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The Presidential Address to the Liverpool Engineering Society by Mr. Farthing (the salient points of which are reproduced in this issue) has particular bearing upon…
The Presidential Address to the Liverpool Engineering Society by Mr. Farthing (the salient points of which are reproduced in this issue) has particular bearing upon lubrication and especially on young lubrication engineers. Mr. Farthing stressed the very wide field open to young engineers and the difficulties associated with training in order to cover as wide a field as may be necessary. It is usually so important to gain a wide knowledge before one can specialise and this is certainly the case with lubrication engineers. One cannot begin to fully appreciate the intricacies of a lubrication system with all its accessory components lubricating and guarding, for example, a large motive power plant or rolling mill, until one has more than a mere working knowledge of the plant itself, the duties it must perform, how it performs them and the snags that arise which might be overcome by correct lubrication. In view of the fact that lubrication systems are just as important in a textile mill as in a power station or a large brick works, the almost impossible‐to‐achieve‐range of knowledge that would simplify the work of a lubrication engineer is very obvious. Fortunately, lubricating principles apply to most cases and knowing how to apply one's knowledge from basic principles is the key to success in this difficult profession.
This is a shortened version of the Discussion that took place at Birmingham in January. Part One, which covered Lubricants for the Cold Rolling of Non‐Ferrous Metals and…
This is a shortened version of the Discussion that took place at Birmingham in January. Part One, which covered Lubricants for the Cold Rolling of Non‐Ferrous Metals and Alloys appeared in our February issue.
In the heat treatment of steel, oils are used in three operations: in conventional hardening, in which steel is quenched into oil at or near room temperature (quenching oils); in hot quenching, in which the steel is quenched into hot oil (martempering oils); and in tempering (tempering oils).
The PROCESS OF MAKING WIRE by drawing operations through dies, as distinct from hammering, though believed to be several thousand years old, until the last century was performed only by man‐, horse‐ or water‐power, so that production was slow and small. These old methods could not meet the greatly increased demand that then arose for wire of all kinds, such as copper wire for electrical purposes, and consequently power‐driven multi‐die benches were developed. Drawing speeds were still limited to several hundreds of feet per minute because of the rapid wear of the chilled iron and steel dies then used; but with the introduction of tungsten carbide dies and diamond dies, speeds were again increased, and now figures of 2,000 ft. per minute for steel wire, and 5,000 ft. per minute or more for copper and aluminium, are commonplace. These advances have required improved drawing lubricants, and future increases in drawing speeds likewise largely depend on improving lubricants still further. The general problem is to provide adequate lubrication for long die life, coupled with the intensive cooling that higher drawing speeds compel.
OF the whole range of metal rolling operations, almost the only section in which rolling oils are normally employed is in the cold rolling of flat material in plain cylindrical rolls. The metal for cold rolling has usually first been hot rolled in plain cylindrical rolls, but only in a few cases are rolling oils used in the hot rolling operation. These exceptions are referred to when considering the particular metals.
DRAWING of metals occurs in innumerable ways, both hot and cold. Here, however, we are concerned only with the cold drawing operations used to form vast tonnages of steel…
DRAWING of metals occurs in innumerable ways, both hot and cold. Here, however, we are concerned only with the cold drawing operations used to form vast tonnages of steel, and large quantities of non‐ferrous metals, as tube and wire, and for the forming of sheet metals (especially by deep drawing).
Using two main research questions, the purpose of this paper is to examine well-being and preparedness among Cambodian and Laotian immigrants living near the Gulf Coast of…
Using two main research questions, the purpose of this paper is to examine well-being and preparedness among Cambodian and Laotian immigrants living near the Gulf Coast of the USA, and the ways in which indicators such as sense of community and risk perception are related to these constructs.
This study employed a cross-sectional prospective design to examine disaster preparedness and well-being among Laotian and Cambodian immigrant communities. Quantitative survey data using purposive snowball sampling were collected throughout several months in Alabama, Mississippi, Florida and Louisiana.
Results from two multiple regressions revealed that sense of community and age contributed to well-being and were significant in the model, but with a negative relationship between age and well-being. Risk perception, confidence in government, confidence in engaging household preparedness and ability to cope with a financial crisis were significant predictors and positively related to disaster preparedness.
Well-being and disaster preparedness can be bolstered through community-based planning that seeks to address urgent needs of the people residing in vulnerable coastal locations. Specifically, immigrants who speak English as a second language, elder individuals and households in the lowest income brackets should be supported in disaster planning and outreach.
Cambodian and Laotian American immigrants rely upon the Gulf Coast’s waters for fishing, crab and shrimp income. Despite on-going hazard and disasters, few studies address preparedness among immigrant populations in the USA. This study fills a gap in preparedness research as well as factors associated with well-being, an important aspect of long-term resilience.
Sendzimir mills have already been referred to as notable examples of cluster mills (p. 142 and Fig. 9). They exploit the advantages of well‐supported small diameter work…
Sendzimir mills have already been referred to as notable examples of cluster mills (p. 142 and Fig. 9). They exploit the advantages of well‐supported small diameter work rolls, making heavy reductions possible and producing very accurate cold rolled strip. The work rolls can be finished to produce the sheet surface quality required, can be very rapidly changed in service, and can be made of special very hard material such as tungsten carbide when minimum flattening is needed. Accordingly these mills are used for a great variety of materials — not only all types of steel (including stainless), copper and its alloys, and aluminium and its alloys, but titanium, tantalum, zirconium and even rarer or more intractable metals.
This paper aims, using a case study-based research approach, to investigate the role of climate and non-climate drivers in shaping three commercial marine sectors…
This paper aims, using a case study-based research approach, to investigate the role of climate and non-climate drivers in shaping three commercial marine sectors: fishing, aquaculture and marine tourism. Essential elements of climate change research include taking a whole of systems approach, which entails a socio-ecological perspective, and considering climate challenges alongside other challenges faced by resource users.
The analysis is based on information gained using in-depth semi-structured interviews in a coastal community in southeast Australia. Even though climate drivers differ, the economic sectors of this community are representative of many similar coastal communities around Australia.
Results show that at a community level, people involved in, or associated with, marine sectors are aware of climate change impacts on the marine environment. Even though many may not see it as a pressing issue, the potential effect of climate change on business profitability was recognised. Both the profitability of commercial fishing and aquaculture (oysters) was affected through mostly a downward pressure on product price, while marine tourism profitability was mainly affected through changes in the number of visitors.
A case study approach is inherently case study-specific – although generalities from complex system representation, built on local survey respondent observation and knowledge of the combined and linked physical–biological-, social-, economic- and governance drivers. This study shows the importance of a holistic approach; yet, researchers must also consider all community sectors and cross-regional investigations to avoid future resource conflicts.
A number of positive impacts from climate-driven change, mainly from windfall economic benefits of geographically relocated species, were reported for commercial- and charter fishing. However, no positive impacts were reported for the aquaculture- and dive sector. In the aquaculture sector, climate drivers were of great significance in industry participation, while participation in commercial fishing was mainly driven by socio-economic factors.
To ensure the combined marine sectors retain a viable component of coastal communities’ economic focus, there is a need to understand what drives participation in the marine sector, and what the role of climate change is in this. To fully understand the ramifications of climate change in the marine environment, it is essential to understand its impacts across all marine sectors.
Combining the different domains with climate drivers allows for identification and assessment of targeted adaptation needs and opportunities and sets up a comprehensive approach to determine future adaptation pathways.
IT MAY reasonably be asked “why should metalworking lubricants be considered as a class on their own?” Apart from convenience of classification, there are at least three good reasons for doing so: