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Could an alternative system of income maintenance overcome theexisting inequitable and inefficient situation, which effectively limitswomen′s options in the labour market…
Could an alternative system of income maintenance overcome the existing inequitable and inefficient situation, which effectively limits women′s options in the labour market in The Netherlands? This question is approached by describing an alternative system of income maintenance in the form of a negative income tax. Both prospects and limitations of a negative income tax system for Dutch society, from the point of view of this society in general and from an emancipatory point of view in particular, are explored.
In many countries, health care reforms are being made with the purpose of stimulating actors to make economically sound decisions. Recent attempts in The Netherlands…
In many countries, health care reforms are being made with the purpose of stimulating actors to make economically sound decisions. Recent attempts in The Netherlands encompass the development and introduction of integrated health care arrangements. Since these arrangements are directly tailored to care demand, it is generally expected that integrated health care will enhance efficiency. This paper analyses whether a shift towards integrated health care actually represents a Pareto‐optimal change. An analysis of the consequences shows that care demanders, providers and informal care givers, to some extent and under certain conditions, can be expected to benefit from the introduction of integrated health care. Under long‐term considerations, the introduction of integrated care may be categorised as a potential Pareto‐improvement.
The paper aims to present an approach to cost-benefit analysis with stochastic data. Determining the type and the values of alternative’s factors are probably the most…
The paper aims to present an approach to cost-benefit analysis with stochastic data. Determining the type and the values of alternative’s factors are probably the most important issue in this approach. Therefore, in the proposed approach, a competitive advantage model was built to measure the values of alternative’s factors. Then, a satisfactory cost-benefit analysis model with random data was proposed to evaluate the alternatives. The cost-benefit analysis of each alternative was carried out to obtain the real and satisfactory cost-benefit of the decision-maker.
This paper is orientationally expressed as a mathematical problem in which the optimization problem needs to analyze the approach. This paper is written based on uncertainty linear optimization. Optimization under uncertainty refers to this branch of optimization where there are uncertainties involved in the data or the model and is popularly known as stochastic optimization problems.
As was seen in the purpose part, in this paper, an approach is presented to cost-benefit analysis by the use of competitive advantage with stochastic data. In this regards, a stochastic optimization problem to assess competitive advantage is proposed. This optimization problem recognizes the values of alternative’s factors which is the most important step in cost-benefit analysis. An optimization problem is proposed to cost benefit analysis, as well.
To investigate different aspects of the proposed approach, a case study with random data of 21 economic projects was considered.
Cost–benefit analysis is a systematic approach to estimating the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives used to determine options which provide the best approach to achieving benefits while preserving savings. Cost–benefit analysis is related to cost-effectiveness analysis. Benefits and costs are expressed in monetary terms and are adjusted for the time value of money; all flows of benefits and costs over time are expressed on a common basis in terms of their net present value, regardless of whether they are incurred at different times. As seen the paper using competitive advantage tries to determine the values of alternative’s factor. As competitive advantage model analyze the advantages and disadvantages of alternatives, this paper by the use of this idea tries to determine the costs and benefits. Two stochastic optimization problems in the middle of this approach are proposed, which assess competitive advantage and cost–benefit analysis, respectively.
The purpose of this study had two aims: (1) to extend insight regarding the challenges of implementing standardised work, via care pathways, in a healthcare setting by…
The purpose of this study had two aims: (1) to extend insight regarding the challenges of implementing standardised work, via care pathways, in a healthcare setting by considering interactions with other operational (i.e. resource sharing, portfolio alignment) and professional (i.e. autonomous expertise) dependencies and (2) to develop novel insights regarding a specific flow mechanism, the stroke nurse practitioner, a form of flow “pilo” or guide.
This was a longitudinal case study of implementing the acute stroke care pathway in a National Health Service hospital in England based on 185 hours of non-participant observations and 68 semi-structured interviews. Archival documents were also analysed.
The combined flow, operational and professional dependency lens extends operations management understanding of the challenge of implementing standardised work in healthcare. One observed practice, the process pilot role, may be particularly valuable in dealing with these dependencies but it requires specific design and continuous support, for which the authors provide some initial guidance.
The research was a single case study and was focussed on a single care pathway. The findings require replication and extension but offer a novel set of insights into the implications of standardised work in healthcare.
In addition to confirming that a multidependency lens adds conceptual and practical insight to the challenges of implementing standardised work in a healthcare setting, the findings and recommendations regarding flow “pilots” are novel. The authors' analysis of this role reveals new insights regarding the need for continued improvisation in standardised work.
This chapter attempts to elucidate the important role that divergent thinking plays in organizational creativity, innovation, and change. We define brainstorming as a…
This chapter attempts to elucidate the important role that divergent thinking plays in organizational creativity, innovation, and change. We define brainstorming as a systematized method of divergent thinking, review this literature, and advocate for the strategic use of brainstorming to enhance creativity and innovation. We identify contradictory findings in the research literature that have led practitioners and researchers to disregard brainstorming techniques. We suggest that cultural forces embedded in organizations may prevent divergent thinking and brainstorming from becoming established normative organizational processes, thus hampering organizations’ potential for change and innovation. The chapter closes by putting divergent thinking and brainstorming in perspective and provides guidelines for its use.
Much of the idea exchange and evaluation that are part of the creative process occur in groups. It is often presumed that groups facilitate these processes, but much research indicates that groups often hinder effective exchange of ideas and that they may not facilitate their evaluation. We summarize the factors that limit the potential of groups in these domains and use the cognitive–social–motivational model (Paulus & Brown, 2003, 2007) to highlight the conditions under which group creativity is enhanced. In particular, we focus on the conditions under which groups can actually outperform similar size sets of individuals and thus provide evidence for synergy in creative groups.
THREE hundred years ago, on January 28th, 1613, the death occurred of Sir Thomas Bodley, whose name is immortalized in the library that he restored and which bears his name. Oxford's famous library, though originally founded by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, owes its establishment to Thomas Bodley, who was born at Exeter in 1545.
AS J. L. Hobbs shows so clearly in his recent book, the interest in local history is growing enormously at present. The universities, training colleges and schools, as well as the institutions of further education, are all making more use of local studies—geographical, economic, social and historical—in their regular courses, in their advanced work, and in their publications.