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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 1998

Roland Graham

Some cycle routes have proved unpopular because at several points a cyclist has to stop or slow very appreciably. Cyclists are discouraged by the resulting extra journey…

Abstract

Some cycle routes have proved unpopular because at several points a cyclist has to stop or slow very appreciably. Cyclists are discouraged by the resulting extra journey time. Three alternative hypotheses are made for a cyclist's performance in response to an imposed stop. In all he brakes uniformly from a cruising speed. In one, this speed is a personal standard, and he accelerates uniformly to regain it. In the second, because his energy is used in accelerating, he has less to use in cruising. The third hypothesis is that a cyclist's power output in accelerating is the same as in cruising, except at very low speeds, so that he attains his normal cruising speed asymptotically.

Trials were conducted on a lightly trafficked 2.5-km circuit with seven roundabouts. Cyclists made at least two circuits each, one non-stop and one stopping at roundabouts. Pairs of times for each cyclist were compared with derivations from each hypothesis. It was found that the estimates derived from the second hypothesis were much closer to the trial times than those given by the others. The conclusion is that making an adult cyclist stop is equivalent to extending the journey time by as much as an extra 50 m, approximately, would take. In reckoning the lengths of routes in order to select one for development, an equivalent distance of about 50 m should be added for each stop or near stop, unless they are close together.

Details

Mathematics in Transport Planning and Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-043430-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

David J. Flanagan, Claudio D. Milman and James P. D'Mello

The Latin American merger and acquisition (M&A) market offers enormous opportunities. M&A activity in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Venezuela is examined and…

Abstract

The Latin American merger and acquisition (M&A) market offers enormous opportunities. M&A activity in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Venezuela is examined and compared with M&A activity in the United States. Characteristics examined include the industries and form of ownership of the target firms, the types of transactions, and the home countries of the acquiring firms. Differences are found between characteristics of M&A activity in the Latin American countries and the United States. Differences are also found among the characteristics of M&A activity in the various Latin American countries. Implications for managers and areas in need of additional research are discussed.

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International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Cornelius Riordan and Jaya Sarkar

Describes Childreach – a US child‐focuses development organization which sponsors children and their families in developing countries – and a recent project in development…

Abstract

Describes Childreach – a US child‐focuses development organization which sponsors children and their families in developing countries – and a recent project in development education, “Buffalo banks and borewells: Childreach makes sense of development”, which involved creating and distributing educational newsletters on Third World and development issues. Lists the goals of the project and how they were addressed. Outlines what was gained from the exercise. Links this to the paradoxical situation in the USA whereby the public think money should go towards foreign aid but are reluctant to actually fork out any money themselves. Considers the role of trust and the concept of social capital, emphasizing that sponsors need to trust that their investment is making an important contribution to improving the life of the sponsored child and its family or community.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2007

Y. Villacampa, F. Verdú and A. Pérez

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a theoretical study of the stability of the mathematical models defined in a class of systems. Furthermore, it will be supposed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a theoretical study of the stability of the mathematical models defined in a class of systems. Furthermore, it will be supposed that the models have been obtained from experimental data and by means of the application of a methodology. The studies carried out in this paper are, on one hand, the theoretical framework for an analysis of the sensitivity and stability of a type of systems; on the other hand, they supplement the studies carried out by the authors, in which, using a computational program, the sensitivity of the mathematical models is analyzed with respect to a type of perturbation.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially, a class of systems is considered that are denominated quantifiable systems, in which model systems are defined that are determined by a set and a family of relationships. An initial study of the sensitivity of the mathematical models to perturbations in the experimental data lead to a concept of sensitive and stable models that forms the basis of the theory of stability developed in this paper. Furthermore, this permits a definition of the stability function for the set of the perturbations and, consequently, a determination of stable models according to the defined theoretical structure.

Findings

An analysis of the sensitivity and stability of mathematical models in quantifiable systems from a systems theory perspective will be fundamental for the determination of mathematical model stability in environmental systems.

Originality/value

The studies carried out in this paper supposes an advance in the study and modeling of a type of systems that the authors have denominated as quantifiable systems, applicable to the study of environmental systems and supplementing the numeric studies carried out by the authors.

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Kybernetes, vol. 36 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2013

Roger Y.W. Tang and Ali M. Metwalli

– The purpose of this paper is to provide the latest information on mergers and acquisition (M&A) activities in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh from 2000 to 2009.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the latest information on mergers and acquisition (M&A) activities in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh from 2000 to 2009.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data available from Thomson Financial Service's Worldwide Mergers and Acquisitions database, the paper analyzed M&A transactions listed in the database that were announced between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009, in which the target firm or acquirer was located in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh.

Findings

M&A in India is a lot more active than that in Pakistan or Bangladesh. One unique feature of Pakistani M&A market is that it has a high ratio (more than 80 percent) for Pakistani firms buying non-Pakistani companies. In Bangladesh, non-Bangladeshi firms acquiring Bangladeshi companies accounted for more than 90 percent of all large M&A value.

Originality/value

The paper provides the latest information on M&A activities in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh from 2000 to 2009. Some similarities and differences among the three countries were compared and discussed.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Marcin Ziolkowski, Wojciech Kwiatkowski, Stanislaw Gratkowski and Marek Ziolkowski

A balanced armature receiver (BAR) as a special type of electromagnetic acoustic transducers plays a significant role in reproduction of music and speech, active noise…

Abstract

Purpose

A balanced armature receiver (BAR) as a special type of electromagnetic acoustic transducers plays a significant role in reproduction of music and speech, active noise control in modern hearing aid and in contemporary in-ear monitors. This paper aims to present a static analysis of the balanced armature receiver based on the lumped network approach (LNA) and the finite element method (FEM).

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the LNA and two-dimensional FEM are applied to model deflections of the BAR’s armature from the equilibrium position. Results of calculations are compared with measurements.

Findings

The derived analytical formulas and developed procedure allow for calculation of the armature deflection.

Originality/value

Comparing to the previous papers, the reluctance’s nonlinearity of the armature has been considered.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

A. Ziadi and Y. Cherruault

The reducing transformation and global optimization technique called Alienor has been developed in the 1980s by Cherruault and Guillez. These methods are based on the…

Abstract

The reducing transformation and global optimization technique called Alienor has been developed in the 1980s by Cherruault and Guillez. These methods are based on the approximating properties of α ‐dense curves. The aim of this work is to give a very large class of functions generating α ‐dense curves in a hyper‐rectangle of Rn.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Tianxiang Yao and Hong Gao

Buffer operators can be utilized to improve the smooth degree of the raw data sequence, and to increase the simulation accuracy of the model. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

Buffer operators can be utilized to improve the smooth degree of the raw data sequence, and to increase the simulation accuracy of the model. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the cause of increase in the simulation accuracy of the buffer operator.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper probed into the modeling mechanism of several typical buffer operators such as the arithmetic buffer operators, the buffer operators with monotonic function and weighted buffer operators. The paper also gives an example of the buffer operator sequence.

Findings

The results indicate that after applying an infinite buffer operator, whether the authors adopt a weakening buffer operator or a strengthen buffer operator, the raw sequence can be changed into a constant sequence. Because the discrete GM(1,1) model can completely simulate constant sequence, the simulation accuracy is 100 percent. Because the discrete GM(1,1) model is the accurate form of the GM(1,1) model, after applying an infinite buffer operator, the GM(1,1) model can have a very high simulation accuracy. The buffer operator model can increase the simulation accuracy of both the GM(1,1) model and the discrete GM(1,1) model.

Originality/value

The paper analyses the cause of increasing simulation accuracy of the buffer operator model. The paper may indicate that possible results can be studied in the future. All the buffer operator models have similar properties. After applying an infinite buffer operator, the raw sequence can be changed into a constant sequence. A fixed-point axiom may be the basic cause.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1959

D.E. Clippinger and G.J. Morris

THE use of liquid oxygen as an oxidizer for various fuels in liquid rocket propellent systems is not new. Professor Goddard used liquid oxygen in his rocket experiments…

Abstract

THE use of liquid oxygen as an oxidizer for various fuels in liquid rocket propellent systems is not new. Professor Goddard used liquid oxygen in his rocket experiments and the well known German V‐2 rockets used this material as an oxidizer. However, its effect on non‐metallic materials ordinarily used in rocket systems was not investigated until recent years. This investigation was prompted by phenomena which had been experienced by rocket engine and rocket aircraft manufacturers and by suppliers of the material. It was observed that when some organic materials came in intimate contact with liquid oxygen they became prone to detonation when subjected to certain impact energies. This was undoubtedly due to the formation of unstable organo‐peroxide compounds which when impacted released high levels of energy resulting in an explosion. Specifically, when liquid oxygen was accidently spilled on asphalt and inadvertently stepped on, the asphalt would often explode. Also, leather gaskets immersed in liquid oxygen and subjected to surge impact detonated with disastrous effects.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

Wujia Zhu, Yi Lin, Guoping Du and Ningsheng Gong

This paper is the third part of the effort to resolve the following two problems, which urgently need an answer: how can an appropriate theoretical foundation be chosen…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is the third part of the effort to resolve the following two problems, which urgently need an answer: how can an appropriate theoretical foundation be chosen for modern mathematics and computer science? And, under what interpretations can modern mathematics and the theory of computer science be kept as completely as possible?

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a conceptual discussion of the metatheory.

Findings

The paper establishes the metatheory of the logical foundation for the mathematical system of potential infinities.

Originality/value

The authors prove the relevant results on the reliability and the completeness of the logical system.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 37 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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