The opportunity for mutual benefit across Europe to develop low‐cost MCM technologies arose from recognition of the scientific skills and design and prototyping…
The opportunity for mutual benefit across Europe to develop low‐cost MCM technologies arose from recognition of the scientific skills and design and prototyping capabilities in organic and inorganic circuits in countries of Central Europe. As a result, the leading research institutions and small/medium‐size enterprises of Hungary, Romania and Slovenia together with relevant institutions of the UK and Belgium proposed and received approval for a European Union INCO‐Copernicus project “Cheap multichip models” to establish fast prototyping low cost multichip module (MCM) technology facilities. The project commenced in May 1997.
Atmospheric dependent, gas sensitive resistors seem to be good candidates for detecting critical air pollution levels. Recently, great progress has been made in the…
Atmospheric dependent, gas sensitive resistors seem to be good candidates for detecting critical air pollution levels. Recently, great progress has been made in the development of various sensor types, but less attention seems to be paid to the integration of sensor elements with different characteristics. The aim of this international project is to develop a smart hybrid gas multi‐sensor module for environmental applications, i.e. by combining classical thick‐ and thin‐film elements with polymer‐film based sensors and also a signal processing ASIC within a single package, which should be useful for all sensor types. The module should enable multi‐sensor operation as well, when connected to an intelligent signal‐processing unit.
Purpose – This essay attempts to answer the question, “What distinguishes inter-human influence from other forms of influence?”Design/methodology/approach – Specifying the…
Purpose – This essay attempts to answer the question, “What distinguishes inter-human influence from other forms of influence?”
Design/methodology/approach – Specifying the micro-foundations of social structures in terms of communicative inferences necessitates a revision of the concept of social structures (and institutions) as distributed, and hence, uncertain, structures of expectation. Institutional realities are generated in linguistic interaction through the indirect communication of generic references. The generalizing function of language – in particular, abstraction and memory – coupled with its reflexive function, to turn references into things, are sufficient to generate both social structures and institutions as collective inferences.
Findings – Social relations are fundamentally communicative relations. The communicative relation is triadic, implying an enunciator, an audience, and some referential content. Through linguistic communication, humans are capable of communicating locally with others about others nonlocally. Institutions exist only as expectations concerning the expectations of others. These expectations, however, are not only in the mind, and they are not exclusively psychological entities. Linguistically, these expectations appear as the reported statement within the reporting statement, that is, they are constituted through indirect discourse.
Research limitations/implications – An important implication for current sociological theory is that, from the point of view of a sociology defined as communication about communication from within communication, institutional realities should not be reified as existing naturalistically or objectively above or behind the communications through which they are instantiated.
Originality value – This approach, then, is decidedly anti-“realist.” The goal of such research is to examine the inadequacy of nonreflexive models of social order. Accounts of how sets of social relationships emerge will remain inadequate if they do not reflect upon the cognitive and communicative processes which make possible the consideration of such structures.
In this chapter, I use the term “biopolitics” to mean evolutionarily informed political science. Politics has been characterized as “Who gets what, when, and how” (Lasswell, 1936), but rather than about material possessions, politics is understood to be about power, more specifically about collective power, especially differential group power competition, hierarchy and stratification in power distribution, and the universal struggle to enhance power, and to maintain or challenge/destroy this status quo. Politics “should be found in any system of nature in which conflicts of interest exist among cooperating organic units” (Johnson, 1995, p. 279). My main focus will be competitive intergroup relations in monkeys and apes, or as I (van der Dennen, 1995) called it “intergroup agonistic behavior” (IAB). I also briefly treat interindividual and intercoalitionary agonistic behavior when relevant.
Screen‐printing is an appropriate technique for the manufacture of large‐area position‐sensitive detectors. The purpose of this paper is to present simple methods of paste…
Screen‐printing is an appropriate technique for the manufacture of large‐area position‐sensitive detectors. The purpose of this paper is to present simple methods of paste preparation and appropriate processing of thick films.
Active layers of photoconductive cells based on doped CdS0.32Se0.68 were prepared by screen‐printing and sintering at 530°C. A sulfide‐selenide mixture or a mixed crystal material and propylene glycol (PG) was deposited as a paste. PG served as the temporary paste binder. Cadmium chloride was used as a fluxing agent and a donor source. Copper(II) chloride was used as an acceptor source. The effect of the paste composition and sintering time on the resistance and slope of the resistance vs illumination dependence of cells was investigated. These parameters were checked again after eight years of cell storage.
The cell properties are considerably influenced by the time periods between printing, drying, and sintering. Addition of 2.3 mg Cu2 + and 17 mg Cl− per 1 g of mixed crystal CdS0.32Se0.68 enables the preparation of photoconductive cells with the slope higher than 1.2 and a very good long‐term stability of cell parameters.
The effect of the cell parameters' dependence on the paste, age and the time between printing and sintering rendered it impossible to make a more detailed examination after eight‐year storage of samples.
The paper is of value in showing that in the prepared cells exhibit high slopes of resistance‐illumination dependence. The high slope enables detection of laser pulses using only simple filtration of ambient illumination. The changes in photoconductive cell properties after eight‐year storage are presented.
A flip chip on board technology fully compatible with current PCB facilities is reported. It used reflow soldering for chip attachment. It required electroless nickel/immersion gold finishing on the board pads as well as on the chip pads. A no‐clean solder paste was printed on the boards before chip placement. Thus, there was no requirement for solder deposition on the chip side. Assembly tests with various chip formats proved the feasibility of this technology. X‐ray inspection and cross‐sectioning revealed the good shape and alignment of the reflowed solder joints. The reliability of underfilled assemblies was studied by ‐40 to 125°C thermal cycling. This approach is especially suitable for prototype or low volume productions as it eliminates the solder bumping process on the chip side, which is usually performed on the wafer level.
Polymeric materials have gained a wide theoretical interest and practical application in sensor technology. They can be used for very different purposes and may offer…
Polymeric materials have gained a wide theoretical interest and practical application in sensor technology. They can be used for very different purposes and may offer unique possibilities. The paper gives a broad summary about the sensor structures and sensing polymer films used in a wide variety of sensors. Finally, the present status and perspectives as well as the advantages of specific polymer based sensors are summarised.
In order to connect a fiberglass composite structure to a steel structure, a hybrid composite made of glass and steel fibers has been studied. The hybrid composite has one…
In order to connect a fiberglass composite structure to a steel structure, a hybrid composite made of glass and steel fibers has been studied. The hybrid composite has one end section with all glass fibers and the opposite end section with all steel fibers. As a result, it contains a transition section in the middle of the hybrid composite changing from glass fibers to steel fibers. The purpose of this paper is to examine interface strength at the glass to steel fiber transition section, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the hybrid composite as a joining technique between a polymer composite structure and a metallic structure.
The present micromechanical study considers two types of glass to steel fiber joints: butt and overlap joints. For the butt joint, the end shape of the steel fiber is also modified to determine its effect on interface strength. The interface strength is predicted numerically based on the virtual crack closure technique to determine which joint is the strongest under various loading conditions such as tension, shear and bending. Numerical models include resin layers discretely. A virtual crack is considered inside the resin, at the resin/glass‐layer interface, and at the resin/steel‐layer interface. The crack is located at the critical regions of the joints.
Overall, the butt joint is stronger than the overlap joint regardless of loading types and directions. Furthermore, modification of an end shape of the middle fiber layers in the butt joint shifts the critical failure location.
The paper describes one of a few studies which investigated the interface strength of the hybrid joint made of fiberglass and steel‐fiber composites. This joint is important to connect a polymeric composite structure to a metallic structure without using conventional mechanical joints.
The nature of interpretive consumer research is examined within the context of the contribution to the growth of knowledge played by the proliferation of tenaciously‐held rival theories. Dennett’s intentional stance is contrasted with a contextual stance in which behaviour is controlled by a learning history composed of reinforcing and punishing consequences of similar behaviour previously enacted in similar circumstances. The benefits of this stance are the encouragement of counter hypotheses to intentionality, and the generation of novel data which would otherwise not be available.