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1 – 10 of over 2000

Abstract

Many jurisdictions fine illegal cartels using penalty guidelines that presume an arbitrary 10% overcharge. This article surveys more than 700 published economic studies and judicial decisions that contain 2,041 quantitative estimates of overcharges of hard-core cartels. The primary findings are: (1) the median average long-run overcharge for all types of cartels over all time periods is 23.0%; (2) the mean average is at least 49%; (3) overcharges reached their zenith in 1891–1945 and have trended downward ever since; (4) 6% of the cartel episodes are zero; (5) median overcharges of international-membership cartels are 38% higher than those of domestic cartels; (6) convicted cartels are on average 19% more effective at raising prices as unpunished cartels; (7) bid-rigging conduct displays 25% lower markups than price-fixing cartels; (8) contemporary cartels targeted by class actions have higher overcharges; and (9) when cartels operate at peak effectiveness, price changes are 60–80% higher than the whole episode. Historical penalty guidelines aimed at optimally deterring cartels are likely to be too low.

Details

The Law and Economics of Class Actions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-951-5

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Book part

Damian Tago, Henrik Andersson and Nicolas Treich

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Abstract

Purpose

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents literature reviews for the period 2000–2013 on (i) the health effects of pesticides and on (ii) preference valuation of health risks related to pesticides, as well as a discussion of the role of benefit-cost analysis applied to pesticide regulatory measures.

Findings

This study indicates that the health literature has focused on individuals with direct exposure to pesticides, i.e. farmers, while the literature on preference valuation has focused on those with indirect exposure, i.e. consumers. The discussion highlights the need to clarify the rationale for regulating pesticides, the role of risk perceptions in benefit-cost analysis, and the importance of inter-disciplinary research in this area.

Originality/value

This study relates findings of different disciplines (health, economics, public policy) regarding pesticides, and identifies gaps for future research.

Details

Preference Measurement in Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-029-2

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Article

L.C.M. Boonekamp and A.A. de Roo

One of the major goals of the recent NHS reforms has been to makethe NHS more responsive to the needs of patients by offering morechoice. DHAs and budget‐holding GP…

Abstract

One of the major goals of the recent NHS reforms has been to make the NHS more responsive to the needs of patients by offering more choice. DHAs and budget‐holding GP practices have been given an incentive to obtain better value for money in purchasing health care services. In doing so they will have to take account of the existing GP referral patterns for as “key advisers” GPs can have major influence on patients′ choice of hospitals and consultants. Until now not much has been known about the structure, development and change of referral patterns and the factors responsible for changes. A study concerning these issues, conducted in The Netherlands, provides relevant information for the British situation. The results (non‐specificity of referrals, the role of tradition and distance in building up referred relationships and patients′ influence on breaking up relationships) suggest that GPs′ decisions in building up and changing referral networks take place implicitly. Concludes that GPs need more information in order to choose the best option. Information exchange within GP practices or local/regional GP groups is a means of improving the basis for decision making. At the same time there is a growing need for research into cost/quality ratios of care offered by health care providers. In Britain, DHAs could play an important role in initiating and intensifying this research.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

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Book part

Elke Rogge, Eva Kerselaers and Charlotte Prové

In urban planning, peri-urban areas are often addressed with an urban-centric view on development, disregarding the multifunctional and dynamic opportunities that these…

Abstract

In urban planning, peri-urban areas are often addressed with an urban-centric view on development, disregarding the multifunctional and dynamic opportunities that these spaces offer. As a consequence, we argue that land use functions such as agriculture do not reach their full potential, despite the increasing enthusiasm for peri-urban and urban agriculture. This chapter has a twofold structure: first it explores the opportunities and challenges for agriculture in peri-urban areas; and second, it studies success factors for envisioning processes promoting peri-urban agriculture in urban policy and planning.

Through action research, we gather and compare data from two envisioning processes in the Flemish cities of Ghent and Kortrijk. Both processes were initiated by the local authorities, with the purpose of developing a spatial vision for agriculture in peri-urban areas.

Results show that in both contexts, pressure on farmland is a key issue. In addition, we highlight that multifunctionality is rather complex, both in practice and from a governance perspective, but nevertheless promising as a territorial concept in envisioning processes. Regarding the envisioning process itself, the analysis shows that clarity and consensus on the objectives of the process, delineation of the study area, policy support, clear leadership, and inserting sound and reliable data into the process are important success factors.

This chapter provides insight into the visions, plans and strategies needed to embrace the potential of agriculture in peri-urban areas, through the exploration and valuation of participatory envisioning processes. Future research is needed to explore the implementation phases of envisioning processes in urban planning.

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Book part

Mark Williams, Natasha Pauli and Bryan Boruff

Climate change, deforestation and hydropower dams are contributing to environmental change in the Lower Mekong River region, the combined effects of which are felt by many…

Abstract

Climate change, deforestation and hydropower dams are contributing to environmental change in the Lower Mekong River region, the combined effects of which are felt by many rural Cambodians. How people perceive and manage the effects of environmental change will influence future adaptation strategies. The objective of this research was to investigate whether the use of a low-cost, explicitly spatial method (participatory mapping) can help identify locally relevant opportunities and challenges to climate change adaptation in small, flood-prone communities. Four villages along the banks of the Mekong River in Kratie Province, Cambodia, were the subject of this research. To identify perceived environmental hazards and adaptive responses, eight workshops were conducted using focus-group interviews and participatory mapping. The communities’ responses highlight the evolving nature of environmental hazards, as droughts increase in perceived importance while the patterns of wet season flooding were also perceived to be changing. The attribution of the drivers of these hazards was strongly skewed towards local factors such as deforestation and less towards regional or global drivers affecting the hydrology of the Mekong and climate patterns. Combining participatory mapping with focus-group interviews allowed a greater depth of understanding of the vulnerabilities and opportunities available to communities than reliance on a single qualitative method. The study highlights the potential for a bottom-up transfer of information to strengthen existing climate change policies and tailor adaptation plans to local conditions.

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Climate-Induced Disasters in the Asia-Pacific Region: Response, Recovery, Adaptation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-987-8

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Book part

Hannele Kauppinen-Räisänen, Helene Cristini and Marie-Nathalie Jauffret

This chapter focusses on travellers’ pursuit of silence. This quest may be a counteraction to the current invasion of noise in everyday life. Silence has become something…

Abstract

This chapter focusses on travellers’ pursuit of silence. This quest may be a counteraction to the current invasion of noise in everyday life. Silence has become something rare, unique and exclusive – which conveys luxury in its pristine and simplest form. The study focussed on silence in the setting of a church, which is a place typically intrinsically attached to silence. A qualitative semi-structured study was designed to explore how churches’ atmospheres contribute to the experience of silence, as well as what such moments of silence mean to the contemporary traveller. Silence in a church is very much defined by the place itself. For the traveller, silence is (1) a code of conduct, (2) an inner state, (3) a break, (4) an empowering experience and (5) a precious moment. The findings of this study can be used to promote moments of silence for weary travellers in the need of quiet.

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Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-070-2

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Article

María Paula Flórez, María Catalina Ramírez, Luisa Fernanda Payán-Durán, Mauricio Peralta and Andres Esteban Acero Lopez

This study aims to present a systemic methodological proposal for the reduction of water consumption in rural areas, based on participatory tools.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present a systemic methodological proposal for the reduction of water consumption in rural areas, based on participatory tools.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical framework was constructed based on the importance of stakeholders’ participation in the adequate use of the hydro resources, technologies to save water and modeling the adoption of possible water-saving technologies. After that, it was proposed a methodology for the reduction of water consumption in rural areas. This methodology was tested in a participatory study case, including the system dynamics model.

Findings

This study proposes a participatory systemic methodology – PAWAME – participation-water waste-adoption-model-empowerment, which consists of four steps: identify stakeholders and the activities related with the waste of water in the study site and establish their values, measure the adoption that the technology would have based on the awareness generated, relate in a model the variables of the water-consuming activities and the variables of the technology and its adoption to analyze possible future behaviors and empowerment of the technology to reduce water consumption.

Practical implications

In Colombia, part of the population has the wrong perception about the abundance of the hydro resource, and for this reason, people do not use water in a correct way. The inclusion of a participatory systemic methodology was fundamental to apprehend the dynamic aspects of users’ behaviors, as well as of the management of the water resource. The model addresses the complexity of the situation, allowing exploring future scenarios of environmental protection.

Originality/value

This study advances the knowledge in participatory systemic methodology to design and adopt a local technology to save water.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article

P. Vuylsteke, P. Defraeye, J. Van Daele, A. Oosterlinck and H. Van den Berghe

Recognition of plane objects can be achieved by calculating the area and first and second moments of the object. In the work described a hardwired videoprocessor linked to…

Abstract

Recognition of plane objects can be achieved by calculating the area and first and second moments of the object. In the work described a hardwired videoprocessor linked to a 16‐bit microprocessor enables the recognition to be achieved within 30 milliseconds.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Book part

Janine Pierce

Peace on Earth has often been elusive, with more times on Earth spent at war rather than peace. This paper examines the nature of peace with its antithesis of war

Abstract

Peace on Earth has often been elusive, with more times on Earth spent at war rather than peace. This paper examines the nature of peace with its antithesis of war, focussing on the impact of war on the planet, which is not a primary consideration when war is waged. War leaves negative planetary legacies, which are of major concerns in times of population growth whilst living on a finite planet. Who should be responsible for planetary impact of war is considered, with some focus on government and other organisations. Collaborative strategies for caring for the planet through guidelines and level of departments of defence and national law-making organisations at national levels are discussed, as well as overviewing the focus and role of the United Nations and the associated Sustainability Goals. The paper concludes by suggesting that a more powerful way to influence us in our responsibilities to live peacefully, rather than a virtuous ‘should not’ approach, is the need to shift back to a moral positioning in our perspectives as humans being part of the ecosystem, so that we view ourselves as being at one with all life. In this perspective, if we incur harm to this planet, we are harming ourselves. Suggestions for living in a more peaceful way are drawn from indigenous wisdom and spiritual teachers, particularly the current Pope Francis.

Details

Educating for Ethical Survival
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-253-6

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Article

Bie Nio Ong and Rita Schepers

The role of doctors in hospitals continues to change due to both external (policy) and internal (organisational change) pressures. Comparisons between The Netherlands and…

Abstract

The role of doctors in hospitals continues to change due to both external (policy) and internal (organisational change) pressures. Comparisons between The Netherlands and the UK highlight that several models of medical management are formulated and exist alongside each other, leading to more flexibility in the roles of both doctors and managers. In particular, the agendas concerning the quality of clinical care and cost‐effectiveness are converging, emphasising the increasingly important role of medical managers.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000