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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Deborah L. Kidder, Melenie J. Lankau, Donna Chrobot‐Mason, Kelly A. Mollica and Raymond A. Friedman

This study used a scenario design to examine whether there are different reactions among whites based on how a diversity program is justified by an organization. A

Abstract

This study used a scenario design to examine whether there are different reactions among whites based on how a diversity program is justified by an organization. A reactive justification (affirmative action) was proposed to result in greater backlash than a competitive advantage justification (diversity management). In addition, this study examined the effects of personal and group outcomes on backlash and explored two individual difference variables, gender and orientation toward other ethnic groups, as potential moderators of the proposed relationships. Backlash was operationalized in four ways: an affect‐based measure (negative emotions), two cognitive‐based measures (attitude toward the diversity program, perceptions of unfairness of promotion procedures), and a behavioral‐intentions‐based measure (organizational commitment). Results indicated that the diversity management justification was associated with more favorable support of the diversity initiative, and that unfavorable personal and group outcomes adversely affected backlash reactions. There was no empirical support for the influence of the moderator variables on the proposed relationships, however, a main effect for gender was found. Implications of the study's findings and future research directions are discussed.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/eb007296. When citing the…

Abstract

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/eb007296. When citing the article, please cite: C. Wrubl, A. Mollica, U. Montini, A. Litigio, (1991), “Corrosion performance of cataphoretically painted specimens: A comparison between salt spray and continuous immersion tests”, Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Vol. 38 Iss: 6, pp. 11 - 15.

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

C. Wrubl, M. Fassin, A. Buffoli and A. Mollica

In the present work, the protective properties of inhibitive pigments in two epoxy‐primers against corrosion of the aluminium alloy 2024T3 in marine atmosphere were…

Abstract

In the present work, the protective properties of inhibitive pigments in two epoxy‐primers against corrosion of the aluminium alloy 2024T3 in marine atmosphere were investigated, the first containing SrCrO4 and the second Zn3(PO4)2. Potentiostatic polarisation and impedance measurement methods were utilised to evaluate, both the spontaneous onset of defects on coated samples and the propagation of a small artificial defect of known dimension applied since the beginning of the test on each sample, during 24 months of exposure to the marine atmosphere. These techniques enabled a quantitative evaluation of the protective efficiency of the two primers to be made, and for the effects of the surface pre‐treatments of the metallic substrate to be investigated.

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Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1991

C. Wrubl, A. Mollica, U. Montini and A. Litigio

The salt‐spray test is still today often utilized to control the anticorrosive performance of paints applied on metallic substrates. The time required for this test method…

Abstract

The salt‐spray test is still today often utilized to control the anticorrosive performance of paints applied on metallic substrates. The time required for this test method is much shorter than that necessary to carry out the atmospheric exposure test (some weeks instead of many years). Nevertheless the results provided by the salt spray test are only qualitative and their extrapolability to the real behaviour of the paint system's film‐metallic substrate is very difficult. Moreover, in some cases there is a discrepancy between the results of the salt spray test and the reality; for instance, it was observed some time ago that hot‐dip galvanized steel constitutes a better substrate for paints than bare steel, whereas the salt spray test results indicate the contrary. The present work represents only a part of a more conspicuous set of observations devoted to a comparison of laboratory and field results. In this first stage we examined, by means of salt spray and total immersion tests, the behaviour of bare steel and hot‐dip galvanized steel substrates, both phosphatized and coated by the same paint. The aim of this work was to ascertain if the results of the two methods are in accordance and, moreover, to compare the qualitative information given by the salt spray tests with those, quantitative, obtained by the electrode impedance technique on specimens immersed in 3% NaCl solution. By means of this technique it is possible to determine at the same time the values of the paint film resistance, of its capacitance, of the polarisation resistance and of the double layer pseudocapacitance related to the corrosion taking place on the metallic substrate and to ascertain the eventual intervention of diffusive phenomena into the corrosive process. Finally, this electrochemical method, because its non‐destructive nature, permits one to observe the variation of the values of overmentioned parameters as a function of time and therefore to interpret the evolution of the corrosion process.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2012

Susan C. Schneider, Patricia Garcia-Prieto Chevalier and Veronique Tran

Although there is growing acknowledgment of the business case for diversity, efforts to recognize diversity as a strategic issue and to implement diversity initiatives…

Abstract

Although there is growing acknowledgment of the business case for diversity, efforts to recognize diversity as a strategic issue and to implement diversity initiatives have often been thwarted. We note that diversity is a “hot” issue not only because of the increasing attention being paid by both academics and practitioners, but also because of its potential to evoke strong emotions. We argue that “diversity” makes salient different identities (organizational, group, and individual) leading to different interpretations that can evoke specific emotional and behavioral reactions. This may help to explain whether top management teams identify and invest in diversity as a strategic issue, and whether diversity initiatives are supported or resisted by different groups and individuals throughout the organization. Thus it is important for global leaders to understand the role of identities in how diversity as a strategic issue may be interpreted and responded to by key decision-makers as well as those concerned with the implementation of diversity initiatives.

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Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-002-5

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Reena Sachan and Ajay Kumar Singh

The purpose of this study is to investigate microbial influenced corrosion of steel because of iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate microbial influenced corrosion of steel because of iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB).

Design/methodology/approach

Carbon steel was selected for this study. Winogradsky media was used for isolation of IOB and as test solution for corrosion measurements. Electrochemical tests and immersion test were conducted to estimate the corrosion rate and extent of pitting. The corroded surface was analysed by SEM and corrosion products formed over the metal surface were identified by XRD and Fourier transformed infrared. Biofilm formed over the corroded metal was analysed by UV-visible spectroscopy for its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) constituents.

Findings

Presence of IOB in Winogradsky medium enhances corrosion. Uniform and localized corrosion increases with increased bacterial concentration and EPS constituents of the biofilm. Iron sulphite formation as one of the corrosion products has been suggested to be responsible for increased corrosion attack in the inoculated media in comparison to control media where corrosion product observed is iron hydrogen phosphate which is protective in nature.

Originality/value

This work correlates increased corrosion of steel in the presence of bacteria with the nature of corrosion products formed over it in case of IOB. Formation of corrosion products is governed by various electrochemical reactions; hence, inhibition of such reactions may lead to reduce or stop the formation of such products which enhances corrosion and thereby may reduce the extent of microbial induced corrosion.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Korbkul Jantarakolica and Tatre Jantarakolica

The rapid change of technology has significantly affected the financial markets in Thailand. In order to enhance the market efficiency and liquidity, the Stock Exchange of…

Abstract

The rapid change of technology has significantly affected the financial markets in Thailand. In order to enhance the market efficiency and liquidity, the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) has granted Thai stock brokers permission to develop and offer their customers algorithm and automatic stock trading. However, algorithm trading on SET was not widely adopted. This chapter intends to design and empirically estimate a model in explaining Thai investors’ acceptance of algorithm trading. The theoretical framework is based on the theory of reasoned action and technology acceptance model (TAM). A sample of 400 investors who have used online stock trading and 300 investors who have used algorithm stock trading were observed and analyzed using structural equations model (SEM) and generalized linear regression model (GLM) with a Logit specification. The results confirm that attitudes, subjective norm, perceived risks, and trust toward algorithm stock trading are factors determining investors’ behavior and acceptance of using algorithm stock trading. Investor’s perception and trust on algorithm stock trading as a trading strategy is a major factor in determining their perceived behavior and control, which affect their decision on whether to invest using algorithm trading. Accordingly, it can be concluded that Thai investors is willing to accept algorithm trading as a new financial technology, but still has concern about the reliability and profitable of this new stock trading strategy. Therefore, algorithm trading can be promoted by building investors’ trust on algorithm trading as a reliable and profitable trading strategy.

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Banking and Finance Issues in Emerging Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-453-4

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2020

Ian Blount and Delmonize Smith

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of employee homogeneity on the financial performance of minority business enterprises (MBEs). It is widely…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of employee homogeneity on the financial performance of minority business enterprises (MBEs). It is widely postulated that MBEs tend to hire minorities that resemble the ethnicity of the founder(s) and that this is beneficial by helping to decrease minority unemployment rates as well as providing new opportunities to minorities that they might not otherwise receive at White-owned firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used hierarchical linear regression on archival data of 271 MBEs to determine if employee homogeneity will be a factor in understanding their financial performance. The authors also conducted exploratory interviews with a convenience sample of MBEs to gain insight into the concept of employee homophily.

Findings

The research uncovered that as homogeneity increases, MBE financial performance decreases, and this effect is more pronounced the longer the MBE is in business.

Research limitations/implications

The data set is cross-sectional in nature and lack the perspective and clarity of time. The paper only contains a small set of exploratory interviews. The most significant implication from the study is that a lack of diversity decreases the long-term financial viability of MBEs which is to counter mainstream arguments that speak only to the positive aspects of MBEs hiring their own.

Originality/value

The research builds on the scant literature on the impact of diversity within MBEs. It also provides guidance to MBEs by suggesting they be strategic in diversifying their employee base in order to improve performance.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2015

Amy Klemm Verbos, Deanna M. Kennedy, Joseph S. Gladstone and Carolyn Birmingham

The purpose of this paper is to develop two new constructs (career self-schemas and career locus) and present a conceptual model of the influence of Native American…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop two new constructs (career self-schemas and career locus) and present a conceptual model of the influence of Native American culture on MBA fit.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a social cognitive lens on career theory, the authors examine the possible effects of cultural influences on the fit between Native Americans’ career goals and an MBA. Specifically, the authors propose that cultural factors contribute to career self-schemas inconsistent with Native American perceptions of business graduate education. Career self-schemas are an individual’s cognitive map of the self in his or her career.

Findings

The conceptual model proposes that aspects of career self-schemas may explain lagging Native Americans’ MBA fit: the MBA is culturally inconsistent, and a community career locus.

Research limitations/implications

The model needs to be tested empirically. This research has implications that extend beyond Native Americans to help explain the career aspirations of other diverse groups.

Social implications

Native Americans are, in recent years, engaging in economic development that would benefit from Native Americans with MBAs. The authors make recommendations for increasing Native American interest in MBA programs.

Originality/value

This paper introduces the constructs of career self-schemas and career locus to explain lagging MBA fit for Native Americans. The constructs may also be applied in other cultures and with other ethnic groups to explain differences in career choice. It may be particularly helpful in an international context.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Natnael Terefe Arega

Thousands of Eritrean youth flee due to extreme domestic discontent with Eritrean Government. Little research has been done on Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Thousands of Eritrean youth flee due to extreme domestic discontent with Eritrean Government. Little research has been done on Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia. The purpose of this paper is to explore the difficulties facing Eritrean refugees in the Shimelba Refugee Camp in northern Ethiopia. The study explores the refugees’ pre-migration experiences as well as their life difficulties in the refugee camp.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed a cross-sectional qualitative approach. Relevant data were collected through personal interviews with a sample of 15 refugees. The study was also supplemented by the researcher’s personal observations regarding the living conditions of the refugees in the camp.

Findings

Gross human rights violations at home forced the Eritreans to flee in to Ethiopia. Refugees reported their experiences of arrest, torture, and abuse, due to their dissenting political and religious opinions. Moreover, they fled Eritrea to escape harsh compulsory conscription into the Eritrean military service. Unemployment and lack of income were also important push factors. Factors identified as threats to the psychosocial health of refugees at the refugee camp include the feeling of isolation, the absolute uncertainty of the future, fears concerning the safety of the family left behind, the strictness of the structure within the camp, and the fear of health-related problems associated with the limited health care facilities.

Research limitations/implications

Further research investigating the mental health problems of the refugees employing quantitative methods is needed. Also, research about the potential avenues for ameliorating the challenges faced by these refugees is desirable.

Originality/value

This paper gives an insight to the situation of Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia, which includes the reasons why they flee Eritrea, their experiences during flight, and the conditions in which Eritrean refugees live in the camp from the point of view of the refugees themselves. Understanding the challenges facing the refugees has implications for how short- and long-term policies can be altered to better serve them.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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