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In this paper, we focus on the Granger causality test in the presence of regime shift. We apply a vector autoregressive (4) model on Swedish series of industrial output…
In this paper, we focus on the Granger causality test in the presence of regime shift. We apply a vector autoregressive (4) model on Swedish series of industrial output and consumer price index for the period 1980:1‐1998:6. To test for causality, three different test methods namely the single equation Likelihood Ratio test, the systemwise Rao's F‐ test and the Bootstrap test, have been used in this study. We show that when the assumption of parameter constancy is violated, due to the occurrence of the structural changes, Granger causality tests can provide misleading inference about the underlining relationship of causality.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on financial statements of the largest Canadian firms…
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on financial statements of the largest Canadian firms (S&P/TSX 60) listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX).
This study investigates the financial statement effects of 46 companies from the S&P/TSX 60 index which report under IFRS in 2011 and switched to IFRS from CGAAP. This study used panel data analysis, which can be considered as more powerful when conducting cross-sectional and in time analysis among companies. Because of weakness of Cramer statistic on R-square, the authors used interaction terms as suggested by Hope (2007).
Consistent with the authors’ perceptions, this study finds that significant effects of adopting IFRS are associated with industry practices. The empirical results show that the adoption of IFRS in Canada created more relevant financial reporting for book value of equity and net income in the post-adoption periods.
This study should be of interest to the US regulators considering IFRS adoption by US publicly traded companies as well as to regulators, standard setters and listed companies in all countries worldwide that are in transition to IFRS.
Although many studies have been conducted on the nanofluid flow in microtubes, this paper, for the first time, aims to investigate the effects of nanoparticle diameter and…
Although many studies have been conducted on the nanofluid flow in microtubes, this paper, for the first time, aims to investigate the effects of nanoparticle diameter and concentration on the velocity and temperature fields of turbulent non-Newtonian Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)/copper oxide (CuO) nanofluid in a three-dimensional microtube. Modeling has been done using low- and high-Reynolds turbulent models. CMC/CuO was modeled using power law non-Newtonian model. The authors obtained interesting results, which can be helpful for engineers and researchers that work on cooling of electronic devices such as LED, VLSI circuits and MEMS, as well as similar devices.
Present numerical simulation was performed with finite volume method. For obtaining higher accuracy in the numerical solving procedure, second-order upwind discretization and SIMPLEC algorithm were used. For all Reynolds numbers and volume fractions, a maximum residual of 10−6 is considered for saving computer memory usage and the time for the numerical solving procedure.
In constant Reynolds number and by decreasing the diameter of nanoparticles, the convection heat transfer coefficient increases. In Reynolds numbers of 2,500, 4,500 and 6,000, using nanoparticles with the diameter of 25 nm compared with 50 nm causes 0.34 per cent enhancement of convection heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number. Also, in Reynolds number of 2,500, by increasing the concentration of nanoparticles with the diameter of 25 nm from 0.5 to 1 per cent, the average Nusselt number increases by almost 0.1 per cent. Similarly, In Reynolds numbers of 4,500 and 6,000, the average Nusselt number increases by 1.8 per cent.
The numerical simulation was carried out for three nanoparticle diameters of 25, 50 and 100 nm with three Reynolds numbers of 2,500, 4,500 and 6,000. Constant heat flux is on the channel, and the inlet fluid becomes heated and exists from it.
The authors obtained interesting results, which can be helpful for engineers and researchers that work on cooling of electronic devices such as LED, VLSI circuits and MEMS, as well as similar devices.
This manuscript is an original work, has not been published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. About the competing interests, the authors declare that they have no competing interests.