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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Utino Worabo Woju and A.S. Balu

Performance of the structure depends on design, construction, environment, utilization and reliability aspects. Other factors can be controlled by adopting proper design…

Abstract

Purpose

Performance of the structure depends on design, construction, environment, utilization and reliability aspects. Other factors can be controlled by adopting proper design and construction techniques, but the environmental factors are difficult to control. Hence, mostly in practice, the environmental factors are not considered in the analysis and design appropriately; however, their impact on the performance of the structures is significant along with the design life. It is in this light that this paper aims to perform the time-dependent performance analysis of reinforced concrete structures majorly considering environmental factors.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the intended objective, a simply supported reinforced concrete beam was designed and detailed as per the Euro Code (EC2). The time-dependent design parameters, corrosion parameters, creep and shrinkage were identified through thorough literature review. The common empirical equations were modified to consider the identified parameters, and finally, the time-dependent performance of reinforced concrete beam was performed.

Findings

Findings indicate that attention has to be paid to appropriate consideration of the environmental effect on reinforced concrete structures. In that, the time-dependent performance of reinforced concrete beam significantly decreases with time due to corrosion of reinforcement steel, creep and shrinkage.

Originality/value

However, the Euro code, Ethiopian code and Indian code threat the exposure condition of reinforced concrete by providing corresponding concrete cover that retards the corrosion initiation time but does not eliminate environmental effects. The results of this study clearly indicate that the capacity of reinforced concrete structure degrades with time due to corrosion and creep, whereas the action on the structure due to shrinkage increases. Therefore, appropriate remedial measures have to be taken to control the defects of structures due to the environmental factors to overcome the early failure of the structure.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2020

Utino Worabo Woju and A.S. Balu

The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the fuzzy uncertainties present in structures appropriately. In general, uncertainties of variables are classified as aleatory…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the fuzzy uncertainties present in structures appropriately. In general, uncertainties of variables are classified as aleatory and epistemic. The different sources of uncertainties in reinforced concrete structures include the randomness, mathematical models, physical models, environmental factors and gross errors. The effects of imprecise data in reinforced concrete structures are studied here by using fuzzy concepts. The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the uncertainties of variables with unclear boundaries.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the intended objective, the reinforced concrete beam subjected to flexure and shear was designed as per Euro Code (EC2). Then, different design parameters such as corrosion parameters, material properties and empirical expressions of time-dependent material properties were identified through a thorough literature review.

Findings

The fuzziness of variables was identified, and their membership functions were generated by using the heuristic method and drawn by MATLAB R2018a software. In addition to the identification of fuzziness of variables, the study further extended to design optimization of reinforced concrete structure by using fuzzy relation and fuzzy composition.

Originality/value

In the design codes of the concrete structure, the concrete grades such as C16/20, C20/25, C25/30, C30/37 and so on are provided and being adopted for design in which the intermediate grades are not considered, but using fuzzy concepts the intermediate grades of concrete can be recognized by their respective degree of membership. In the design of reinforced concrete structure using fuzzy relation and composition methods, the optimum design is considered when the degree of membership tends to unity. In addition to design optimization, the level of structural performance evaluation can also be carried out by using fuzzy concepts.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2022

Pandimani, Markandeya Raju Ponnada and Yesuratnam Geddada

The partially prestressed concrete beam with unbonded tendon is still an active field of research because of the difficulty in analyzing and understanding its behavior…

Abstract

Purpose

The partially prestressed concrete beam with unbonded tendon is still an active field of research because of the difficulty in analyzing and understanding its behavior. The finite-element (FE) simulation of such beams using numerical software is very scarce in the literature and therefore this study is taken to demonstrate the modeling aspects of unbonded partially prestressed concrete (UPPSC) beams. This study aims to present the three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear FE simulations of UPPSC beams subjected to monotonic static loadings using the numerical analysis package ANSYS.

Design/methodology/approach

The sensitivity study is carried out with three different mesh densities to obtain the optimum elements that reflect on the load–deflection behavior of numerical models, and the model with optimum element density is used further to model all the UPPSC beams in this study. Three half-symmetry FE model is constructed in ANSYS parametric design language domain with proper boundary conditions at the symmetry plane and support to achieve the same response as that of the full-scale experimental beam available in the literature. The linear and nonlinear material behavior of prestressing tendon and conventional steel reinforcements, concrete and anchorage and loading plates are modeled using link180, solid65 and solid185 elements, respectively. The Newton–Raphson iteration method is used to solve the nonlinear solution of the FE models.

Findings

The evolution of concrete cracking at critical loadings, yielding of nonprestressed steel reinforcements, stress increment in the prestressing tendon, stresses in concrete elements and the complete load–deflection behavior of the UPPSC beams are well predicted by the proposed FE model. The maximum discrepancy of ultimate moments and deflections of the validated FE models exhibit 13% and −5%, respectively, in comparison with the experimental results.

Practical implications

The FE analysis of UPPSC beams is done using ANSYS software, which is a versatile tool in contrast to the experimental testing to study the stress increments in the unbonded tendons and assess the complete nonlinear response of partially prestressed concrete beams. The validated numerical model and the techniques presented in this study can be readily used to explore the parametric analysis of UPPSC beams.

Originality/value

The developed model is capable of predicting the strength and nonlinear behavior of UPPSC beams with reasonable accuracy. The load–deflection plot captured by the FE model is corroborated with the experimental data existing in the literature and the FE results exhibit good agreement against the experimentally tested beams, which expresses the practicability of using FE analysis for the nonlinear response of UPPSC beams using ANSYS software.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2019

Hui Lü, Kun Yang, Wen-bin Shangguan, Hui Yin and DJ Yu

The purpose of this paper is to propose a unified optimization design method and apply it to handle the brake squeal instability involving various uncertainties in a

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a unified optimization design method and apply it to handle the brake squeal instability involving various uncertainties in a unified framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Fuzzy random variables are taken as equivalent variables of conventional uncertain variables, and a unified response analysis method is first derived based on level-cut technique, Taylor expansion and central difference scheme. Next, a unified reliability analysis method is developed by integrating the unified response analysis and fuzzy possibility theory. Finally, based on the unified reliability analysis method, a unified reliability-based optimization model is established, which is capable of optimizing uncertain responses in a unified way for different uncertainty cases.

Findings

The proposed method is extended to perform squeal instability analysis and optimization involving various uncertainties. Numerical examples under eight uncertainty cases are provided and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Originality/value

Most of the existing methods of uncertainty analysis and optimization are merely effective in tackling one uncertainty case. The proposed method is able to handle the uncertain problems involving various types of uncertainties in a unified way.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 December 2020

Hassane Alami, Pascale Lehoux, Jean-Louis Denis, Aude Motulsky, Cecile Petitgand, Mathilde Savoldelli, Ronan Rouquet, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Denis Roy and Jean-Paul Fortin

Artificial intelligence (AI) raises many expectations regarding its ability to profoundly transform health care delivery. There is an abundant literature on the technical…

Abstract

Purpose

Artificial intelligence (AI) raises many expectations regarding its ability to profoundly transform health care delivery. There is an abundant literature on the technical performance of AI applications in many clinical fields (e.g. radiology, ophthalmology). This article aims to bring forward the importance of studying organizational readiness to integrate AI into health care delivery.

Design/methodology/approach

The reflection is based on our experience in digital health technologies, diffusion of innovations and healthcare organizations and systems. It provides insights into why and how organizational readiness should be carefully considered.

Findings

As an important step to ensure successful integration of AI and avoid unnecessary investments and costly failures, better consideration should be given to: (1) Needs and added-value assessment; (2) Workplace readiness: stakeholder acceptance and engagement; (3) Technology-organization alignment assessment and (4) Business plan: financing and investments. In summary, decision-makers and technology promoters should better address the complexity of AI and understand the systemic challenges raised by its implementation in healthcare organizations and systems.

Originality/value

Few studies have focused on the organizational issues raised by the integration of AI into clinical routine. The current context is marked by a perplexing gap between the willingness of decision-makers and technology promoters to capitalize on AI applications to improve health care delivery and the reality on the ground, where it is difficult to initiate the changes needed to realize their full benefits while avoiding their negative impacts.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Sindhuja Ala, Rajitha Gurijala and Malla Reddy Perati

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of reinforcement, inhomogeneity and initial stress on the propagation of shear waves. The problem consists of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of reinforcement, inhomogeneity and initial stress on the propagation of shear waves. The problem consists of magneto poroelastic medium sandwiched between self-reinforced medium and poroelastic half space. Using Biot’s theory of wave propagation, the frequency equation is obtained.

Design/methodology/approach

Shear wave propagation in magneto poroelastic medium embedded between a self-reinforced medium and poroelastic half space is investigated. This particular setup is quite possible in the Earth crust. All the three media are assumed to be inhomogeneous under initial stress. The significant effects of initial stress and inhomogeneity parameters of individual media have been studied.

Findings

Phase velocity is computed against wavenumber for various values of self-reinforcement, heterogeneity parameter and initial stress. Classical elasticity results are deduced as a particular case of the present study. Also in the absence of inhomogeneity and initial stress, frequency equation is discussed. Graphical representation is made to exhibit the results.

Originality/value

Shear wave propagation in magneto poroelastic medium embedded between a self-reinforced medium, and poroelastic half space are investigated in presence of initial stress, and inhomogeneity parameter. For heterogeneous poroelastic half space, the Whittaker’s solution is obtained. From the numerical results, it is observed that heterogeneity parameter, inhomogeneity parameter and reinforcement parameter have significant influences on the wave characteristics. In addition, frequency equation is discussed in absence of inhomogeneity and initial stress. For the validation purpose, numerical results are also computed for a particular case.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Balu Anthony

The purpose of this paper is to examine the structure of employment in the most urbanized state in India during the period 1983-2010. The paper also analyses the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the structure of employment in the most urbanized state in India during the period 1983-2010. The paper also analyses the determinants of growth of farm employment in urban areas in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper compares trends in employment in Tamil Nadu with that of the country as a whole. In order to see whether there is evidence of Lewisian labor transfer, the study examines labor transfer between sectors and percentage distribution of workers in the rural and urban areas.

Findings

The paper finds that employment in the entire non-agricultural sector slowed down in 2009-2010 compared to 2004-05 in Tamil Nadu. The share of employment in primary sector in urban areas increased more sharply, experiencing slow economic transformation in the post-reform years. The analysis reveals that rapid rural-urban transformation could be one reason for more people in the primary sector in urban areas.

Research limitations/implications

Studying the employment structure at the district level, for which analyzing the district-level data collected and published by state’s Bureau of Economics and Statistics is required, would be helpful to discern a deeper influence of urbanization on structure of employment.

Practical implications

The results suggest that the issue needs further examination with analysis of the district-level data. Policy reforms should, therefore, be suitably oriented toward tapping the employment potential of both unorganized and organized segments in manufacturing, trade and services sectors. It is also necessary to ensure robust economic growth that creates decent jobs for all young educated people in the state.

Originality/value

The study explains the domination of farm employment in urban Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu is considered to be the most urbanized state in India. The reason for an increase in the share of primary sector employment in urban areas of Tamil Nadu is due to high urbanization in the post-reform periods.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2009

MD. Golam Rabbani

Dhaka is one of the most populated megacities in the world with a total population of over 12 million and an area of 276sqkm (DCC, 2004). The city is situated at the…

Abstract

Dhaka is one of the most populated megacities in the world with a total population of over 12 million and an area of 276sqkm (DCC, 2004). The city is situated at the center of the country and is surrounded by a river system comprising Buriganga, Balu, Turag, and Shitalakhya. The city has a long history dating from the Pre-Mughal, to the Mughal, and, finally, to the Bangladesh period. The growth of Dhaka basically started from the current extreme south and along Buriganga River and then it expanded earlier to the West (Hazaribagh) and the East (Gandaria) and later to the North (Mirpur). However, in the last few decades, the city experienced huge population growth and rapid industrial, commercial, business, residential, and infrastructure development, which have significantly expanded the physical feature of Dhaka. Still many of the development activities are taking place in an informal way within the Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) area, the main part of the megacity.

Details

Urban Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-907-3

Book part
Publication date: 12 June 2020

Sujana Adapa, Subba Reddy Yarram and Alison Sheridan

The overarching aim of this chapter is to explore the existing status of mentoring in accounting firms in India and Malaysia, to understand whether or not mentoring is…

Abstract

The overarching aim of this chapter is to explore the existing status of mentoring in accounting firms in India and Malaysia, to understand whether or not mentoring is gendered in these country contexts, and to investigate the impact of the size of the firm and country context on mentoring. The mentoring framework is used as a theoretical lens to understand the orientation of principals and partners towards the existing and future mentoring support and activities of micro-sized, small-sized, medium-sized, and family-owned accounting firms operating in both India and Malaysia. Data obtained from 40 in-depth interviews (n = 20 in India and n = 20 in Malaysia) are analyzed using qualitative data analysis software NVivo12. The findings obtained from the study indicate that mentoring support exists informally in accounting firms, mentoring support offered and mentoring activities undertaken are gendered, and the nature, extent and type of mentoring offered in accounting firms varies according to the size of the firm in both countries. The chapter presents important practical, theoretical and methodological implications of the study for avoiding gendered mentoring practices in accounting firms.

Details

Mentorship-driven Talent Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-691-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Bhumeshwar Patle, Shyh-Leh Chen, Brijesh Patel, Sunil Kumar Kashyap and Sudarshan Sanap

With the increasing demand for surveillance and smart transportation, drone technology has become the center of attraction for robotics researchers. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

With the increasing demand for surveillance and smart transportation, drone technology has become the center of attraction for robotics researchers. This study aims to introduce a new path planning approach to drone navigation based on topology in an uncertain environment. The main objective of this study is to use the Ricci flow evolution equation of metric and curvature tensor over angular Riemannian metric, and manifold for achieving navigational goals such as path length optimization at the minimum required time, collision-free obstacle avoidance in static and dynamic environments and reaching to the static and dynamic goals. The proposed navigational controller performs linearly and nonlinearly both with reduced error-based objective function by Riemannian metric and scalar curvature, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Topology and manifolds application-based methodology establishes the resultant drone. The trajectory planning and its optimization are controlled by the system of evolution equation over Ricci flow entropy. The navigation follows the Riemannian metric-based optimal path with an angular trajectory in the range from 0° to 360°. The obstacle avoidance in static and dynamic environments is controlled by the metric tensor and curvature tensor, respectively. The in-house drone is developed and coded using C++. For comparison of the real-time results and simulation results in static and dynamic environments, the simulation study has been conducted using MATLAB software. The proposed controller follows the topological programming constituted with manifold-based objective function and Riemannian metric, and scalar curvature-based constraints for linear and nonlinear navigation, respectively.

Findings

This proposed study demonstrates the possibility to develop the new topology-based efficient path planning approach for navigation of drone and provides a unique way to develop an innovative system having characteristics of static and dynamic obstacle avoidance and moving goal chasing in an uncertain environment. From the results obtained in the simulation and real-time environments, satisfactory agreements have been seen in terms of navigational parameters with the minimum error that justifies the significant working of the proposed controller. Additionally, the comparison of the proposed navigational controller with the other artificial intelligent controllers reveals performance improvement.

Originality/value

In this study, a new topological controller has been proposed for drone navigation. The topological drone navigation comprises the effective speed control and collision-free decisions corresponding to the Ricci flow equation and Ricci curvature over the Riemannian metric, respectively.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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