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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

A.M. Al‐Sabbagh, M.M. Osman, A.M.A. Omar and I.M. El‐Gamal

N‐benzyl triethanol ammonium chloride (BTAC) and ethoxylated n‐benzyl triethanol ammonium chloride (EBTAC) were synthesized. The prepared compounds were characterized…

Abstract

N‐benzyl triethanol ammonium chloride (BTAC) and ethoxylated n‐benzyl triethanol ammonium chloride (EBTAC) were synthesized. The prepared compounds were characterized, then tested for their evaluation as corrosion inhibitors for steel pipelines in typical crude oil and residual fuel oil (RFO) media through weight loss determination. In addition, the surface properties of the investigated compounds were studied through surface tension measurements in a hydrocarbon system. Calculations of the surface and thermodynamic properties of the tested compounds were undertaken on the basis of the obtained experimental data. Results showed that the two additives achieved a substantial decrease in the corrosion rate and that EBTAC exhibited improved surface and thermodynamic properties and attained more inhibition effect.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Nima Gerami Seresht, Rodolfo Lourenzutti, Ahmad Salah and Aminah Robinson Fayek

Due to the increasing size and complexity of construction projects, construction engineering and management involves the coordination of many complex and dynamic processes…

Abstract

Due to the increasing size and complexity of construction projects, construction engineering and management involves the coordination of many complex and dynamic processes and relies on the analysis of uncertain, imprecise and incomplete information, including subjective and linguistically expressed information. Various modelling and computing techniques have been used by construction researchers and applied to practical construction problems in order to overcome these challenges, including fuzzy hybrid techniques. Fuzzy hybrid techniques combine the human-like reasoning capabilities of fuzzy logic with the capabilities of other techniques, such as optimization, machine learning, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) and simulation, to capitalise on their strengths and overcome their limitations. Based on a review of construction literature, this chapter identifies the most common types of fuzzy hybrid techniques applied to construction problems and reviews selected papers in each category of fuzzy hybrid technique to illustrate their capabilities for addressing construction challenges. Finally, this chapter discusses areas for future development of fuzzy hybrid techniques that will increase their capabilities for solving construction-related problems. The contributions of this chapter are threefold: (1) the limitations of some standard techniques for solving construction problems are discussed, as are the ways that fuzzy methods have been hybridized with these techniques in order to address their limitations; (2) a review of existing applications of fuzzy hybrid techniques in construction is provided in order to illustrate the capabilities of these techniques for solving a variety of construction problems and (3) potential improvements in each category of fuzzy hybrid technique in construction are provided, as areas for future research.

Details

Fuzzy Hybrid Computing in Construction Engineering and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-868-2

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Nasir Bedewi Siraj, Aminah Robinson Fayek and Mohamed M. G. Elbarkouky

Most decision-making problems in construction are complex and difficult to solve, as they involve multiple criteria and multiple decision makers in addition to subjective…

Abstract

Most decision-making problems in construction are complex and difficult to solve, as they involve multiple criteria and multiple decision makers in addition to subjective uncertainties, imprecisions and vagueness surrounding the decision-making process. In many instances, the decision-making process is based on linguistic terms rather than numerical values. Hence, structured fuzzy consensus-reaching processes and fuzzy aggregation methods are instrumental in multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems for capturing the point of view of a group of experts. This chapter outlines different fuzzy consensus-reaching processes and fuzzy aggregation methods. It presents the background of the basic theory and formulation of these processes and methods, as well as numerical examples that illustrate their theory and formulation. Application areas of fuzzy consensus reaching and fuzzy aggregation in the construction domain are identified, and an overview of previously developed frameworks for fuzzy consensus reaching and fuzzy aggregation is provided. Finally, areas for future work are presented that highlight emerging trends and the imminent needs of fuzzy consensus reaching and fuzzy aggregation in the construction domain.

Details

Fuzzy Hybrid Computing in Construction Engineering and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-868-2

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Md Shamimul Hasan, Normah Omar, Paul Barnes and Morrison Handley-Schachler

The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to detect trends in financial statement manipulation; second, to measure the level of manipulation and to measure the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to detect trends in financial statement manipulation; second, to measure the level of manipulation and to measure the variation in manipulation between countries; and, third, to identify widely used techniques in financial statements manipulation.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses financial data of listed companies from Asia, namely, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Hong Kong and China. The study adopts financial ratios, financial forensic tool, dichotomous approach and statistical tools to analyze the data (84,000 observations) over a period of four years from 2010 to 2013.

Findings

The results show that 34 per cent of sample companies in selected Asian countries are involved in the manipulation of financial statements; the average level of manipulation (overall manipulation index) is 72 per cent; and there is a significant difference between countries at 5 per cent level. The study also identifies four most commonly used techniques, namely: days’ sales in receivable (DSRI), depreciation (DEPI), assets quality (AQI) and total accruals to total assets (TATA).

Research limitations/implications

Although this study found a significant national difference between countries in terms of practicing manipulation in financial statements, it did not address the issue of why some countries have higher level of manipulation and greater fluctuations in manipulation than others. Further study could be conducted to look for the reasons on these issues.

Practical implications

Investors and other stakeholders are advised to judge the manipulation in financial statements before fixing up for investment. At least they should examine Sales, Accounts Receivable, Depreciation, Value of Fixed Assets and Accruals data before accepting the financial statement in good faith.

Social implications

The trend of manipulation in financial statements is increasing day by day and that is why it needs to prevent to protect our society from white collar crime. The cost of white collar crime is much higher and key executives are making money at the expense of investors and other stakeholders. This kind of study creates awareness among stakeholders about the manipulation as well as provides techniques to examine the faithfulness of financial statements. Then, managers will not overstate or understate either revenues or expenses easily, as it can damage the goodwill.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind addressing measurement of manipulation score, overall manipulation index (OMI) and identification of widely used variables of manipulation in financial statements are new contributions towards existing literature of earnings manipulation.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

A.M.A. Omar

The metal working fluid industry accounts for approximately 5 per cent of the total world market for lubricant. Cutting fluids are formulated to fulfil one or more…

Abstract

The metal working fluid industry accounts for approximately 5 per cent of the total world market for lubricant. Cutting fluids are formulated to fulfil one or more different functions. It is becoming increasingly apparent that to provide additions friendly for environment and low costs. This paper studies high performance mixture of anionic/nonionic polymeric surfactants as an additive for metal working fluid, thus the mixture has poly functions such as anticorrosion and emulsifier. The surface tensions of aqueous solutions of anionic/nonionic mixtures were measured as a function of nonionic concentration at 40°C with constant anionic concentration. The surface excesses concentrations, mole fractions, and interaction parameters of binary polymeric mixtures were calculated. Moreover, the critical micelle concentration and adsorption of ANO/ETH mixture on solutions and steel surface were determined. These parameters confirm the synergistic action of ANO/ETH polymeric surfactants for micellization and adsorption at different interfaces.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Zuraidah Zainol, Rusliza Yahaya, Juliana Osman and Nor Asiah Omar

This study aims to determine the effect of health knowledge on nutrition-label use and attitude, and consequently on healthy food choice among Malaysian Muslim consumers.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the effect of health knowledge on nutrition-label use and attitude, and consequently on healthy food choice among Malaysian Muslim consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts the positivist, deductive and quantitative approach. A sample consisting of 257 Muslim consumers, at least 15 years old, were selected using systematic street-intercept sampling method. Data collected using a self-administered questionnaire were analysed using descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling (SEM).

Findings

The findings reveal the significant positive effect of health knowledge on nutrition-label use and attitude towards nutrition label, but only attitude towards nutrition label significantly predicts healthy food choice.

Research limitations/implications

Though the findings add to the existing literature, provide useful information on how nutrition label could guide the consumer to make healthier food choices and serve as a reference point that could stimulate and guide future researchers and other relevant parties, this study is limited by several factors that require replication in future research.

Originality/value

This research is perhaps one of the first attempts to consider the role of nutrition label as one of the ways to comply with the Tayyib principle.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Z. Abdel Hamid and A.M.A. Omar

A nickel‐fluoropolymer composite was produced by electrodeposition using Watt’s nickel bath containing polytetrafluoro ethylene (PTFE) in suspension. Various experimental…

Abstract

A nickel‐fluoropolymer composite was produced by electrodeposition using Watt’s nickel bath containing polytetrafluoro ethylene (PTFE) in suspension. Various experimental conditions including the PTFE concentration, the pH values, current density and the temperature on the volume per cent of PTFE were evaluated. Also several studies were carried out with aqueous surfactant mixture solutions including surface tension (γ), critical micelle concentration (CMC), micellar composition (Xm), activity coefficient (υ), micellar interaction parameter (βm). Effectiveness (ΠCMC) and efficiency PC20 were investigated at different mole fraction of anionic surfactant. The relation between efficiency of anionic/non‐ionic surfactant mixture and codeposition of PTFE particles was discussed according to micellar composition and the above mentioned physical parameters.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

A.A. Mahmoud, A.M.F. Eissa, M.S. Omar, A.A. El‐Sawy and A.F. Shaaban

White pine wood was impregnated with a mixture of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and N‐methacryloyloxyphthalimide and by other three mixtures prepared by mixing MMA and N

Abstract

White pine wood was impregnated with a mixture of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and N‐methacryloyloxyphthalimide and by other three mixtures prepared by mixing MMA and N‐methacryloyloxytetrabromo‐phthalimide. Water uptake of treated wood was found to be 54 per cent after water‐soaking test of 168 h and maximum antiswell efficiency was found to be 48 per cent for treated wood samples with non‐brominated comonomer mixture.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2007

T.T. Khidr, E.M.S. Azzam, Sahar S. Mutawaa and A.M.A. Omar

To prepare surfactants and use as pour point depressants for a waxy gas oil.

Abstract

Purpose

To prepare surfactants and use as pour point depressants for a waxy gas oil.

Design/methodology/approach

Some anionic surfactants (Calcium O, P.dioctyl benzene sulphonate and calcium hexadecyl benzene sulphonate) were prepared in the laboratory. The physicochemical characteristics were investigated. The adsorption behavior of these surfactants at air/solution and oil/solution interfaces were investigated by measuring the surface tension and interfacial tension as functions of concentration.

Findings

The surface parameters and free energies of micellization and adsorption confirm the decreasing and improving of pour point by prepared surfactants. It is found that there is a good relation between surface properties especially interfacial tension of the prepared surfactants and their efficiency in depressing the pour point. Also, the results indicating that anionic surfactants can be improved pour point of waxy gas oil.

Originality/value

Addresses long‐standing problem in the petroleum industry.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 59 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Khadijah Binti Mohd Khambali @ Hambali, Zalfa Laili Hamzah, Mohd Zaidi Daud and Fuadah Johari

Despite the establishment of the Zakat, its role has been argued by the new Muslim (Muallaf) community. This research attempts to examine the role played by the Zakat…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the establishment of the Zakat, its role has been argued by the new Muslim (Muallaf) community. This research attempts to examine the role played by the Zakat institution in Selangor in distributing funds and supporting Muallaf.

Methodology/approach

A qualitative approach through a series of interview sessions with management of the Zakat institution was carried out.

Findings

The results show that the department has supported Muallaf, particularly in terms of education, finance and monitoring the Muallaf through various programmes starting from the first day they convert to Islam.

Research limitations/implications

This chapter has its limitations in terms of the data collection from the Islamic religious centre. Future research should collect information from all rightful recipients, particularly the Muallaf community in order to measure the efficiency of the institution of Zakat. Future studies are important to understand how efficient the Islamic institution plays its role in managing and ensuring social economic justice among the other Muslim community.

Practical implications

This chapter indicates that the management of the Zakat institution should provide more systematic guidelines in managing Zakat fund for the efficient promotion, collection and distribution. Managing the institution of Zakat efficiently and effectively will help to enhance the image of religion, particularly Islam.

Social implications

This chapter confirms that the Islamic Religious Department of Selangor has managed to successfully administer the Zakat fund. On top of that, the department has organized several programmes for Muallaf in order to support them to be a new Muslim in a majority Muslim country.

Original/value

This chapter also clarifies the issues raised by the Muallaf community concerning the unfair treatment in distributing the Zakat fund and supporting them. This chapter contributes towards an understanding of the Zakat institution with regards to its concepts, role, issues and challenges.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000