Search results

1 – 10 of 204
Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 28 January 2022

Michael Cohen

Prejudice against Jews was part of the landscape in the Union of South Africa long before Nazism made inroads into the country during the 1930s, at which stage Jews…

Abstract

Prejudice against Jews was part of the landscape in the Union of South Africa long before Nazism made inroads into the country during the 1930s, at which stage Jews constituted approximately 4.6% of the country’s white (or European) population. Aggressive Afrikaner nationalism was marked by fervent attempts to proscribe Jewish immigration. By 1939, Jewish immigration was included as an official plank in the political platform of the opposition Purified National Party led by Dr D.F. Malan, along with a ban on party membership for Jews residents in the Transvaal province. Racial discrimination, in a country with diversified ethnic elements and intense political complexities, was synonymous with life in the Union long before the Apartheid system, with its official policy of enforced legal, political and economic segregation, became law in May 1948 under Dr Malan’s prime ministership. Although the Jews, while maintaining their own subcultural identity, were classified within South Africa’s racial hierarchy as part of the privileged white minority, the emergence of recurrent anti-Jewish stereotypes and themes became manifest in a country permeated by the ideology of race and white superiority. This was exacerbated by the growth of a powerful Afrikaner nationalist movement, underpinned by conservative Calvinist theology. This chapter focusses on measures taken in South Africa by organisational structures within the political sphere to restrict Jewish immigration between 1930 and 1939 and to do so on ethnic grounds. These measures were underscored by radical Afrikaner nationalism, which flew in the face of the principles of ethics and moral judgement.

Details

Transcendent Development: The Ethics of Universal Dignity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-260-7

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2010

Nadja Alim

Despite a long history of psychodynamic therapy interventions with people with learning disabilities and anger problems, there is little evidence that suggests that this…

Abstract

Despite a long history of psychodynamic therapy interventions with people with learning disabilities and anger problems, there is little evidence that suggests that this approach is effective. The present case study explored 18 pychodynamic therapy sessions with an adult with mild learning disabilities and anger problems, investigating therapy outcomes and progress along a nine‐stage Malan (1979) model, as well as analysing therapeutic interactions leading to therapy progression. The patient's progression along Malan stages was explored by a thematic analysis matching therapy sessions to the Malan model. The investigation of therapeutic interactions was achieved by discourse analysis of those therapy sessions indicative of Malan‐Stage progression. The results are discussed and suggestions for future research and practice implications are made.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

C.J. Visser, A.G. Malan and J.P. Meyer

The purpose of this paper is to focus on modeling buoyancy driven viscous flow and heat transfer through saturated packed pebble‐beds via a set of homogeneous…

Downloads
1765

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on modeling buoyancy driven viscous flow and heat transfer through saturated packed pebble‐beds via a set of homogeneous volume‐averaged conservation equations in which local thermal disequilibrium is accounted for.

Design/methodology/approach

The local thermal disequilibrium accounted for refers to the solid and liquid phases differing in temperature in a volume‐averaged sense, which is modeled by describing each phase with its own governing equation. The partial differential equations are discretized and solved via a vertex‐centered edge‐based dual‐mesh finite volume algorithm. A compact stencil is used for viscous terms, as this offers improved accuracy compared to the standard finite volume formulation. A locally preconditioned artificial compressibility solution strategy is employed to deal with pressure incompressibility, whilst stabilisation is achieved via a scalar‐valued artificial dissipation scheme.

Findings

The developed technology is demonstrated via the solution of natural convective flow inside a heated porous axisymmetric cavity. Predicted results were in general within 10 per cent of experimental measurements.

Originality/value

This is the first instance in which both artificial compressibility and artificial dissipation is employed to model flow through saturated porous materials.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 18 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Andrew Gavin Bradford Mowat, Wilhelm Johann van den Bergh, Arnaud George Malan and Daniel Wilke

An area of great interest in current computational fluid dynamics research is that of free-surface modelling (FSM). Semi-implicit pressure-based FSM flow solvers typically…

Abstract

Purpose

An area of great interest in current computational fluid dynamics research is that of free-surface modelling (FSM). Semi-implicit pressure-based FSM flow solvers typically involve the solution of a pressure correction equation. The latter being computationally intensive, the purpose of this paper is to involve the implementation and enhancement of an algebraic multigrid (AMG) method for its solution.

Design/methodology/approach

All AMG components were implemented via object-oriented C++ in a manner which ensures linear computational scalability and matrix-free storage. The developed technology was evaluated in two- and three-dimensions via application to a dam-break test case.

Findings

AMG performance was assessed via comparison of CPU cost to that of several other competitive sparse solvers. The standard AMG implementation proved inferior to other methods in three-dimensions, while the developed Freeze version achieved significant speed-ups and proved to be superior throughout.

Originality/value

A so-called Freeze method was developed to address the computational overhead resulting from the dynamically changing coefficient matrix. The latter involves periodic AMG setup steps in a manner that results in a robust and efficient black-box solver.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 26 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Lelanie Smith, Oliver Oxtoby, A. Malan and Josua Meyer

– The purpose of this paper is to introduce a unique technique to couple the two-integral boundary layer solutions to a generic inviscid solver in an iterative fashion.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a unique technique to couple the two-integral boundary layer solutions to a generic inviscid solver in an iterative fashion.

Design/methodology/approach

The boundary layer solution is obtained using the two-integral method to solve displacement thickness point by point with a local Newton method, at a fraction of the cost of a conventional mesh-based, full viscous solution. The boundary layer solution is coupled with an existing inviscid solver. Coupling occurs by moving the wall to a streamline at the computed boundary layer thickness and treating it as a slip boundary, then solving the flow again and iterating. The Goldstein singularity present when solving boundary layer equations is overcome by solving an auxiliary velocity equation along with the displacement thickness.

Findings

The proposed method obtained favourable results when compared with the analytical solutions for flat and inclined plates. Further, it was applied to modelling the flow around a NACA0012 airfoil and yielded results similar to those of the widely used XFOIL code.

Originality/value

A unique method is proposed for coupling of the boundary layer solution to the inviscid flow. Rather than the traditional transpiration boundary condition, mesh movement is employed to simulate the boundary layer thickness in a more physically meaningful way. Further, a new auxiliary velocity equation is presented to circumvent the Goldstein singularity.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 27 March 2008

Arnaud G. Malan and Josua P. Meyer

Downloads
474

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 27 March 2008

P. Nithiarasu

This paper aims to present briefly a unified fractional step method for fluid dynamics, incompressible solid mechanics and heat transfer calculations. The proposed method…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present briefly a unified fractional step method for fluid dynamics, incompressible solid mechanics and heat transfer calculations. The proposed method is demonstrated by solving compressible and incompressible flows, solid mechanics and conjugate heat transfer problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The finite element method is used for the spatial discretization of the equations. The fluid dynamics algorithm used is often referred to as the characteristic‐based split scheme.

Findings

The proposed method can be employed as a unified approach to fluid dynamics, heat transfer and solid mechanics problems.

Originality/value

The idea of using a unified approach to fluid dynamics and incompressible solid mechanics problems is proposed. The proposed approach will be valuable in complicated engineering problems such as fluid‐structure interaction and problems involving conjugate heat transfer and thermal stresses.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

E.J. Sellountos, Jorge Tiago and Adelia Sequeira

This paper aims to describe the 2D meshless local boundary integral equation (LBIE) method for solving the Navier–Stokes equations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the 2D meshless local boundary integral equation (LBIE) method for solving the Navier–Stokes equations.

Design/methodology/approach

The velocity–vorticity formulation is selected to eliminate the pressure gradient of the equations. The local integral representations of flow kinematics and transport kinetics are derived. The integral equations are discretized using the local RBF interpolation of velocities and vorticities, while the unknown fluxes are kept as independent variables. The resulting volume integrals are computed using the general radial transformation algorithm.

Findings

The efficiency and accuracy of the method are illustrated with several examples chosen from reference problems in computational fluid dynamics.

Originality/value

The meshless LBIE method is applied to the 2D Navier–Stokes equations. No derivatives of interpolation functions are used in the formulation, rendering the present method a robust numerical scheme for the solution of fluid flow problems.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2020

Alexandre F. S. Andrada and Mauro Boianovsky

This chapter investigates the political and economic contexts of the controversy about the causes of the increase of income concentration in Brazil during the 1960s. That…

Abstract

This chapter investigates the political and economic contexts of the controversy about the causes of the increase of income concentration in Brazil during the 1960s. That was the most important economic debate that took place under the military dictatorship that ran the country from 1964 to 1985. The perceived sharp increase in income inequality posed a challenge to the economic legitimation of the military regime, which had by the early 1970s achieved high rates of economic growth. This chapter discusses the apparent paradox of relatively open economic debate during a period of political repression, as well as its international dimension as reflected in the role played by institutions such as the World Bank.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Symposium on Economists and Authoritarian Regimes in the 20th Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-703-9

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Junjie Liang, Wan Luo, Zhigao Huang, Huamin Zhou, Yun Zhang, Yi Zhang and Yang Fu

The purpose of this paper is to develop a finite volume approach for the simulation of three-dimensional two-phase (polymer melt and air) flow in plastic injection molding…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a finite volume approach for the simulation of three-dimensional two-phase (polymer melt and air) flow in plastic injection molding which is capable of robustly handling the mesh non-orthogonality and the discontinuities in fluid properties.

Design/methodology/approach

The presented numerical method is based on a cell-centered unstructured finite volume discretization with a volume-of-fluid technique for interface capturing. The over-relaxed approach is adopted to handle the non-orthogonality involved in the discretization of the face normal derivatives to enhance the robustness of the solutions on non-orthogonal meshes. A novel interpolation method for the face pressure is derived to address the numerical stability issues resulting from the density and viscosity discontinuities at the melt–air interface. Various test cases are conducted to evaluate the proposed method.

Findings

The presented method was shown to be satisfactorily accurate by comparing simulations with analytical and experimental results. Besides, the effectiveness of the proposed face pressure interpolation method was verified by numerical examples of a two-phase flow problem with various density and viscosity ratios. The proposed method was also successfully applied to the simulation of a practical filling case.

Originality/value

The proposed finite volume approach is more tolerant of non-orthogonal meshes and the discontinuities in fluid properties for two-phase flow simulation; therefore, it is valuable for engineers in engineering computations.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

1 – 10 of 204