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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Moshe Sharabi, Brian Polin and Galit Yanay-Ventura

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of social and economic changes, particularly the transition from a collectivistic to an individualistic society, on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of social and economic changes, particularly the transition from a collectivistic to an individualistic society, on the meaning of work (MOW) in Israel.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire probing the MOW domains (economic orientation, intrinsic orientation, interpersonal relations, entitlement and obligation norms and job satisfaction) was conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli labor force in 1981 (n=973) and 2006 (n=898).

Findings

A comparison between the results of the 1981 and 2006 surveys shows a significant increase in economic and intrinsic orientation, and a significant decrease in interpersonal relations orientation, job satisfaction and obligation and entitlement norms. Work centrality remained stable. The demographic factors, especially education, have some impact on the MOW domains.

Practical implications

The transformation of work values reflects the changes in employees’ expectations and needs. Therefore, organizations are compelled to find new material and non-material reward systems and methods to maintain employee commitment, motivation and satisfaction. Various implications for organizations and management are discussed.

Originality/value

This cross-sectional study explores how the combination of economic and social changes is reflected in employees’ job satisfaction and other work values. Furthermore, the study examines the impact of the main demographic factors on the MOW and offers suggestions to gain employees loyalty and commitment based on all the findings.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Amal Al Kharouf and David Weir

The purpose of this paper is to clarify and re‐position the debate on the role of women in employment in the Arab Middle East by drawing on the findings of empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify and re‐position the debate on the role of women in employment in the Arab Middle East by drawing on the findings of empirical research to critique the paradigm of “neo‐patriarchy” defined by Sharabi and used uncritically by others.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the literature on neo‐patriarchy is followed by some findings from an empirical study of 197 women in the Jordanian labour market, from a sample drawn on a population basis.

Findings

The findings indicate generally positive attitudes towards the employment of women and to the involvement of husbands in employment decisions, and to a slight preference on the part of managers for women as employees.

Research limitations/implications

These findings need to be supplemented by more intensive studies in work situations and by case‐studies of specific employment sites.

Practical implications

The attitudes of women in Jordan are in general positive towards employment and policy is evolving accordingly.

Originality/value

These findings point to the limitations of the “neo‐patriarchy” discourse and to the likelihood that the employment situations of women in Jordan do not need to be characterized by the discourse of under‐development and traditionalism.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 4 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

K.J. Lewis, J.H. Aklian, A. Sharaby and J.D. Zook

Explains corrosion protection and how it works. Discusses the effect of environmental legislation on corrosion protective paints, which necessitates the removal of…

Abstract

Explains corrosion protection and how it works. Discusses the effect of environmental legislation on corrosion protective paints, which necessitates the removal of solvents and toxic additives, making the protection weaker. In order to remedy this one must determine how protection is provided, which involves the separation of barrier properties and electrochemical passivation. Describes methods and tests involved in this and discusses the results. Concludes with recommendations and a suggestion for further tests.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 68 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 8 December 2016

Khalid Arar

Following Starratt’s (1991) proposed conceptual framework for ethical leadership that is no longer defined as a style or an attitude, but as the basis for moral dimensions…

Abstract

Following Starratt’s (1991) proposed conceptual framework for ethical leadership that is no longer defined as a style or an attitude, but as the basis for moral dimensions and actions that can be developed and based on the ethics of care, critique, and justice, this chapter traces the following questions: (a) How does cultural and social context influence the meaning and practices of unethical leadership in the school? (b) How do principals and vice-principals preserve and interpret their unethical practices? Using Langlois’s interview guide on ethical dilemmas (1997), 10 interviews were conducted with school principals and vice-principals in the Arab education system in Israel. The chapter presents unethical behaviors emerging from content analysis of the interviews such as personal development versus loyalty to others (unethical behaviors that are related to managing staff underperformance or appointing candidate teachers); or loyalty to my minority-society or to the government. The chapter fosters better understanding of both national specificities and universal commonalities associated with unethical leadership, as well as of the cultural and social characteristics that facilitate or hinder the development of ethical leadership, and finally explains some approaches to leadership that would improve the practice.

Details

The Dark Side of Leadership: Identifying and Overcoming Unethical Practice in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-499-0

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Gyan Prakash

The purpose of this paper is to understand the meaning and operationalisation of quality of service (QoS) in the context of higher education institutions (HEIs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the meaning and operationalisation of quality of service (QoS) in the context of higher education institutions (HEIs).

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review of 167 articles published in various peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2019 is performed.

Findings

The findings reveal that around 40 dimensions have been used to conceptualise QoS in HEIs. Reliability followed by responsiveness, tangibility, empathy, assurance, programme design, academic and non-academic processes, reputation and facilities have received the highest attention. The most popular approach is empirical, and surveys and single-context studies are the most popular methods. The United Kingdom (UK) leads research on quality in HEIs, followed by the United States of America (USA) and India.

Research limitations/implications

This paper contributes to the body of knowledge by presenting a comprehensive synthesis of articles addressing QoS in HEIs.

Practical implications

Policymakers and academic administrators can use the findings of this study to conceptualise student satisfaction along the educational value chain. The discussion on HEIs’ and students’ perspectives will help policymakers create teaching excellence.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the body of knowledge by presenting a unified synthesis of various strands of the literature on QoS in HEIs.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Caroline Ann Rowland, Roger David Hall and Ikhlas Altarawneh

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational strategy, performance management and training and development in the context of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational strategy, performance management and training and development in the context of the Jordanian banking sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Models of strategic human resource management developed in the west are considered for their relevance in Jordan. A mixed methods approach is adopted employing interviews with senior managers and training and development managers, employee questionnaires and documentary analysis. It examines all banks in Jordan including foreign and Islamic banks.

Findings

Findings indicate that training and development is not driven by human resource strategy and that it is reactive rather than proactive. Training and development does improve skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors but there is little evidence that it increases commitment and satisfaction nor that it contributes to strategic aims in any significant way. The linkages between strategy and training and development are not explicit and strategies are not interpreted through performance management systems. Consequently there is a lack of integration in organizational HR systems and the measurable contribution of training and development to competitive advantage is minimal

Practical implications

The paper offers suggestions as to how greater integration between strategy, performance management and training and development might be achieved in the Jordanian context.

Originality/value

This paper is the first detailed empirical study of training and development in Jordan to include considerations of transferability of western models to an Arab culture.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

AAhad M. Osman‐Gani, Junaidah Hashim and Yusof Ismail

This paper aims to examine the impact of religiosity and spirituality on employee performance in multi‐cultural and multi‐religious organisations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of religiosity and spirituality on employee performance in multi‐cultural and multi‐religious organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted Religiosity Personality Index (MRPI) by Azimi et al., Spirituality Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS) by Hatch et al., and Performance Measures by Sarmiento et al. The performance data was collected from employees, peers, and supervisors. The study administered and received all the 435 completed sets of questionnaires (435 employees, 870 peers, and 435 supervisors).

Findings

SEM analysis showed that religiosity and spirituality have a significant positive relationship with employees’ performance. Better spiritual condition improves performance. Religion functions as a moderating variable in employees’ job performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study has extended the knowledge of spirituality in the workplace by confirming that spirituality is more significant than religiosity in influencing employees’ performance. Religion, however, moderates spirituality‐performance relationship.

Practical implications

Based on the empirical findings of this study, organizations may formulate new policies and strategies for improving employee performance by allowing and encouraging spiritual activities in the workplace irrespective of religious and spiritual beliefs, thereby facilitating understanding and mutual respect. A culture of respect for diversity of beliefs and faiths should be cultivated in the workplace by enforcing appropriate codes of conduct as well as instilling values of tolerance, respect and compassion, which would result in more productive teamwork and improved performance.

Originality/value

This is the only study that measured the impact of religiosity and spirituality on employees’ performance using three different sources of data: employees, peers, and supervisors.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2008

Khalil M. Dirani

The aim of this chapter is to study individualism and collectivism as two construct indicators of social patterns in Lebanon using Triandis's (1995) framework of…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to study individualism and collectivism as two construct indicators of social patterns in Lebanon using Triandis's (1995) framework of individualism and collectivism. This study explores the Lebanese autostereotypes and views of their extreme individualism and collectivism compared to the common opinion held by cross-cultural research. The study sheds light on how social patterns of different Lebanese individuals are distributed across four “cultural syndromes,” namely vertical and horizontal collectivism and vertical and horizontal individualism. These four social patterns will be tested against various contextual factors such as age, gender, and education. The results may provide a better idea for managers and human resources practitioners of how to prepare training and evaluation programs for their employees. Findings from 161 respondents showed that the subjects tested tended to be individualistic in their choices, and this suggests that the classification in the literature of the Lebanese as collectivists was based on the fact that there was no evidence to the contrary. Also, results showed a positive correlation between sociodemographic measures (gender, age, education, income, occupation, and location) and individualism. The author argues that these findings might have been the result of the evolution of the Lebanese family in the past 25 years. Suggestions for the use of these results in management and human resources practices and theory are given.

Details

The Global Diffusion of Human Resource Practices: Institutional and Cultural Limits
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1401-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Ayala Malach Pines

Since the 1970s, occupational burnout has become a popular topic of research and an important concern for career counsellors. The majority of studies on burnout focussed…

Abstract

Since the 1970s, occupational burnout has become a popular topic of research and an important concern for career counsellors. The majority of studies on burnout focussed on documenting its existence within certain occupational groups. The assumption underlying these studies is that occupational burnout is a universal phenomenon that can be best explained by the stresses characterising a particular occupation or organisation. Few studies examined burnout cross‐culturally. The present study attempted to demonstrate the importance of such a cross‐cultural perspective using a comparison between Israeli Jews and Arabs, who live in the same country but are culturally different: Arabs traditional and collectivist, Jews modern and individualistic. Interviews with representative samples of the Jewish and Arab populations in Israel show significant differences in occupational burnout and various burnout correlates. Thus, Arabs’ burnout correlated negatively with the quality of relationships with mother and father, Jews’ with superiors and co‐workers. Arabs were significantly less likely than Jews to talk about a work‐related problem or approach a counsellor. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications for career counselling.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Mohammed S. Al-kahtani, Lutful Karim and Nargis Khan

Designing an efficient routing protocol that opportunistically forwards data to the destination node through nearby sensor nodes or devices is significantly important for…

Abstract

Designing an efficient routing protocol that opportunistically forwards data to the destination node through nearby sensor nodes or devices is significantly important for an effective incidence response and disaster recovery framework. Existing sensor routing protocols are mostly not effective in such disaster recovery applications as the networks are affected (destroyed or overused) in disasters such as earthquake, flood, Tsunami and wildfire. These protocols require a large number of message transmissions to reestablish the clusters and communications that is not energy efficient and result in packet loss. This paper introduces ODCR - an energy efficient and reliable opportunistic density clustered-based routing protocol for such emergency sensor applications. We perform simulation to measure the performance of ODCR protocol in terms of network energy consumptions, throughput and packet loss ratio. Simulation results demonstrate that the ODCR protocol is much better than the existing TEEN, LEACH and LORA protocols in term of these performance metrics.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

Keywords

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