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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

A.M. Okamura

Teleoperated minimally invasive surgical robots can significantly enhance a surgeon's accuracy, dexterity and visualization. However, current commercially available…

Abstract

Teleoperated minimally invasive surgical robots can significantly enhance a surgeon's accuracy, dexterity and visualization. However, current commercially available systems do not include significant haptic (force and tactile) feedback to the operator. This paper describes experiments to characterize this problem, as well as several methods to provide haptic feedback in order to improve surgeon's performance. There exist a variety of sensing and control methods that enable haptic feedback, although a number of practical considerations, e.g. cost, complexity and biocompatibility, present significant challenges. The ability of teleoperated robot‐assisted surgical systems to measure and display haptic information leads to a number of additional exciting clinical and scientific opportunities, such as active operator assistance through “virtual fixtures” and the automatic acquisition of tissue properties.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Johan Tegin and Jan Wikander

When designing hardware and algorithms for robotic manipulation and grasping, sensory information is typically needed to control the grasping process. This paper presents…

Abstract

Purpose

When designing hardware and algorithms for robotic manipulation and grasping, sensory information is typically needed to control the grasping process. This paper presents an overview of the major grasping and manipulation approaches and the more common hardware used to obtain the necessary sensory information.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an overview of tactile sensing in intelligent robotic manipulation. The history, the common issues, and applications are reviewed. Sensor performance is briefly discussed and compared to the human tactile sense. Advantages and disadvantages of the most common sensor approaches are discussed. Some examples are given of sensors that are widely available as of today. Eventually, some examples of the state‐of‐the‐art in tactile sensing application are presented.

Findings

Although many sensor technologies and strong theoretical models have been developed, there is still much left to be done in intelligent grasping and manipulation. This is partly due to the youth of the field and the complex nature of safe control in uncertain environments. Even though there are impressive results when it comes to specific examples of advanced manipulation, there seems to be room for great improvements of hardware and especially algorithms when it comes to more generic everyday domestic tasks.

Originality/value

This paper presents a review of sensor hardware while also giving a glimpse of the major topics in grasping and manipulation. While better hardware of course is desirable, the major challenges seem to lie in the development and application of grasping and manipulation algorithms.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Martin Culjat, Chih‐Hung King, Miguel Franco, James Bisley, Warren Grundfest and Erik Dutson

Robotic surgery is limited by the lack of haptic feedback to the surgeon. The addition of tactile information may enable surgeons to feel tissue characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

Robotic surgery is limited by the lack of haptic feedback to the surgeon. The addition of tactile information may enable surgeons to feel tissue characteristics, appropriately tension sutures, and identify pathologic conditions. Tactile feedback may also enable expansion of minimally invasive surgery to other surgical procedures and decrease the learning curve associated with robotic surgery. This paper aims to explore a system to provide tactile feedback.

Design/methodology/approach

A pneumatic balloon‐based system has been developed to provide tactile feedback to the fingers of the surgeon during robotic surgery. The system features a polydimethyl siloxane actuator with a thin‐film silicone balloon membrane and a compact pneumatic control system. The 1.0 × 1.8 × 0.4 cm actuators designed for the da Vinci system feature a 3 × 2 array of 3 mm inflatable balloons.

Findings

The low‐profile pneumatic system and actuator have been mounted directly onto the da Vinci surgical system. Human perceptual tests have indicated that pneumatic balloon‐based tactile input is an effective means to provide tactile information to the fingers of the surgeon.

Research limitations/implications

Application of a complete tactile feedback system is limited by current force sensing technologies.

Originality/value

The actuators have been designed such that they can be mounted directly onto the hand controls of the da Vinci robotic system, and are scalable such that they can be applied to various robotic applications.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Jongwon Lee, Inwook Hwang, Keehoon Kim, Seungmoon Choi, Wan Kyun Chung and Young Soo Kim

The purpose of this paper is to present a surgical robot for spinal fusion and its control framework that provides higher operation accuracy, greater flexibility of robot…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a surgical robot for spinal fusion and its control framework that provides higher operation accuracy, greater flexibility of robot position control, and improved ergonomics.

Design/methodology/approach

A human‐guided robot for the spinal fusion surgery has been developed with a dexterous end‐effector that is capable of high‐speed drilling for cortical layer gimleting and tele‐operated insertion of screws into the vertebrae. The end‐effector is position‐controlled by a five degrees‐of‐freedom robot body that has a kinematically closed structure to withstand strong reaction force occurring in the surgery. The robot also allows the surgeon to control cooperatively the position and orientation of the end‐effector in order to provide maximum flexibility in exploiting his or her expertise. Also incorporated for improved safety is a “drill‐by‐wire” mechanism wherein a screw is tele‐drilled by the surgeon in a mechanically decoupled master/slave system. Finally, a torque‐rendering algorithm that adds synthetic open‐loop high‐frequency components on feedback torque increases the realism of tele‐drilling in the screw‐by‐wire mechanism.

Findings

Experimental results indicated that this assistive robot for spinal fusion performs drilling tasks within the static regulation errors less than 0.1 μm for position control and less than 0.05° for orientation control. The users of the tele‐drilling reported subjectively that they experienced torque feedback similar to that of direct screw insertion.

Research limitations/implications

Although the robotic surgery system itself has been developed, integration with surgery planning and tracking systems is ongoing. Thus, the screw insertion accuracy of a whole surgery system with the assistive robot is to be investigated in the near future.

Originality/value

The paper arguably pioneers the dexterous end‐effector appropriately designed for spinal fusion, the cooperative robot position‐control algorithm, the screw‐by‐wire mechanism for indirect screw insertion, and the torque‐rendering algorithm for more realistic torque feedback. In particular, the system has the potential of circumventing the screw‐loosening problem, a common defect in the conventional surgeon‐operated or robot‐assisted spinal fusion surgery.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Kun Li, Shuai Ji, Guojun Niu, Yue Ai, Bo Pan and Yili Fu

Existing robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) system lacks of force feedback, and it cannot provide the surgeon with interaction forces between the surgical…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) system lacks of force feedback, and it cannot provide the surgeon with interaction forces between the surgical instruments and patient’s tissues. This paper aims to restore force sensation for the RMIS system and evaluate effect of force sensing in a master-slave manner.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a four-DOF surgical instrument with modular joints and six-axis force sensing capability and proposes an incremental position mode master–slave control strategy based on separated position and orientation to reflect motion of the end of master manipulator to the end of surgical instrument. Ex-vivo experiments including tissue palpation and blunt dissection are conducted to verify the effect of force sensing for the surgical instrument. An experiment of trajectory tracking is carried out to test precision of the control strategy.

Findings

Results of trajectory tracking experiment show that this control strategy can precisely reflect the hand motion of the operator, and the results of the ex-vivo experiments including tissue palpation and blunt dissection illustrate that this surgical instrument can measure the six-axis interaction forces successfully for the RMIS.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the important role of force sensing and force feedback in RMIS, clarifies the feasibility to apply this instrument prototype in RMIS for force sensing and provides technical support of force feedback for further clinical application.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Ali Leylavi Shoushtari, Paolo Dario and Stefano Mazzoleni

Interaction plays a significant role in robotics and it is considered in all levels of hardware and software control design. Several models have been introduced and…

Abstract

Purpose

Interaction plays a significant role in robotics and it is considered in all levels of hardware and software control design. Several models have been introduced and developed for controlling robotic interaction. This study aims to address and analyze the state-of-the-art on robotic interaction control by which it is revealed that both practical and theoretical issues have to be faced when designing a controller.

Design/methodology/approach

In this review, a critical analysis of the control algorithms developed for robotic interaction tasks is presented. A hierarchical classification of distributed control levels from general aspects to specific control algorithms is also illustrated. Hence, two main control paradigms are discussed together with control approaches and architectures. The challenges of each control approach are discussed and the relevant solutions are presented.

Findings

This review presents an evolvement trend of interaction control theories and technologies over time. In addition, it highlights the pros and cons of each control approaches with addressing how the flaws of one control approach were compensated by emerging another control methods.

Originality/value

This review provides the robotic controller designers to select the right architecture and accordingly design the appropriate control algorithm for any given interactive task and with respect to the technology implemented in robotic manipulator.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Jing Guo, Ping Li, Huaicheng Yan and Hongliang Ren

The purpose of this paper is to design a model-based bilateral teleoperation method to improve the feedback force and velocity/position tracking for robotic-assisted tasks…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design a model-based bilateral teleoperation method to improve the feedback force and velocity/position tracking for robotic-assisted tasks (such as palpation, etc.) under constant and/or varying time delay with environment dynamic property. Time delay existing in bilateral teleoperation easily destabilizes the system. Proper control strategies are able to make the system stable, but at the cost of compromised performance. Model-based bilateral teleoperation is designed to achieve enhanced performance of this time-delayed system, but an accurate model is required.

Design/methodology/approach

Viscoelastic model has been used to describe the robot tool-soft tissue interaction behavior. Kevin-Boltzmann (K-B) model is selected to model the soft tissue behavior due to its good accuracy, transient and linearity properties among several viscoelastic models. In this work, the K-B model is designed at the master side to generate a virtual environment of remote robotic tool-soft tissue interaction. In order to obtain improved performance, a self perturbing recursive least square (SPRLS) algorithm is developed to on-line update the necessary parameters of the environment with varying dynamics.

Findings

With fast and optimal on-line estimation of primary parameters of the K-B model, the reflected force of the model-based bilateral teleoperation at the master side is improved as well as the position/velocity tracking performance. This model-based design in the bilateral teleoperation avoids the stability issue caused by time delay in the communication channel since the exchanged information become position/velocity and estimated parameters of the used model. Even facing with big and varying time delay, the system keeps stably and enhanced tracking performance. Besides, the fast convergence of the SPRLS algorithm helps to track the time-varying dynamic of the environment, which satisfies the surgical applications as the soft tissue properties usually are not static.

Originality/value

The originality of this work lies in that an enhanced perception of bilateral teleoperation structure under constant/varying time delay that benefits robotic assisted tele-palpation (time varying environment dynamic) tasks is developed. With SPRLS algorithm to on-line estimate the main parameters of environment, the feedback perception of system can be enhanced with stable velocity/position tracking. The superior velocity/position and force tracking performance of the developed method makes it possible for future robotic-assisted tasks with long-distance communication.

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

David Sanders

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect on completion of mobile‐robot tasks depending on how a human tele‐operator interacts with a sensor system and a mobile‐robot.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect on completion of mobile‐robot tasks depending on how a human tele‐operator interacts with a sensor system and a mobile‐robot.

Design/methodology/approach

Interaction is investigated using two mobile‐robot systems, three different ways of interacting with the robots and several different environments of increasing complexity. In each case, the operation is investigated with and without sensor systems to assist an operator to move a robot through narrower and narrower gaps and in completing progressively more complicated driving tasks. Tele‐operators used a joystick and either watched the robot while operating it, or sat at a computer and viewed scenes remotely on a screen. Cameras are either mounted on the robot to view the space ahead of the robot or mounted remotely so that they viewed both the environment and robot. Every test is compared with sensor systems engaged and with them disconnected.

Findings

A main conclusion is that human tele‐operators perform better without the assistance of sensor systems in simple environments and in those cases it may be better to switch‐off the sensor systems or reduce their effect. In addition, tele‐operators sometimes performed better with a camera mounted on the robot compared with pre‐mounted cameras observing the environment (but that depended on tasks being performed).

Research limitations/implications

Tele‐operators completed tests both with and without sensors. One robot system used an umbilical cable and one used a radio link.

Practical implications

The paper quantifies the difference between tele‐operation control and sensor‐assisted control when a robot passes through narrow passages. This could be an useful information when system designers decide if a system should be tele‐operated, automatic or sensor‐assisted. The paper suggests that in simple environments then the amount of sensor support should be small but in more complicated environments then more sensor support needs to be provided.

Originality/value

The paper investigates the effect of completing mobile‐robot tasks depending on whether a human tele‐operator uses a sensor system or not and how they interact with the sensor system and the mobile‐robot. The paper presents the results from investigations using two mobile‐robot systems, three different ways of interacting with the robots and several different environments of increasing complexity. The change in the ability of a human operator to complete progressively more complicated driving tasks with and without a sensor system is presented and the human tele‐operators performed better without the assistance of sensor systems in simple environments.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2011

Kiho Kim, Byung‐Suk Park, Ho‐Dong Kim, Syed Hassan and Jungwon Yoon

Hot‐cells are shielded structures protecting individuals from radioactive materials. The purpose of this paper is to propose a design approach for a hot‐cell simulator…

Abstract

Purpose

Hot‐cells are shielded structures protecting individuals from radioactive materials. The purpose of this paper is to propose a design approach for a hot‐cell simulator using digital mock‐up (DMU) technology and combining Haptic guided complex robotic manipulation for assembly tasks in a virtual environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The principal reason for developing a simulator was to explore the feasibility of hot‐cell structure design and collision‐free assembly process. For this, a simulation design philosophy has been proposed that includes DMU facility offering the ability of analyzing the operations and performing complex robotic manipulations in the virtual hot‐cell environment. Furthermore, enhanced Haptic mapping for tele‐manipulation is proposed for training and guidance purposes.

Findings

From the analysis and task scenarios performed in virtual simulator, the optimal positions of the manipulators and need of (bridge transport dual arm servo‐manipulators) type were identified. Operation tasks were performed remotely using virtual hot‐cell technology by simulating the scenarios in the DMU reducing the overall operation cost and user training. The graphic simulator substantially reduced the cost of the process and maintenance procedure as well as the process equipment by providing a pre‐analysis of whole scenario for real manipulation.

Originality/value

This research tries to contribute to the virtual hot‐cell design philosophy. Tele‐operated complex robotic operations in DMU technology are performed in virtual hot‐cell. The simulator provides improved Haptic guidance with force and torque feedback enhancing the realism of virtual environment.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Weibang Bai, Qixin Cao, Pengfei Wang, Peng Chen, Chuntao Leng and Tiewen Pan

Robotic systems for laparoscopic minimally invasive surgery (MIS) always end up with highly sophisticated mechanisms and control schemes – making it a long and hard…

Abstract

Purpose

Robotic systems for laparoscopic minimally invasive surgery (MIS) always end up with highly sophisticated mechanisms and control schemes – making it a long and hard development process with a steep price. This paper aims to propose and realize a new, efficient and convenient strategy for building effective control systems for surgical and even other complex robotic systems.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel method that takes advantage of the modularization concept by integrating two middleware technologies (robot operating system and robotic technology middleware) into a common architecture based on the strengths of both was designed and developed.

Findings

Tests of the developed control system showed very low time-delay between the master and slave sides; good movement representation on the slave manipulator; and high positional and operational accuracy. Moreover, the new development strategy trial came with much higher efficiency and lower costs.

Research limitations/implications

This method results in a modularized and distributed control system that is amenable to collaboratively develop; convenient to modify and update; componentized and easy to extend; mutually independent among subsystems; and practicable to be running and communicating across multiple operating systems. However, experiments show that surgical training and updates of the robotic system are still required to achieve better proficiency for completing complex minimally invasive surgical operations with the proposed and developed system.

Originality/value

This research proposed and developed a novel modularization design method and a novel architecture for building a distributed teleoperation control system for laparoscopic MIS.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

1 – 10 of 183