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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2003

Walter C Borman, Jerry W Hedge, Kerri L Ferstl, Jennifer D Kaufman, William L Farmer and Ronald M Bearden

This chapter provides a contemporary view of state-of-the science research and thinking done in the areas of selection and classification. It takes as a starting point the…

Abstract

This chapter provides a contemporary view of state-of-the science research and thinking done in the areas of selection and classification. It takes as a starting point the observation that the world of work is undergoing important changes that are likely to result in different occupational and organizational structures. In this context, we review recent research on criteria, especially models of job performance, followed by sections on predictors, including ability, personality, vocational interests, biodata, and situational judgment tests. The paper also discusses person-organization fit models, as alternatives or complements to the traditional person-job fit paradigm.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-174-3

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Michael L. Birzer and Delores E. Craig

Studies a large midwestern police agency to find out whether female applicants failed the physical ability test more often than male applicants, whether the tasks were job…

1479

Abstract

Studies a large midwestern police agency to find out whether female applicants failed the physical ability test more often than male applicants, whether the tasks were job related or whether there was violation of the “four‐fifths” rule of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and whether the test measured critical tasks. Finds that the test has an adverse effect on women and is not job related.

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

J. Zeidner, D. Scholarios and C.D. Johnson

This paper presents the case for personnel systems based on maximizing the differential information gathered about individual abilities and their match to jobs. In the…

1826

Abstract

This paper presents the case for personnel systems based on maximizing the differential information gathered about individual abilities and their match to jobs. In the context of assignment to multiple jobs, such systems are shown to be more effective than those based on the currently dominant paradigm of maximizing predictive validity. The latter paradigm favours the measurement of general cognitive ability over multiple specific aptitudes. Recent differential approaches use computer simulation modelling of alternative hypothetical systems to evaluate potential efficiency. The paper reviews the theoretical background on the structure of human abilities which has led to these contrasting approaches to personnel system design, and presents evidence, based on the US Army selection and classification system, in support of the alternative approach. Individual test/aptitude profiles improve the efficiency of personnel selection and classification as well as academic, vocational and career counselling. They also provide a broader, potentially fairer definition of talent than a unidimensional indicator of cognitive ability, and a foundation for the design of learning and decision environments around learner and user profiles.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 30 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Amr Shawky, Ehab Elbiblawy and Guenter Maresch

This study aims to investigate the differences in spatial ability between students with a math learning disability and their normal peers.

2771

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the differences in spatial ability between students with a math learning disability and their normal peers.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate these differences two groups, (60 students with a math learning disability) and (60 normal students) from fifth grade with a mean age (10.6 years) were administered with spatial ability test along with an IQ test. Students with a math learning disability were chosen using measures of the following: math learning disability questionnaire developed from learning disability evaluation scale – renormed second edition (LDES-R2) (McCarney and Arthaud, 2007) and the Quick Neurological Screening Test (Mutti et al., 2012), in addition to their marks in formal math tests in school.

Findings

Comparison between the two groups in four aspects of spatial ability resulted in obvious differences in each aspect of spatial ability (spatial relations, mental rotation, spatial visualization and spatial orientation); these differences were clear, especially in mental rotation and spatial visualization.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to gain more insights into the characteristics of pupils with a math learning disability, the nature of spatial abilities and its effect on a math learning disability. Moreover, the results suggest spatial ability to be an important diagnose factor to distinguish and identify students with a math learning disability, and that spatial ability is strongly relevant to math achievement. The results have significant implications for success in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics domain.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Gordon E. Taub

Results from high‐stakes tests of intelligence are used everyday to make decisions that impact the lives of individuals and families. Although many clinicians know how to…

471

Abstract

Results from high‐stakes tests of intelligence are used everyday to make decisions that impact the lives of individuals and families. Although many clinicians know how to calculate test scores, few have a firm understanding of the construct intelligence, how tests measure intelligence, and more importantly, how results from intelligence tests may be used to develop client specific recommendations and interventions.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 22 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2006

Dimiter M. Dimitrov

Knowledge about cognitive operations and processes (COPs) required for success (1=correct, 0=incorrect) on test items or learning tasks is very important for in-depth…

Abstract

Knowledge about cognitive operations and processes (COPs) required for success (1=correct, 0=incorrect) on test items or learning tasks is very important for in-depth understanding of the nature of student performance and the development of valid instruments for its measurement. A key problem in obtaining such knowledge is the validation of hypothesized COPs and their role in the measurement properties of test items. To provide validation feedback for both normally achieving students and students with learning disabilities, it is important to obtain information on the validity of the COPs for students at different ability levels and individual test items (or tasks). To address this issue, the present chapter introduces a method of estimating the probability for correct performance on individual COPs at fixed ability levels thus providing validity information across ability levels and individual test items. When item response theory (IRT) estimates of the item parameters are known (e.g., in a test bank of IRT calibrated items or published research), the proposed validation method does not require information about raw (or ability) scores of examinees. This method is illustrated for algebra test items and reading comprehension test items calibrated in IRT.

Details

Applications of Research Methodology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-295-5

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Raša Dimitrijević, Nenad Koropanovski, Milivoj Dopsaj, Goran Vučković and Radivoje Janković

– The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of different Specialized Physical Education (SPE) teaching programs on the level of students’ physical abilities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of different Specialized Physical Education (SPE) teaching programs on the level of students’ physical abilities.

Design/methodology/approach

In the Academy of Criminalistic and Police Studies (ACPS), one of the teaching program goals is an improvement of student's physical abilities level. Since the establishment of ACPS, three SPE programs have been implemented differing in number of class hours. Five different tests were used: “Isometric dead lift,” “Hand grip,” the Long jump (LJ), the Sit-up test and the Cooper test.

Findings

Multivariate analysis of variance results indicated a statistically significant difference between the programs in tests LJ, Sit-up and Cooper. The Bonferroni test showed differences between all three programs. The discriminant analysis showed that both discriminant factors are statistically significant. The greatest factor in the first function was the test LJ, while the greatest factor in the second discriminant function was the Sit-up test.

Practical implications

The importance of research was the fact that by determining the changes of students’ physical abilities level, the authors can evaluate the effectiveness of various SPE programs. Results could be used in planning standards, selection and control of the achieved physical abilities level.

Social implications

Changes could contribute to the positive effects of the educational process on improvement of students’ physical abilities.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies which examine the influence of quantitatively different teaching programs on the level of physical abilities within a period of 15 years.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

K. Sutton, A. Williams, D. Tremain and P. Kilgour

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into the relationship between students’ spatial ability and their university entrance score (Australian Tertiary…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into the relationship between students’ spatial ability and their university entrance score (Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank [ATAR]). The ATAR provides entry into university studies but does not necessary provide a good measure of students’ spatial skills. Spatial abilities are fundamental to success in many design courses. This paper aims to show whether the ATAR is a good predictor of spatial skills and considers the implications of this.

Design/methodology/approach

Students entering university design courses in architecture were tested three times during their first year using a three-dimensional (3D) Ability Test (3DAT), an online psychometric test of 3D spatial ability. The students’ results in 3DAT were then compared to students’ ATAR scores using a Pearson’s correlation test were also conducted to assess the relationship between ATAR and spatial performance.

Findings

There was no correlation between ATAR and spatial performance. Therefore, there was no relationship between an individual’s ATAR and their spatial performance upon entering university.

Research limitations/implications

Participants were required to select their ATAR from ranges, i.e. 71-80, 81-90 and 91-100, which meant their exact ATAR was not recorded. This meant that the participants were clustered, making it difficult to establish a linear relationship that was a true reflection of the population.

Practical implications

Initiatives to support students entering design courses may be necessary to compensate for the range of spatial skills students possess when entering university because of their school experiences.

Social implications

Individuals who have strong spatial skills are able to perform spatial problems faster and more efficiently than those with weak spatial skills. High spatial performance has been shown relate to performance in areas such as mathematics science technology and design.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils the need to better understand the diversity of spatial abilities students have on entering design courses.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Rafael Molina-Carmona, María Luisa Pertegal-Felices, Antonio Jimeno-Morenilla and Higinio Mora-Mora

Spatial ability is essential for engineers’ professional performance. Several studies describe it as a skill that can be enhanced using new technologies. Virtual reality…

Abstract

Spatial ability is essential for engineers’ professional performance. Several studies describe it as a skill that can be enhanced using new technologies. Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology that is proving very useful for training different skills and improving spatial perception. In this chapter, the authors firstly present some previous works that use VR to train students, mainly in the area of engineering studies, and which demonstrate that VR can improve some aspects of the spatial perception. This study took a group of engineering students who used VR technologies to carry out learning activities designed to improve their spatial perception, which was measured with a widely used spatial ability test. The results obtained confirm that the use of VR technologies can improve students’ spatial perception. This proposal is easily transferable to other educational contexts. On the one hand, it could be implemented to improve spatial ability in other engineering studies, and on the other hand, with simple adaptation, it could be used to enhance other skills.

Details

The Future of Innovation and Technology in Education: Policies and Practices for Teaching and Learning Excellence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-555-5

Keywords

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