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This paper reports the findings of an 11‐year longitudinal study of the food preferences of first‐year social science undergraduates at a UK university. Argues that this…
This paper reports the findings of an 11‐year longitudinal study of the food preferences of first‐year social science undergraduates at a UK university. Argues that this predominantly young and female response group constitutes a “critical case” that can be used to assess broader trends in meat consumption and meat avoidance. Relatively high levels of meat avoidance (in terms of reduced consumption or vegetarianism) were detected, although in recent years the trend appears to be away from avoidance and towards an increase in the reported inclination to eat meat. An attempt is made to interpret the findings of the study within the broader context of long‐term shifts in attitudes towards meat consumption in general, and towards beef consumption in particular.
The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the dominance of an ascetic discourse of veg*anism in social research literature, and to relate it to a dominant…
The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the dominance of an ascetic discourse of veg*anism in social research literature, and to relate it to a dominant hierarchical ordering of Western diets (to refer collectively to veganism and vegetarianism).
A review of the extant social research literature on veg*anism was undertaken in order to discern whether a consistent type of descriptive language existed. This facilitated an understanding of the way in which that language is constitutive of research generated understandings of veg*anism.
An ascetic discourse of veg*anism is dominant in social research. This is reflected in the phraseology used by authors. Typical descriptive terms of a veg*an diet include “strict”, “restrictive”, or “avoidance”. This ascetic discourse reproduces the hierarchical ordering of Western diets such that veg*anism is denigrated and made to seem “difficult” and abnormal.
Veg*anism arguably promises multiple benefits for human, environmental, and nonhuman animal well‐being. The potential to realize those benefits is hampered by the perpetuation of an understanding of veg*anism as an ascetic practice.
This paper provides the first comprehensive examination of the language used to describe veg*anism within social research. It can enhance reflexivity on the part of social researchers interested in veg*anism, and help inform research design. In providing an alternative hedonic discourse of veg*anism, this paper also makes a contribution towards realizing the potential benefits of veg*anism through making it a more attractive dietary practice.
The main findings of a detailed qualitative study of themotivations, beliefs and attitudes of practising vegetarians and vegansare reported. It is concluded that…
The main findings of a detailed qualitative study of the motivations, beliefs and attitudes of practising vegetarians and vegans are reported. It is concluded that vegetarianism, while remaining very much a minority option, is increasing steadily in the UK population, although the rate of increase appears to vary by such factors as age, gender and socio‐economic category. Those who opt for a non‐meat‐eating dietary pattern may well represent the vanguard of a form of ethical consumerism to which food producers, processors and retailers will need to be increasingly responsive in the near future.
This article is based on a six‐year survey of first year undergraduates and their meat consumption. The main focus is vegetarianism and the declining consumption of red…
This article is based on a six‐year survey of first year undergraduates and their meat consumption. The main focus is vegetarianism and the declining consumption of red meat over the past two decades. The levels of meat consumption and avoidance were analysed by gender, father’s occupation, voting intention and the reasons given for reduction/avoidance. The results found that the majority of vegetarians were women, although they were also the majority of the sample. Age, political inclination and social class appear to have had little bearing on meat consumption. There is also the suggestion that vegetarianism has reached a plateau. A wide range of further studies is suggested.
Examines the dimensions of stability and change in the foodways ofcontemporary Britain. The structural and cultural origins of change areoutlined and various sociological…
Examines the dimensions of stability and change in the foodways of contemporary Britain. The structural and cultural origins of change are outlined and various sociological explanations of these phenomena are discussed. Subsequently, both the positive and negative implications of the contemporary state of flux are investigated, particularly with reference to the argument that a state of gastro‐anomy pertains. This view is subjected to critical examination and the argument is put forward that a state of anomy may be a transitional one on the road to a more open and pluralistic nutritional order.
The issue of food safety and the general public′s perception of itis addressed. Risk perception among consumers is a major factoraffecting food choice. The cultural and…
The issue of food safety and the general public′s perception of it is addressed. Risk perception among consumers is a major factor affecting food choice. The cultural and economic context within which food consumption as risk‐taking behaviour is defined and it is shown that long‐term cultural and economic trends have developed a situation in which ambivalence concerning food can interact with intensive media coverage to induce acute bouts of large‐scale collective anxiety. It is shown that the recent food scares in the UK are not random occurrences; they emerge from an interaction of a number of identifiable factors.
A series of studies over the last decade have indicated that considerable change has been taking place in the way in which organisations recruit their workers. In…
A series of studies over the last decade have indicated that considerable change has been taking place in the way in which organisations recruit their workers. In particular, several authors have pointed to the growing prominence of both internal labour market (ILM) recruitment and word‐of‐mouth recruitment. This conclusion is supported by studies that consider job seeking and job seekers, for example, studies by Granovetter, Leeand Martin and Roberts, as well as by studies of employers' recruitment practices. Although care must be exercised when comparing these studies, as has been discussed by Manwaring, together they provide a general view of the direction of change with regard to the management of labour recruitment. In particular, some of the studies indicate a growth in the use of the internal market and word‐of‐mouth recruitment, for example, Jenkins et al., while others, such as Wood and Manwaring, suggest that such channels are increasingly prominent, not as a result of increased usage, but because these channels have been maintained during the recession, while other forms of recruitment, such as the use of the job centre or press advertisements, have been ignored or minimised.
This article reports the results of the re‐analysis of a substantial set of survey based quantitative data relating to food beliefs, practices and preferences. The…
This article reports the results of the re‐analysis of a substantial set of survey based quantitative data relating to food beliefs, practices and preferences. The particular focus of attention was upon gender contrasts. Several statistically significant differences between men and women were identified. These differences occurred in such areas as views on food and health, the ethical dimensions of food production and food selection, nutritional attitudes and choices, dietary change, food work and body image. Two distinctive patterns emerged, which the authors termed “virtuous” and “robust”, the former exhibiting attitudes more typical of women, and the latter attitudes more typical of men.
The construction industries of many countries rely heavily on subcontracting. As a result, the quality of subcontractors is important as it has a direct bearing on the…
The construction industries of many countries rely heavily on subcontracting. As a result, the quality of subcontractors is important as it has a direct bearing on the performance of the main contractor on projects. A large proportion of construction work in Singapore is subcontracted. Despite the well‐known and widely regretted deficiencies in the traditional subcontracting system, only recently have attempts been made to reform it. The most significant of these efforts is the Singapore List of Trade Subcontractors (SLOTS). This study sought to investigate whether or not the performance of subcontractors has been improved following the introduction of the SLOTS scheme. The research was based on a survey of project managers of main contractors. A major finding was that the SLOTS‐registered contractors were perceived to perform better than nonregistered ones. Suggestions for improving the SLOTS scheme are offered in this paper.
Explores the impact on consumer attitudes of the zenith of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) scare of 20/21 March 1996. Considers implications for consumer…
Explores the impact on consumer attitudes of the zenith of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) scare of 20/21 March 1996. Considers implications for consumer behaviour and marketing communications for the meat industry through exposition of a uniquely timed consumer survey. An initial survey of meat consumers’ attitudes, ethics and habits in Central Scotland was ongoing just prior to the March 1996 media coverage. Following the Government’s announcement of a link between BSE and Creutzfeldt‐Jakob disease (CJD) an opportunistic follow‐up survey was conducted immediately. In all 50 of the original sample were traced and re‐surveyed within three days. Suggests that the scare had reduced levels of trust in information sources, and the faith expressed in products and control measures was ambivalent. Considers marketing and communication implications and scenarios.