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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

M.L. Emiliani and P.J. Seymour

The purpose of this paper is to introduce management historians to the long‐forgotten work of Frank George Woollard (1883‐1957), who in the mid‐1920s established flow…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce management historians to the long‐forgotten work of Frank George Woollard (1883‐1957), who in the mid‐1920s established flow production in the British motor industry, and its remarkable similarity to current‐day production principles and practices used by Toyota Motor Corporation, also known as lean production.

Design/methodology/approach

Overview of Frank Woollard's life and work obtained from newly discovered journal papers, his 1954 book, Principles of Mass and Flow Production, newly discovered archives, and new first‐hand testimony from a close friend and from a long‐time family friend.

Findings

Frank Woollard was a pioneer in the establishment of flow production in the British motor industry in the mid‐1920s and the principal developer of automatic transfer machinery. His accomplishments are comparable to Taiichi Ohno, regarded as the architect of Toyota's production system.

Research limitations/implications

Woollard's accomplishments in flow production are a fruitful area for future research given the speed and completeness with which flow production was established at Morris Motors Ltd, Engines Branch. Newly discovered papers describing his flow production system have yet to be studied in detail by academics.

Practical implications

Woollard's application of flow production beginning in 1923 means that timelines for discoveries and attributions of key accomplishments in lean management must be reexamined and revised.

Originality/value

Woollard's work fills important gaps in the literature on the history of flow production generally and in the British motor industry in particular. His work constitutes an early application of current‐day lean principles and practices, and is therefore noteworthy and relevant to management historians and the operations and production management community. It is hoped that this paper will inspire management historians to study Woollard's work and place him in the context of other early twentieth‐century pioneers in industrial management and flow production.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2008

Maria de Fatima Oliveira

This paper seeks to investigate Philip Morris's responses to a decade‐long crisis through the analysis of its CEO's speeches. It also aims to reveal the rich potential of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to investigate Philip Morris's responses to a decade‐long crisis through the analysis of its CEO's speeches. It also aims to reveal the rich potential of corporate speeches as examples of crisis management strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 67 speeches of Philip Morris's CEO are analyzed using centering resonance analysis. The data are also cluster‐ and factor‐analyzed. Combining quantitative and qualitative examination of the dataset provides a broader understanding of the organization's rhetoric strategies.

Findings

Philip Morris's CEO crafted specific frames and image repair strategies to fit different stages of the crisis. The frames and restorations strategies used are, respectively: profitable multinational bolstering, minimization, and attack the accuser (1994‐1996); litigation target, transcendence (1997‐1998); and corporate good citizen, bolstering and transcendence (1999‐2001).

Research limitations/implications

The paper highlights the significance of corporate speeches as a fully controlled form of corporate discourse that reveals strategic frames and communication tactics. Future research should concentrate on comparing such messages with other important actors' discourse.

Practical implications

The paper draws attention to the role of lawyers and other actors in defining crisis management strategies as well as emphasizing that corporate values may not be accepted by the entire society, yet may meet the expectations of specific stakeholders.

Originality/value

This paper combines qualitative and quantitative analysis to investigate a rich source of corporate communication: top management speeches. The study underscores how rhetoric strategies can play for time during crisis, but are limited in changing inherently bad products into socially acceptable ones.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 4 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1973

John Donaldson, President, J.H. Arkell and H. Roberts

September 21, 1973 Industrial Relations — Unfair dismissal — Compensation — Method of assessment in cases of pressure — Employee in arrears with union dues — Union…

Abstract

September 21, 1973 Industrial Relations — Unfair dismissal — Compensation — Method of assessment in cases of pressure — Employee in arrears with union dues — Union threatening strike action if employee working with dues unpaid — Employee unfairly dismissed — Whether author of own wrong — Whether entitled to compensation — Industrial Relations Act, 1971 (c. 72),ss. 33(1) (2), 116,119.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Book part
Publication date: 7 September 2012

James Langenfeld and Brad Noffsker

In a number of recent multi-billion dollar cases brought against cigarette manufacturers, plaintiffs have in part alleged that the cigarette manufacturers (1) conspired…

Abstract

In a number of recent multi-billion dollar cases brought against cigarette manufacturers, plaintiffs have in part alleged that the cigarette manufacturers (1) conspired not to compete on the basis of health claims or the introduction of potentially safer cigarettes since the 1950s, and (2) engaged in fraudulent advertising by making implied health claims in advertisements selling ‘low tar’/‘light’ cigarettes. In this type of litigation, defendants’ actions could be due to alleged illegal behaviour as asserted by plaintiffs, or be the result of market forces that may have nothing to do with allegedly inappropriate acts. We examine the economic evidence relating to these allegations, taking into account some of the major influences on cigarette company behaviour. In particular, our analyses show that much of the cigarette manufactures’ behaviour can be explained by Federal Trade Commission and related government actions, rather than conspiracy or fraudulent acts. We find the economic evidence is inconsistent with an effective conspiracy to suppress information on either smoking and health or the development and marketing of potentially safer cigarettes. Regarding ‘lower tar’ and ‘light’ cigarettes, the economic evidence indicates that the cigarette manufacturers responded to government and public health initiatives, and that disclosing more information on smoking compensation earlier than the cigarette companies did would not have had any significant impact on smoking behaviour.

Details

Research in Law and Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-898-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1976

Herbert Morris and Hydrovane outwardly have little in common. One is a long established cranemaker which five years ago faced a bleak future. The other is a relative…

Abstract

Herbert Morris and Hydrovane outwardly have little in common. One is a long established cranemaker which five years ago faced a bleak future. The other is a relative newcomer to the compressor business, with a continuous growth and profit record. Yet they — and countless other companies in the UK — share the same management determination to keep industry alive and kicking in the face of current adversity. Reports by Ken Gooding and Chris Phillips.

Details

Industrial Management, vol. 76 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-6929

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Book part
Publication date: 29 March 2014

Abstract

Details

The Sustainability of Restorative Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-754-2

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Morris B. Holbrook

Abstract

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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-723-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1939

A.R. Collar

IN the May issue of AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING Captain J. Morris describes a method for the solution of linear algebraic equations by iteration. The main objects of the present…

Abstract

IN the May issue of AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING Captain J. Morris describes a method for the solution of linear algebraic equations by iteration. The main objects of the present note are to show how the statement of the method and the proof of its convergence may be greatly condensed by the use of matrices, and to indicate an alternative computational scheme which involves far less recording of numbers, and therefore less risk of error, than that proposed by Morris.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2009

Giandomenica Becchio

For better understanding the connections between the Viennese circles in which Menger was involved, it is necessary to make some remarks on the Viennese context where they…

Abstract

For better understanding the connections between the Viennese circles in which Menger was involved, it is necessary to make some remarks on the Viennese context where they developed. Since the end of the 19th century up to the interwar period, Vienna was a very lively city from a cultural point of view, the birthplace of modernism (Janik & Toulmin, 1973). In the age of the late Habsburg monarchy as well as in the post-First War ‘Red Vienna’, the intellectual, scientific and artistic life of the Austrian capital was so fervent that those years are recalled by historians as the Viennese Enlightenment, the gay apocalypse and the golden autumn: ‘two generations were enough to cover the whole period. The economist Carl Menger (1841–1920) shaped the beginning, and his son, the mathematician Karl Menger (1902–1985), witnessed the end’ (Golland & Sigmund, 2000, p. 34). After the First World War, from an economic point of view, a high inflation overwhelmed the country; while from a political point of view, ‘the new Austria was fragmented and labyrinthine’ (Leonard, 1998, p. 6): the Christian socialists were the conservative part of the society, but one third of citizens supported the new social-democratic party, which had the majority in Vienna.

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Unexplored Dimensions: Karl Mengeron Economics and Philosophy (1923–1938)
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-998-1

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Nimruji Jammulamadaka

The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the Bombay textile mills of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to provide an account of the roots of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the Bombay textile mills of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to provide an account of the roots of business–society relationship in India and contribute to postcolonial perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR). This search is premised on the understanding that India has embarked on industrialisation from a set of productive relations that differ from European feudalism.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study have been obtained from published works on Bombay Textile Mills such as Chandavarkar (1994, 2008), Morris (1965), Wolcott (2008) and Clark (1999) and some Annual Reports of Bombay Mill Owners Association. Further Kydd (1920) has been used for history of factory legislation in India.

Findings

Evidence suggests that practices in mills were informed by notions of custom and fairness, which resulted in flexible hours, socially acceptable wage outcomes and work sharing. Individual reputations built through use of discretion within networks of patronage spanned both workplace and neighbourhood, interlinking the social, ethical, political and economic lives of owners, jobbers and workers. Jobbers’ authority was earned in return for providing support to a production process, mirroring Birla’s (2009) “layered sovereignty” differing markedly from delegated managerial authority. Workers’ share in surplus value was important along with autonomy, both of which were negotiated through customary networks and protest.

Research limitations/implications

The paper suggests that a postcolonial approach to CSR implies an expansive notion of responsibility that goes beyond a Western focus on wages to encompass worker autonomy and countervailing power. Postcolonial accounts of CSR history can only be understood as emerging from a triadic interaction of imperial interest, subordinated native business and native societal relationships. This contrasts with conventional approaches that look at CSR’s emergence simply as a process internal to that society. Account of Indian CSR trajectory is in part a journey of native business from responsible practices to a messy tessellation of legal exploitation and illegal customary concerns.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper suggest that it is possible that customary practices of care and concern might still be surviving in Indian business even if only in the illegal and informal realm. Thus CSR programs in the Indian context might be useful to bring to centre stage these customary practices.

Originality/value

This study documents the evolution of business–society relations in a post-colonial context and shows how they are different from the Western trajectory.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

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