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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Angus Hikairo Macfarlane, Fiona Duckworth and Sonja Macfarlane

This chapter describes the pivotal shift occurring in our national research psyche whereby Indigenous epistemology is increasingly recognised as both valid and enriching…

Abstract

This chapter describes the pivotal shift occurring in our national research psyche whereby Indigenous epistemology is increasingly recognised as both valid and enriching. Two key contentions emerge from a description and discussion of this shift. First, ethics review bodies must evolve to incorporate a wider knowledge framework, one which conscientiously locates Indigenous knowledge and which empowers researchers to appropriately traverse Aotearoa New Zealand’s cultural terrain. The second contention argues that there are ethical responsibilities to address inequities, based on our shared Treaty partnership, and that ethics review bodies should instantiate consideration of inequities within their oversight roles. This chapter sets the scene by describing the current shift away from Western homogeneity to cultural diversity in education, noting the formal higher learning undertaken by Māori prior to colonisation, alongside current Māori educational achievement and the goal of success as Māori. The emerging recognition of mātauranga Māori (Indigenous epistemology) is exemplified by Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga and Vision Mātauranga. However, this shift has not yet reached all parts of the New Zealand research community, and we argue particularly so for ethics review processes. Possible solutions are posed, and four cultural markers are offered as supporting foundations for professionals in the field as they traverse epistemological landscapes that are more attuned to Indigenous realities.

Details

Indigenous Research Ethics: Claiming Research Sovereignty Beyond Deficit and the Colonial Legacy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-390-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Tia Neha, Angus Macfarlane, Sonja Macfarlane, Te Hurinui Clarke, Melissa Derby, Toni Torepe, Fiona Duckworth, Marie Gibson, Roisin Whelan and Jo Fletcher

The research in the field of Indigenous peoples and the espousal of their cultural values in the work environment is recognised as being important as a means of overcoming…

Abstract

Purpose

The research in the field of Indigenous peoples and the espousal of their cultural values in the work environment is recognised as being important as a means of overcoming workplace inequities. The purpose of this paper is to examine research about Maori, the Indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand that may inform future enterprises for the long-term prosperity of marginalised Indigenous peoples.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviews the literature on unique cultural dynamics of whanau Maori (New Zealand Maori family/community) study practices and the importance of work/home/life balance. Furthermore, it considers strengths-based community enterprises that can lead to sustainable prosperity for Maori.

Findings

The review yielded three theoretical principles that explain mana (sociocultural and psychological well-being), which can be generalised across multiple contexts, with the workplace being one of these contexts. These principles of mana create a contextual match with whanau external realities; an experiential match of a mana empowerment framework that transfers to the study context and an interpersonal understanding of being understood and empowered within the study context.

Research limitations/implications

The literature review has been limited to research from 2005 onwards and to research that investigates Maori, the Indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand. Although the review of the literature has these limitations, the review may be of interest to other studies of Indigenous peoples worldwide.

Practical implications

The key factors are interwoven, and their importance is considered in relation to the development of positive and supportive environments, which link to job retention, satisfaction and productivity in the workplace for Maori. This, in turn, can have beneficial knock-on effects for not only the New Zealand economy but also more importantly for enhancing sustainable livelihoods for upcoming generations.

Social implications

Tied together, these factors are paramount for cultural, social and ecological benefits for nga rangatahi (young Maori adults) and the wider community in the workplace.

Originality/value

The literature review’s value and originality derive from a dearth of recent research on supporting nga rangatahi (young Maori adults) for sustainable prosperity.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2020

Gerd Berget, Andrew MacFarlane and Nils Pharo

A substantial number of models have been developed over the years, with the purpose of describing the information seeking and searching of people in various user groups…

Abstract

Purpose

A substantial number of models have been developed over the years, with the purpose of describing the information seeking and searching of people in various user groups and contexts. Several models have been frequently applied in user studies, but are rarely included in research on participants with impairments. Models are purposeful when developing theories. Consequently, it might be valuable to apply models when studying this user group, as well. The purpose of this study was to explore whether existing models are applicable in describing the online information seeking and searching of users with impairments, with an overall aim to increase the use of models in studies involving impairments.

Design/methodology/approach

Six models were selected according to the following criteria: the model should address information seeking or searching, include the interaction between users and systems whilst incorporating assistive technology. Two user groups were selected from each of the categories: cognitive, sensory and motor impairments, namely dyslexia, autism, blindness, deafness, paralysation and Parkinson's. The models were then analysed based on known barriers reported for these cohorts.

Findings

All the selected models had potential to be applied in user studies involving impairments. While three of the models had the highest potential to be used in the current form, the other three models were applicable either through minor revisions or by combining models.

Originality/value

This study contributes with a new perspective on the use of models in information seeking and searching research on users with impairments.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Catriona Paisey and Nicholas J. Paisey

The purpose of this paper is to examine financial management in the Pre‐Reformation church in Aberdeen, Scotland during the bishopric of Bishop William Elphinstone (1488‐1514).

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine financial management in the Pre‐Reformation church in Aberdeen, Scotland during the bishopric of Bishop William Elphinstone (1488‐1514).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a combination of literature‐based analysis, archival research and the use of biographies in order to examine aspects of financial management within the Pre‐Reformation church in Aberdeen, Scotland.

Findings

There is evidence that accounting for assets and income was mobilised in order to achieve social aims. Recording mechanisms give visibility to the church's remuneration and governance strategy. Together, these examples show that there was no evidence of a sacred/secular divide in this context.

Research limitations/implications

Archives may be incomplete but can give insight into financial management in historical context and aspects of the sacred/secular divide.

Originality/value

This paper aids understanding of visibility and governance possibilities afforded by accounting that has been mobilised in an historic setting in order to achieve social aims.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2007

A. MacFarlane, J.A. McCann and S.E. Robertson

An issue that tends to be ignored in information retrieval is the issue of updating inverted files. This is largely because inverted files were devised to provide fast…

Abstract

Purpose

An issue that tends to be ignored in information retrieval is the issue of updating inverted files. This is largely because inverted files were devised to provide fast query service, and much work has been done with the emphasis strongly on queries. This paper aims to study the effect of using parallel methods for the update of inverted files in order to reduce costs, by looking at two types of partitioning for inverted files: document identifier and term identifier.

Design/methodology/approach

Raw update service and update with query service are studied with these partitioning schemes using an incremental update strategy. The paper uses standard measures used in parallel computing such as speedup to examine the computing results and also the costs of reorganising indexes while servicing transactions.

Findings

Empirical results show that for both transaction processing and index reorganisation the document identifier method is superior. However, there is evidence that the term identifier partitioning method could be useful in a concurrent transaction processing context.

Practical implications

There is an increasing need to service updates, which is now becoming a requirement of inverted files (for dynamic collections such as the web), demonstrating that a shift in requirements of inverted file maintenance is needed from the past.

Originality/value

The paper is of value to database administrators who manage large‐scale and dynamic text collections, and who need to use parallel computing to implement their text retrieval services.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 59 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

A. MacFarlane, S.E. Robertson and J.A. McCann

In this paper methods for both speeding up passage processing and examining more passages using parallel computers are explored. The number of passages processed are…

Abstract

In this paper methods for both speeding up passage processing and examining more passages using parallel computers are explored. The number of passages processed are varied in order to examine the effect on retrieval effectiveness and efficiency. The particular algorithm applied has previously been used to good effect in Okapi experiments at TREC. This algorithm and the mechanism for applying parallel computing to speed up processing are described.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 56 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 April 2018

Sarah Banks

This chapter presents a virtue-based approach to research ethics which both complements and challenges dominant principle- and rule-based ethical codes and governance…

Abstract

This chapter presents a virtue-based approach to research ethics which both complements and challenges dominant principle- and rule-based ethical codes and governance frameworks. Virtues are qualities of character that contribute to human and ecological flourishing, focussing on the dispositions and motivations of moral agents (in this case, researchers) as opposed to simply their actions. The chapter argues for the usefulness of ‘researcher integrity’, in the context of increasing interest internationally in ‘research integrity’ frameworks for regulating research practice. ‘Researcher integrity’ is analysed, including weak and strong versions of the concept (conduct according to current standards, versus reflexive commitment to ideals of what research should be at its best). Researcher integrity in its stronger sense is depicted as an overarching complex virtue, holding together and balancing other virtues such as courage, care, trustworthiness, respectfulness and practical wisdom. Consideration is given to educating researchers and university students as virtuous researchers, rather than simply ensuring that rules are followed and risks minimised. Several approaches are outlined, including Socratic dialogue, to develop attentiveness and respectfulness and participatory theatre to rehearse different responses to ethical challenges in research. Some limitations of virtue ethics are noted, including dangers of reinforcing a culture of blaming researchers for institutional failings, and its potential to be co-opted by those who wish to indoctrinate rather than cultivate virtues. Nevertheless, it is an important counter-weight to current trends that see research ethics as entailing learning sets of rules and how to implement them (to satisfy institutional research governance requirements), rather than processes of critical and responsible reflection.

Details

Virtue Ethics in the Conduct and Governance of Social Science Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-608-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

A. MacFarlane, J.A. McCann and S.E. Robertson

The generation of inverted indexes is one of the most computationally intensive activities for information retrieval systems: indexing large multi‐gigabyte text databases…

Abstract

Purpose

The generation of inverted indexes is one of the most computationally intensive activities for information retrieval systems: indexing large multi‐gigabyte text databases can take many hours or even days to complete. We examine the generation of partitioned inverted files in order to speed up the process of indexing. Two types of index partitions are investigated: TermId and DocId.

Design/methodology/approach

We use standard measures used in parallel computing such as speedup and efficiency to examine the computing results and also the space costs of our trial indexing experiments.

Findings

The results from runs on both partitioning methods are compared and contrasted, concluding that DocId is the more efficient method.

Practical implications

The practical implications are that the DocId partitioning method would in most circumstances be used for distributing inverted file data in a parallel computer, particularly if indexing speed is the primary consideration.

Originality/value

The paper is of value to database administrators who manage large‐scale text collections, and who need to use parallel computing to implement their text retrieval services.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 57 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2010

A. MacFarlane, A. Secker, P. May and J. Timmis

The term selection problem for selecting query terms in information filtering and routing has been investigated using hill‐climbers of various kinds, largely through the…

Abstract

Purpose

The term selection problem for selecting query terms in information filtering and routing has been investigated using hill‐climbers of various kinds, largely through the Okapi experiments in the TREC series of conferences. Although these are simple deterministic approaches, which examine the effect of changing the weight of one term at a time, they have been shown to improve the retrieval effectiveness of filtering queries in these TREC experiments. Hill‐climbers are, however, likely to get trapped in local optima, and the use of more sophisticated local search techniques for this problem that attempt to break out of these optima are worth investigating. To this end, this paper aims to apply a genetic algorithm (GA) to the same problem.

Design/methodology/approach

A standard TREC test collection is used from the TREC‐8 filtering track, recording mean average precision and recall measures to allow comparison between the hill‐climber and GAs. It also varies elements of the GA, such as probability of a word being included, probability of mutation and population size in order to measure the effect of these variables. Different strategies such as elitist and non‐elitist methods are used, as well as roulette wheel and rank selection GAs.

Findings

The results of tests suggest that both techniques are, on average, better than the baseline, but, the implemented GA does not match the overall performance of a hill‐climber. The Rank selection algorithm does better on average than the Roulette Wheel algorithm. There is no evidence in this study that varying word inclusion probability, mutation probability or Elitist method make much difference to the overall results. Small population sizes do not appear to be as effective as larger population sizes.

Research limitations/implications

The evidence provided here would suggest that being stuck in a local optima for the term selection optimization problem does not appear to be detrimental to the overall success of the hill‐climber. The evidence from term rank order would appear to provide extra useful evidence, which hill climbers can use efficiently, and effectively, to narrow the search space.

Originality/value

The paper represents the first attempt to compare hill‐climbers with GAs on a problem of this type.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 66 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2022

Abstract

Details

Global Meaning Making
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-933-1

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