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Article

A.R. Elangovan

Although different facets of managerial third‐party intervention in organizations have been explored, we know little about how managers should intervene in different…

Abstract

Although different facets of managerial third‐party intervention in organizations have been explored, we know little about how managers should intervene in different disputes for resolving them successfully. In this study, a prescriptive model of intervention strategy selection proposed by Elangovan (1995) is tested. Data on successful and unsuccessful interventions were collected from senior managers in different organizations. The results show that following the prescriptions of the model leads to a significant increase in the likelihood that an intervention would be successful as well as in the degree of success of the intervention, thereby supporting a contingency view of dispute intervention.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Jessica Katz Jameson

This paper presents the theoretical rationale for further development of a model for the assessment and management of intraorganizational conflict. The purpose of such a

Abstract

This paper presents the theoretical rationale for further development of a model for the assessment and management of intraorganizational conflict. The purpose of such a model would be to assist employees, managers, human resources practitioners, and external service providers in selecting the most appropriate conflict management strategy for a given conflict. The framework presented builds on the previous work of Sheppard (1984) and Elangovan (1995, 1998) in suggesting that a contingency‐based model of strategy selection must include attention to characteristics of the conflict, desired outcomes of the participants, and awareness of available conflict management strategies. By expanding the range of conflicts and conflict management strategies typically included within a single model, the framework presented here forms the basis of a comprehensive model for dealing with intraorganizational conflict.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

A.R. Elangovan

The rapid globalization of modern business and the multicultural nature of its workforce pose major challenges for leadership and human resource management in 1990s. One…

Abstract

The rapid globalization of modern business and the multicultural nature of its workforce pose major challenges for leadership and human resource management in 1990s. One important area that is yet to be fully explored is the managing of conflict in a multicultural organization where values, orientations, preferences, and attitudes differ significantly among the members. This paper explores the implications of cultural differences for managerial intervention in conflicts between subordinates in organizations using Hofstede's four‐dimensional framework.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

A. R. Elangovan, Werner Auer-Rizzi and Erna Szabo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of damage incurred by the trustor as a result of a trust violation and the impact of different levels of post-violation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of damage incurred by the trustor as a result of a trust violation and the impact of different levels of post-violation trust repair behaviours by the trustee on the subsequent erosion of trust.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 232 middle to senior level managers using a two-part scenario-based experimental design to test the impact of damage incurred (avoided) and post-violation repair behaviour. Respondents’ levels of trust were measured pre- and post-violation as well as forgiving and a range of demographic variables.

Findings

Results showed that trust eroded independent of the level of damage that may have been caused. Further, post-violation trust repair behaviour by the trustee led to a significantly lower erosion of trust as compared to not engaging in such behaviours. Furthermore, erosion of trust was minimized, when the trustee engaged in increasing levels of trust repair behaviour. Results also showed that trustors who were relatively more forgiving were less likely to lose trust in the trustee after a violation.

Research limitations/implications

In this study we focused on two key factors influencing the erosion of trust. Further factors need to be identified and empirically tested in order to get a more holistic view on how trust erodes. The results serve as one step towards building an integrated model of trust erosion.

Practical implications

For practicing managers, the results imply that the actual incurrence or avoidance of damages from a trust violation appears to be peripheral – trustors are more concerned about the violation as a principle and a harbinger of similar future incidents. Further, quickly engaging in trust repair behaviours, such as offering an a good explanation, a heartfelt apology, and appropriate remedy, helps minimize the erosion of trust.

Originality/value

This paper addresses an under-investigated facet of trust research in organizations – erosion of trust – which is especially crucial in light of the growing awareness that most organizational relationships actually start off with high levels of trust rather than low trust. Thus, this study offers insights into maintaining (as opposed to building) trust.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article

Josh A. Arnold

The purpose of this study is to investigate how third‐party managers' cognitive need (motivational tendency) for closure influences their decisions on how to intervene in conflict.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how third‐party managers' cognitive need (motivational tendency) for closure influences their decisions on how to intervene in conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 61 undergraduate business students. All participants had managerial experience and may represent future managers. Participants read a scenario describing a hypothetical conflict between members of a project team and evaluated the likelihood of choosing different strategies to intervene in the conflict.

Findings

Results showed that individuals with a high need for closure were more likely to choose an autocratic procedure and less likely to choose mediation than individuals with a low need for closure. The option of letting disputants resolve the conflict themselves was somewhat unattractive to those with a high need for closure.

Research limitations/implications

The use of a scenario approach may limit the generalizability of the results. Future studies should examine the need for closure in field settings. The results of this study extend the theory of managerial dispute resolution by showing how individual difference factors influence the choice of conflict intervention strategies.

Practical implications

The ability to manage conflict effectively is critical for third‐party managers. Managers need to understand how their need (or motivation) for closure influences how they choose to intervene in conflict. These choices influence managerial effectiveness.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to examine the influence of individual difference factors, such as the cognitive need for closure, on the choice of managerial conflict intervention strategies.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article

A.R. Elangovan, Werner Auer‐Rizzi and Erna Szabo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the trustor's responsibility‐attributions for a trust violation and the trustee's frequency of prior violations on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the trustor's responsibility‐attributions for a trust violation and the trustee's frequency of prior violations on the subsequent erosion of trust in the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 120 middle‐senior level managers using a two‐part scenario‐based experimental design to test the impact of attributions and frequency of violations. Respondents' levels of trust and distrust were measured pre‐ and post‐violation as well as forgiving and a range of demographic variables.

Findings

Results showed that trust eroded (and distrust increased) more when trustors perceived the trustees as not wanting to fulfill the trust‐expectations than when they could not do so. Further, trustors were willing to tolerate a maximum of two violations before trust in the relationship eroded significantly. The results also showed that trustors who were relatively more forgiving were less likely to lose trust in the trustee after a violation, as were younger and less experienced individuals.

Research limitations/implications

Although scenario‐based experiments assess the cognitive states of the respondents rather than actual behaviors, they serve as a valuable first step. By highlighting the two‐step sequence that may underlie the trust erosion process and emphasizing the importance of using an attributional perspective, the paper invites future research on a range of factors such as patterns of violation, degrees of damage, etc. Collectively, they ought to lead to an integrated model of trust erosion.

Practical implications

For practicing managers, the results underscore the importance of maintaining trust by constantly meeting expectations. While they may be forgiven for one‐time mistakes in maintaining trust, they cannot be repeated without severely damaging the trust in the relationship. Also, employees need to be convinced that the erring manager or colleague has done his/her very best to prevent the violation.

Originality/value

This paper addresses an under‐investigated facet of trust research in organizations – erosion of trust – which is especially crucial in light of the growing awareness that most organizational relationships actually start off with high levels of trust rather than low trust. Thus, this study offers insights into maintaining (as opposed to building) trust.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article

A.R. Elangovan

This paper seeks to examine the role of framing effects and the third‐party's need for consistency in intervention strategy selection in managerial dispute intervention…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the role of framing effects and the third‐party's need for consistency in intervention strategy selection in managerial dispute intervention. The objective is to move research forward by adopting a decision‐making perspective of dispute intervention and examining the role of framing in such a context.

Design/methodology/approach

A scenario‐based experimental approach was used and data were collected on 318 intervention cases from 106 students majoring in business, and enrolled in a medium‐sized public university.

Findings

Results suggest that framing does influence the selection of intervention strategies to some extent, but the third‐party's need for consistency between his/her preferred settlement and the actual final settlement plays a bigger role in influencing strategy selection.

Research limitations/implications

This study higlights the merits of adopting a decision‐making perspective to understand managerial dispute intervention and points to the need for extending and testing more of the key concepts from that area of research.

Practical implications

The results indicating support for a need for consistency on the part of managerial third‐parties as well as the influence of framing underscore the need for managers to be aware of these factors influencing their conflict management behaviours and to strive to “rise above the fray”.

Originality/value

The results of this paper challenge the conventional view that third‐parties in disputes are generally more objective and can see the “big picture”, and represents a valuable first step towards gaining a better understanding the role of cognitive biases and heuristics in managerial dispute intervention.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

M. Kamil Kazan

This paper proposes a broad perspective for studying the influence of culture on the process of conflict management. Three models of conflict management are described…

Abstract

This paper proposes a broad perspective for studying the influence of culture on the process of conflict management. Three models of conflict management are described, based on the culture framework of Glen (1981). In the confrontational model, conflicts are conceptualized as consisting of subissues, and a sense of reasonable compromise aids resolution despite a confrontational style. In the harmony model, conflict management starts with the minimization of conflict in organizations through norms stressing observance of mutual obligations and status orderings. Conflicts are defined in their totality, and resolution is aided by avoidance and an accommodative style. Less emphasis is placed on procedural justice, as on maintenance of face of self and others. Third parties are used extensively, and their role is more intrusive. In the regulative model, bureaucratic means are used extensively to minimize conflicts or to aid avoidance. Conflicts get defined in terms of general principles, and third party roles are formalized. The implications of the differences among the three models for conflict resolution across cultures and for future research are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Ragini and Piyali Ghosh

Purpose of this study is to investigate the role of learner readiness in enhancing transfer of training by empirically testing a moderated mediation mechanism in which…

Abstract

Purpose

Purpose of this study is to investigate the role of learner readiness in enhancing transfer of training by empirically testing a moderated mediation mechanism in which learner readiness influences transfer through motivation to transfer, and this indirect impact is moderated by supervisor support.

Design/methodology/approach

The perception of trainees about the constructs considered has been captured through a survey of 250 employees of a unit of a manufacturing organization in India. For hypotheses testing, PROCESS macro developed by Hayes (2013) has been used.

Findings

Results have confirmed the significant role played by learner readiness in predicting transfer. This apart, supervisor support has been proved to moderate the indirect impact of learner readiness on transfer.

Practical implications

Trainees need to have pre-requisite knowledge to learn the content of a training programme, which would enable them to grasp such content and transfer the same subsequently to work. It is also essential that trainees are willing to attend any training voluntarily. Specific interventions may be designed for supervisors to bolster their catalytic role in training transfer.

Originality/value

An interactionist approach has been adopted by focussing on learner readiness as a less-studied trainee characteristic and supervisor support as a situational factor of transfer. This is construed as a significant contribution of this study to training literature. The potential overlap between learner readiness and motivation to transfer as trainee characteristics is seen to be neutralized by the presence of supervisor support as a moderator. Findings help in understanding how a trainee’s readiness and motivation, together with supervisor’s positive attitude, can enhance transfer.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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Article

Cecilia Dalborg, Yvonne von Friedrichs and Joakim Wincent

This paper aims to explore whether nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risks than men, and to determine how higher risk perceptions might limit start-up decisions by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore whether nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risks than men, and to determine how higher risk perceptions might limit start-up decisions by mediating the potential influence of passion and self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 103 participants in Sweden – both women and men – who, in the period 2008 through 2011, intended to start a business. ANOVA tests and binominal logistic regression models were conducted to test hypothesized framework.

Findings

The authors found that nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risk than nascent male entrepreneurs, that risk perceptions influence start-up decisions and that risk preferences partial out the otherwise identified influence of passion on start-up decisions.

Research limitations/implications

The authors reveal a consequence of gender socialization and how it impacts the start-up decisions of nascent women entrepreneurs. Support systems should consider developing activities that change the public’s perception of who is an entrepreneur and seek ways to balance risk perceptions between men and women.

Originality/value

The authors argue here that risk perceptions play a prominent role in start-up decisions. Specifically, they consider that nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risks than men, and that their view of risk partials out any potential influence of their perceived passion and self-efficacy on their start-up decision.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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