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This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/eb007296. When citing the article, please cite: C. Wrubl, A. Mollica, U. Montini, A. Litigio, (1991), “Corrosion performance of cataphoretically painted specimens: A comparison between salt spray and continuous immersion tests”, Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Vol. 38 Iss: 6, pp. 11 - 15.
The salt‐spray test is still today often utilized to control the anticorrosive performance of paints applied on metallic substrates. The time required for this test method…
The salt‐spray test is still today often utilized to control the anticorrosive performance of paints applied on metallic substrates. The time required for this test method is much shorter than that necessary to carry out the atmospheric exposure test (some weeks instead of many years). Nevertheless the results provided by the salt spray test are only qualitative and their extrapolability to the real behaviour of the paint system's film‐metallic substrate is very difficult. Moreover, in some cases there is a discrepancy between the results of the salt spray test and the reality; for instance, it was observed some time ago that hot‐dip galvanized steel constitutes a better substrate for paints than bare steel, whereas the salt spray test results indicate the contrary. The present work represents only a part of a more conspicuous set of observations devoted to a comparison of laboratory and field results. In this first stage we examined, by means of salt spray and total immersion tests, the behaviour of bare steel and hot‐dip galvanized steel substrates, both phosphatized and coated by the same paint. The aim of this work was to ascertain if the results of the two methods are in accordance and, moreover, to compare the qualitative information given by the salt spray tests with those, quantitative, obtained by the electrode impedance technique on specimens immersed in 3% NaCl solution. By means of this technique it is possible to determine at the same time the values of the paint film resistance, of its capacitance, of the polarisation resistance and of the double layer pseudocapacitance related to the corrosion taking place on the metallic substrate and to ascertain the eventual intervention of diffusive phenomena into the corrosive process. Finally, this electrochemical method, because its non‐destructive nature, permits one to observe the variation of the values of overmentioned parameters as a function of time and therefore to interpret the evolution of the corrosion process.
In a country where judicial institutions are known to be inefficient and where activists have traditionally not engaged in legal mobilization, what explains the emergence…
In a country where judicial institutions are known to be inefficient and where activists have traditionally not engaged in legal mobilization, what explains the emergence of NGO strategic litigation? The author argues that a change in the legal opportunity structure impacts how activists interact with the legal system. Comparing two states in Mexico, the author demonstrates that the introduction of private prosecution rights opened the door for activists to litigate femicide cases. The emergence of strategic litigation has helped improve compliance with international human rights law and has had a demonstration effect on how to use the law to press for accountability.
During the transition to parenthood, the gender division of paid and unpaid work undergoes a profound redefinition in response to both attitudes and resources. These…
During the transition to parenthood, the gender division of paid and unpaid work undergoes a profound redefinition in response to both attitudes and resources. These attitudes may be concordant or discordant between two partners, they may or may not clash with perceived financial or labour market constraints, and they may or may not provoke explicit conﬂicts and negotiations. In this study, by combining quantitative and qualitative data, we focus on Italian couples with young children or in transition to first child, and we explore what happens when partners have discordant views. The findings show that the division of domestic and care work seems more resistant to change and more responsive to the husband’s attitudes than does the division of paid work, as the latter is mainly driven by the woman’s education and attitudes. The findings also show that very few couples overtly disagree. If they do so, the main issue in dispute is the allocation of domestic work and the main solution consists more in hiring external help than in obtaining the husband’s greater participation. Compared with domestic work, the allocation of care is a less disputed and more ﬂexible issue: when women start negotiations on a more equal sharing, men are more willing to increase their participation. However, when a more equal sharing is not attained, couples’ narratives tend to give the “cause” to the constraints of the man (typically his work) than of the woman, while they point at a redefinition (for the best of the family) of her rather than his preferences.
This paper provides an overview of the Aztec 13 – the top 13 multinational enterprises in Mexico. Different from research that groups countries and regions, the purpose of…
This paper provides an overview of the Aztec 13 – the top 13 multinational enterprises in Mexico. Different from research that groups countries and regions, the purpose of the paper is to deliver a nuanced picture of these multinationals in terms of their key characteristics and the strategies they follow when they internationalize.
All data sources that have been identified and reviewed are documents, printed and electronic. The Aztec multilatinas were identified using Forbes Global 2000 (2017). Other data sources such as media texts, company annual reports, reports filed with the Mexican Stock Exchange and the US Securities and Exchange Commission, as well as investor presentations, were collected and analyzed. Data sources were published in English and Spanish. The analytic procedure adopted entailed identifying, selecting, making sense of and synthesizing the data contained in the documents.
Aztec multilatinas have specific characteristics which, to a great extent, influence their internationalization strategies. Characteristics include the geographical location of their headquarters, their origin and history, their ownership structure and ties with families and government. These factors, combined, help to describe in greater nuance the internationalization strategies and activities of the Aztec 13. Such a detailed and focused description is a first necessary step for subsequent potential theorizing.
This paper contributes to the vibrant scholarly conversation on multinational enterprises from less researched regions and countries. Latin America is such a region and Mexico is such a country. Focusing on a single country and its top 13 multinationals allow a comprehensive description and disciplined analysis, with no dangerous generalizations to large regions and even larger settings such as emerging markets multinationals and with no false claims for theorizing.