scenarios for workable, economically viable, socially empowering and sustainable systems for repurposing and upcycling plastic waste, which then enabled production of practically useful and culturally meaningful 3D printed objects, artefacts and products. Building upon the outcome and with a view towards implementation, Creative Pathways, an educational initiative aimed at propagating 3D printing and contextual design, was established and is being delivered in local schools.

Details

Unmaking Waste in Production and Consumption: Towards the Circular Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-620-4

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2019

Homa Khorasani Esmaeili

Environment Management, Solid Waste Management.

Abstract

Subject Area

Environment Management, Solid Waste Management.

Study Level

This case is suitable to be used in advanced undergraduate and MBA/MSc level.

Case Overview

This case revolves around the challenges pertaining to waste management in Iran. Poor waste management practices can result in soil contamination, water pollution, and air pollution, can cause respiratory problem, and can create permanent adverse health effect. Thus, a solid waste management system is needed for safeguarding the public health, safety, and welfare. However, it seems not an easy task for the developing countries, and Iran is not an exception to this. Recycling has three particular steps: collection and processing, manufacturing, and purchasing new products which made from recycled materials which require heavy investment. Lack of investment in the Iranian recycling sector has made this issue more complicated and lagging behind. This case highlights the challenges faced by the Iranian Municipality in this regard.

Expected Learning Outcomes

The learning objectives are as follows:

  • to expose students to an actual situation where they will be aware of the necessity to care for the environment and reduce and reuse the products that they are utilizing in their every days’ life;

  • to highlight the need of a municipal waste management system to make route optimization for waste collection and transport system, storage, recycling plan, compost and incineration facility, proper site for landfill, etc.; and

  • to emphasize the required support from all stake holders in managing waste.

to expose students to an actual situation where they will be aware of the necessity to care for the environment and reduce and reuse the products that they are utilizing in their every days’ life;

to highlight the need of a municipal waste management system to make route optimization for waste collection and transport system, storage, recycling plan, compost and incineration facility, proper site for landfill, etc.; and

to emphasize the required support from all stake holders in managing waste.

Details

Green Behavior and Corporate Social Responsibility in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-684-2

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 27 March 2007

Abstract

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 August 2018

Ranvijay Kumar, Rupinder Singh and Ilenia Farina

Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is an established process to print structural parts of metals, ceramic and polymers. Further, multi-material 3DP has the potentials to be…

Abstract

Purpose

Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is an established process to print structural parts of metals, ceramic and polymers. Further, multi-material 3DP has the potentials to be a milestone in rapid manufacturing (RM), customized design and structural applications. Being compatible as functionally graded materials in a single structural form, multi-material-based 3D printed parts can be applied in structural applications to get the benefit of modified properties.

Design/methodology/approach

The fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the established low cost 3DP techniques which can be used for printing functional/ non-functional prototypes in civil engineering applications.

Findings

The present study is focused on multi-material printing of primary recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) in composite form. Thermal (glass transition temperature and heat capacity) and mechanical properties (break load, break strength, break elongation, percentage elongation at break and Young’s modulus) have been analysed to observe the behaviour of multi-material composites prepared by 3DP. This study also highlights the process parameters optimization of FDM supported with photomicrographs.

Originality/value

The present study is focused on multi-material printing of primary recycled ABS, PLA and HIPS in composite form.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

David Roberson, Corey M Shemelya, Eric MacDonald and Ryan Wicker

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the strategy for increasing the applicability of material extrusion additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, based on fused…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the strategy for increasing the applicability of material extrusion additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, based on fused deposition modeling (FDM), through the development of materials with targeted physical properties. Here, the authors demonstrate materials specifically developed for the manufacture of electromechanical and electromagnetic applications, the use of FDM-type processes in austere environments and the application of material extrusion AM.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a twin screw polymeric extrusion process, novel polymer matrix composites and blends were created where the base material was a material commonly used in FDM-type processes, namely, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polycarbonate (PC).

Findings

The work presented here demonstrates that, through targeted materials development, the applicability of AM platforms based on FDM technology can be increased. Here, the authors demonstrate that that the physical properties of ABS and PC can be manipulated to be used in several applications such as electromagnetic and X-ray shielding. Other instances of the development of new materials for FDM led to mitigation of problems associated with the process such as surface finish and mechanical property anisotropy based on build orientation.

Originality/value

This paper is an overview of a research effort dedicated to increasing the amount of material systems available to material extrusion AM. Here materials development is shown to not only increase the number of suitable applications for FDM-type processes, but to be a pathway toward solving inherent problems associated with FDM such as surface finish and build orientation-caused mechanical property anisotropy.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Laylay Mustafa Alhallak, Seha Tirkes and Umit Tayfun

This study aims to investigate the mechanical, thermal, melt-flow and morphological behavior of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)-based composites after bentonite…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the mechanical, thermal, melt-flow and morphological behavior of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)-based composites after bentonite inclusions. Melt mixing is the most preferred production method in industrial scale and basically it has very near processing parameters compared to 3D printing applications. Rheological parameters of ABS and its composites are important for 3D applications. Melt flow behavior of ABS effects the fabrication of 3D printed product at desired levels. Shear thinning and non-Newtonian viscosity characteristics of ABS make viscosity control easier and more flexible for several processing techniques including injection molding, compression molding and 3D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

ABS copolymer was reinforced with bentonite mineral (BNT) at four different loading ratios of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. ABS/BNT composites were fabricated by lab-scale micro-compounder followed by injection molding process. Mechanical, thermo-mechanical, thermal, melt-flow and morphological properties of composites were investigated by tensile, hardness and impact tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), melt flow index (MFI) test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively.

Findings

Mechanical tests revealed that tensile strength, elongation and hardness of ABS were enhanced as BNT content increased. Glass transition temperature and storage modulus of ABS exhibited increasing trend with the additions of BNT. However, impact strength values dropped down with BNT inclusion. According to MFI test measurements, BNT incorporation displayed no significant change for MFI value of ABS. Homogeneous dispersion of BNT particles into ABS phase was deduced from SEM micrographs of composites. Loading ratio of 15% BNT was remarked as the most suitable candidate among fabricated ABS-based composites according to findings.

Research limitations/implications

The advanced mechanical properties and easy processing characteristics are the reasons for usage of ABS as an engineering plastic. Owing to the increase in its usage for 3D printing technology, the ABS became popular in recent years. The utilization of ABS in this technology is in filament form with various colors and dimensions. This is because of its proper rheological features.

Practical implications

Melt-mixing technique was used as preparation of composites, as this processing method is widely applied in industry. This method is also providing similar processing methodology with 3D printing technology.

Originality/value

According to the literature survey, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first research work regarding the melt-flow performance of ABS-based composites to evaluate their 3D printing applications and processability. ABS and BNT containing composites were characterized by tensile, impact and shore hardness tests, DMA, TGA), MFI test and SEM techniques.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1997

M. Iji and S. Yokoyama

Recycling technology for printed wiring boards (PWBs) with mounted electroniccomponents was studied for the purpose of disassembling the boards, recovering useful…

Abstract

Recycling technology for printed wiring boards (PWBs) with mounted electronic components was studied for the purpose of disassembling the boards, recovering useful materials, and reusing these materials. An automatic removal method was developed for the electronic components on the basis of a combination of heating to above the solder melting temperature and applying impacting the shearing forces. Most of the electronic components were recovered undamaged and the solder was able to be recovered as particles. The solder remaining on the board was recovered by abrading the board surface and by using a heating‐impacting process. After these processes, the resin board (a cured epoxy resin board reinforced with glass fibre)was pulverised and separated into a copper‐rich powder (copper: 82 Wt%) and a glass fibre and resin mixture powder (glass fibre‐resin powder) by gravimetric and electrostatic methods. The recovered electronic components, solder and copper‐rich powder were used as valuable metal resources for refining. Moreover, the recovered glass fibre‐resin powder was found to be a useful filler for plastic products such as epoxy resin and ABS (acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer) resin.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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