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IT IS A COMMONPLACE that there has been, since the second world war, a massive increase in the use of public libraries in Britain. This has been supported by substantial…
IT IS A COMMONPLACE that there has been, since the second world war, a massive increase in the use of public libraries in Britain. This has been supported by substantial increases in stock, staff and accommodation. These quantitative developments will benefit from the mechanisation of certain library processes and the application of management theory to library organisation and routines. The 1964 Act introduced the principle of government supervision and specific national standards, and the reform of local government structure will also provide a much improved framework for further development.
Presents the use of libraries as gateways providing the patron with access to the commercial vendor. Outlines the methods employed by the Mann Library at Cornell…
Presents the use of libraries as gateways providing the patron with access to the commercial vendor. Outlines the methods employed by the Mann Library at Cornell University and the Telnet gateway. Considers security, authorization and authentication and connection servers for Web databases. Concludes that there are many issues still to be addressed, including patron privacy and central standards.
Disparities in transplant rates across social categories provide limited information about gatekeeping processes in access to kidney transplantation. We hypothesized that…
Disparities in transplant rates across social categories provide limited information about gatekeeping processes in access to kidney transplantation. We hypothesized that early opportunities for discussion of kidney transplantation potentially generate social capital that serves as a resource for patients as they navigate the transplantation pathway.
A national sample of first-year dialysis patients was surveyed and asked if kidney transplantation had been discussed with them before and after starting dialysis treatment. Associations between reported discussion and patient-specific clinical and nonclinical (sociodemographic) indicators of attributed utility for transplantation were investigated, and the association of reported transplant discussion with subsequent transplant waitlisting was analyzed.
Time to placement on the kidney transplant waiting list was significantly shorter for patients who reported that transplantation had been discussed with them before, as well as after, starting dialysis. Likelihood of reported discussion varied by patient age, employment and insurance status, cardiovascular comorbidity burden, and perceived health status; in addition, women were less likely to report early discussion.
It would be valuable to know more about the nature of the transplant discussions recalled by patients to better understand how social capital may be fostered through these discussions.
Indicators of attributed utility for successful transplantation were associated with transplant discussion both before and after starting dialysis, potentially contributing to observed disparities in access to kidney transplantation.
Predialysis nephrology care and patient participation in discussion of kidney transplantation may foster social capital that facilitates navigating the transplantation pathway.
Not many weeks back, according to newspaper reports, three members of the library staff of the School of Slavonic and East European Studies in London were dismissed. All had refused to carry out issue desk duty. All, according to the newspaper account, were members of ASTMS. None, according to the Library Association yearbook, was a member of the appropriate professional organisation for librarians in Great Britain.
FIRST, one or two naive questions. For example, “What is this public library?” or “What is it for?”. They are questions one could imagine a being from another planet might…
FIRST, one or two naive questions. For example, “What is this public library?” or “What is it for?”. They are questions one could imagine a being from another planet might ask. When one has been associated with something over a long period of time it is both difficult and, useful to consider it from a fresh and detached point of view.
The thesis of this book is that library measurement needs to move on and away from the idea that it is a process of counting and comparing the resources deployed by our…
The thesis of this book is that library measurement needs to move on and away from the idea that it is a process of counting and comparing the resources deployed by our libraries. The current emphasis on output measurement is an improvement but not the answer, refreshing as it is to judge a library by the quantity of what comes out instead of by the quantity of what is put in. The author believes that the nature of the library service is that of a “broad aim” social programme, best judged (evaluated) by gathering “politically significant information on the consequences of political acts”. “Political” here implies that the aims and intentions of those funding, organising and using libraries arise from more than one set of social values and from more than one definition of what the library is, and that they differ in priorities even when they do not directly conflict. Information about the library service will be in the form of a spectrum of measures reflecting the inputs, the processes, the outputs and the impact of the library, relating the various values in various ways. The difficulty in measuring library services, it is argued here, arises from the conflicts and lack of clarity about the aims of the service, and from uncertainty about how the process affects the outcomes. The technical problems of measurement are secondary. Chapter One aims to survey the range of measures available, whilst the rest of the book discusses how they might be used.
TWICE WITHIN THREE days recently I was asked to give my opinion on the character and suitability of candidates applying for professional posts in children's libraries. In…
TWICE WITHIN THREE days recently I was asked to give my opinion on the character and suitability of candidates applying for professional posts in children's libraries. In one instance only was I asked to mention the candidate's interest in and knowledge of children's literature. At first this occasioned a mild surprise, but then, on reflection, I could recall no instance ever of my being asked whether a candidate knew anything at all about adult literature. Why is it that librarians working in children's libraries are expected to have taken a course in children's literature, when those who are concerned with library services for their parents are rarely questioned about their knowledge of adult books, apart from a perfunctory enquiry or two at interview on the books they themselves have read lately?
Duringthe last century, the growth and increasing complexity of our industry has brought about a radical change in the pattern of its development. The improvement of production processes by trial and error, and their control by secrecy, have given way to a conscious application of science and the free exchange of knowledge. The latest evidence of this is the series of reports issued by the teams that have visited the U.S.A. under the auspices of the Anglo‐American Productivity Council. Several factors have contributed to this change. Advances leading to greater specialization have produced an enormous accumulation of detailed knowledge in many fields; yet at the same time, the progress of science shows that no part of Nature exists in isolation: each part penetrates and is penetrated by others. The squandering of natural resources, and the erection of artificial trade barriers, mean that access to raw materials has become more difficult, and substitutes must be sought. Mass production methods mean the breaking‐up of a whole production process into unit operations, with the introduction of more and more standardization. Whereas in former times processes were often peculiar to one works and could only be learnt in that works, nowadays a process and a machine developed for one industry often find application in others, since unit operations in a flow line are much more easily interchangeable than complete processes. For example, in printing, straight lines are produced by inking the edges of thin strips of metal or ‘rules’; this process has been borrowed, and sharp rules are used for producing cuts and scores in sheets of cardboard, in the manufacture of folding cardboard boxes.