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Kristof Verfaillie and Tom Vander Beken
Contemporary policing and the control of (organised) crime involve priority setting, strategic planning and the use of strategic planning tools. The purpose of this paper…
Contemporary policing and the control of (organised) crime involve priority setting, strategic planning and the use of strategic planning tools. The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution to the fast‐growing body of literature on intelligence‐led policing, and explore new concepts and methods to aid the strategic decision making of actors involved in policing organised crime.
This paper argues that priority setting and strategic planning in the field of organised crime is inherently characterised by uncertainty. The authors examine to what extent policymakers can plan and anticipate coming organised crime threats. It is argued that, while predicting such issues is impossible, policymakers can prepare for them. It is suggested that the field of scenario studies can provide tools that can support strategic planning and the assessment of security challenges in the field of organised crime control. A scenario study is presented on the vulnerability of economic sectors to illustrate and develop this claim.
Scenario studies do not predict the future of organised crime, nor do they replace information‐gathering methodologies and crime intelligence applications that support concrete criminal investigations. Scenario studies are sensitising tools that force strategic planners to examine the assumptions and knowledge base on which they base their decisions. To that end, scenario studies combine the analysis of law enforcement data and scientific analysis of organised crime with analysis of issues most vital to societies, regions, cities, etc. The analytical focus shifts from targeting concrete offenders to detecting opportunities and weaknesses in structural processes that may not always be visible to police organizations, but pose significant security risks if left unattended. The scenario study that is presented on the vulnerability of economic sectors in the EU illustrates that scenario studies can amend traditional crime intelligence in this manner.
The paper is limited to a conceptual study and a concrete scenario study. Future research might shed more light on implementation/evaluation issues of scenario‐based planning.
The paper offers a conceptual and methodological framework for scenario‐based strategic planning.
The paper intends to advance the debate on organized crime assessments in light of the development towards intelligence‐led policing strategies. To that end, new concepts and a different methodological framework are suggested.
R. Vanden Berghe, S. Demolder, M. Saillé, A. Van Calster and H. Schotte
The reliability of thick film multilayer systems, based on palladium‐silver conductors, and obtained from several suppliers, is evaluated. A test structure is presented…
The reliability of thick film multilayer systems, based on palladium‐silver conductors, and obtained from several suppliers, is evaluated. A test structure is presented and the impact of different parameters, such as humidity, temperature, voltage bias and presence of overglaze, on the data is discussed. A SEM analysis of the failed samples allows identification of the failure mechanisms as due to flaws (pinholes and inclusions) in the dielectric.
B. De Meulemeester, A. Van Calster, A. De Bruycker and K. Allaert
Since the first appearance of high density interconnection systems about ten years ago, researchers have tried to exploit this concept to the full. By introducing new…
Since the first appearance of high density interconnection systems about ten years ago, researchers have tried to exploit this concept to the full. By introducing new technologies and materials, they have succeeded in building a module that equals wafer scale integration (WSI) in speed and efficiency. However, MCMs have not yet experienced rapid growth and acceptance as a result of the large capital investment and rather small volumes involved. This paper sets out to show that MCMs can be fabricated using technology and processes already in existence at most conventional IC and thin‐film production facilities.
M. Vrana, A. Van Calster, D. Vanicky, W. Delbare, R. Vanden Berghe, S. Demolder and K. Allaert
The evolution of today's high speed electronic systems has resulted in the need for modules which are able to provide all chip‐to‐chip interconnection with very fine top…
The evolution of today's high speed electronic systems has resulted in the need for modules which are able to provide all chip‐to‐chip interconnection with very fine top level and buried conductor traces, and a dielectric with a very dense via grid pattern. As standard thick film technology is capable of pitches only down to 250 µm, new photoimageable thick film pastes have been developed in order to achieve a higher resolution. These materials allow one to combine the advantages of screen printing as a deposition technique with photolithography for the patterning. The image is produced by exposing the printed paste through a photomask to define either lines or vias, so that a very high resolution (50 (µm pitch), similar to that available in MCM‐D or MCM‐L, can be achieved. This paper describes the processing of the photoimageable dielectric and conductor pastes. As an example of the capability of this technology, a module for electro‐optical interconnection is presented.
I. Born, D. Detemmerman, M. Vrana, J. De Baets and A. Van Calster
For many years C‐MAC has used thick film technology in many electronic products for a large range of customer applications. A high degree of integration has been…
For many years C‐MAC has used thick film technology in many electronic products for a large range of customer applications. A high degree of integration has been achievable, together with high reliability. Recently, however, new materials have been developed allowing for a further miniaturization. This paper reports on the development of a multilayer technology, based on the combination of state‐of‐the‐art Fodel® materials with Diffusion Patterning™ dielectric and and standard thick film materials. The combination of such materials allows for the manufacture of high density products, addressing the present and future needs of many new applications. Besides the process technology for manufacturing the substrate, different assembly technologies like dip and reflow soldering and chip and wire bonding have been successfully investigated. In comparison to LTCC, this technology offers the possibility of using only a few layers, therefore allowing for faster product development, more flexibility during manufacturing and optimisation of cost.
S. Zhang, J. De Baets and A. Van Calster
A flip chip on board technology fully compatible with current PCB facilities is reported. It used reflow soldering for chip attachment. It required electroless…
A flip chip on board technology fully compatible with current PCB facilities is reported. It used reflow soldering for chip attachment. It required electroless nickel/immersion gold finishing on the board pads as well as on the chip pads. A no‐clean solder paste was printed on the boards before chip placement. Thus, there was no requirement for solder deposition on the chip side. Assembly tests with various chip formats proved the feasibility of this technology. X‐ray inspection and cross‐sectioning revealed the good shape and alignment of the reflowed solder joints. The reliability of underfilled assemblies was studied by ‐40 to 125°C thermal cycling. This approach is especially suitable for prototype or low volume productions as it eliminates the solder bumping process on the chip side, which is usually performed on the wafer level.
M. Vrana, A. Van Calster, R. Vanden Berghe** and K. Allaert
Thick film screen printing technology is able to reach apitch of 250 μm. In an attempt to achieve lower values, two approaches have been developed so far. Both are based…
Thick film screen printing technology is able to reach a pitch of 250 μm. In an attempt to achieve lower values, two approaches have been developed so far. Both are based on the combination of screen printing as a deposition technique and photolithography for the patterning. The first approach uses photoimageable conductor and dielectric pastes; the second is based on photoimageable dielectric and etching of the fired conductor. In order to obtain a full characterisation of both processes, a test module was designed and manufactured by using the first process and identical test modules were provided by the supplier using the second technology. The design of the test module is based on a two‐layer interconnection pattern including structures for testing cross‐overs, via interconnections with various resolutions (down to 50 μm via size), in order to investigate the limits of these technologies. This paper gives a comparison of these two approaches based on the results of electrical and mechanical measurements performed on both sets of the test modules. Electrical parameters and resolution data are discussed for both processes. The chip and wire assembly method is evaluated to prequalify the technology as an advanced MCM‐C technology for telecoms applications. Finally, the results of reliability tests (humidity ageing and burn‐in) are presented.
Zsolt Illyefalvi‐Vitéz, Alfons Vervaet, André Van Calster, Nihal Sinnadurai, Marko Hrovat, Paul Svasta, Endre Tóth, Darko Belavic, Radu Mihai Ionescu and William Dennehy
The opportunity for mutual benefit across Europe to develop low‐cost MCM technologies arose from recognition of the scientific skills and design and prototyping…
The opportunity for mutual benefit across Europe to develop low‐cost MCM technologies arose from recognition of the scientific skills and design and prototyping capabilities in organic and inorganic circuits in countries of Central Europe. As a result, the leading research institutions and small/medium‐size enterprises of Hungary, Romania and Slovenia together with relevant institutions of the UK and Belgium proposed and received approval for a European Union INCO‐Copernicus project “Cheap multichip models” to establish fast prototyping low cost multichip module (MCM) technology facilities. The project commenced in May 1997.