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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Renate Ortlieb, Zijada Rahimić, Christian Hirt, Almina Bešić and Florian Bieber

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about workplace diversity and equality in an under-researched country. Focusing on the south-eastern European…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about workplace diversity and equality in an under-researched country. Focusing on the south-eastern European transition economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), it elaborates on the country’s legislation, public debate and previous research in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on a synopsis of the legislative framework, existing literature, public media and personal communications with human resource (HR) practitioners.

Findings

There is only limited research on diversity and equality in BiH. Ethnicity and gender are the most common grounds for discrimination. Although a solid body of legislation addressing anti-discrimination and equality issues exists, implementation is insufficient. The public debate tends to reinforce inter-ethnic conflicts and a negative atmosphere regarding sexual minority rights.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the general lack of research on diversity and equality in BiH, the findings presented in this paper only can serve as a first approximation of the topic. Further academic research on concrete business practices and perspectives of HR managers is needed.

Practical implications

Firms not only need to increase compliance with anti-discrimination law, but they should also focus more on the benefits a multi-ethnic society can offer.

Originality/value

This is the first paper in the management literature that provides comprehensive insight into workplace diversity and equality in BiH.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2013

Ane Turner Johnson

This chapter grapples with questions of agency in the development of African higher education, with a special focus on the Association of African Universities (AAU), an

Abstract

This chapter grapples with questions of agency in the development of African higher education, with a special focus on the Association of African Universities (AAU), an organization outside of formal education policymaking on the continent. Through the lens of rhetorical institutionalism, findings illustrate how the AAU has adopted and adapted competing institutional logics to exert influence over development policymaking. Next, I will discuss how systems of persuasion were cultivated and symbols employed to establish the legitimacy of the organization in a heterogeneous institutional field that includes universities, development agencies, nongovernmental organizations, supranational arrangements, and the influence of international financial institutions. This enabled the AAU to extend institutional logics into African higher education. This case study seeks to upend the pervasive crisis narrative that perpetuates both the impotence of African institutions and the stewardship of outside development elites. Finally this chapter considers the implications of this critical case study for development discourse and practice.

Details

The Development of Higher Education in Africa: Prospects and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-699-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

A. Hirt and I. Artaki

For many years the analysis of contaminant residues on PWB surfaces has been of major importance to the industry. While the identification of residues left on metallic…

Abstract

For many years the analysis of contaminant residues on PWB surfaces has been of major importance to the industry. While the identification of residues left on metallic surfaces has proven to be relatively straightforward, the analysis of organic contamination of similar composition to that of the underlying board surface has not been as successful. Through the use of modern XPS instrumentation, the non‐ionic component of water soluble flux has been identified and differentiated from the chemically similar FR‐4 and soldermask substrates. This paper presents the XPS results for a series of experiments aimed at determining the location and relative concentration of water soluble flux residues on standard surface insulation resistance (SIR) comb patterns. The data show that the water soluble flux residue is not present as a uniform coating on the board surface but appears in localised sites in high concentrations while being absent in other locations. Through more aggressive cleaning procedures the sites of high residue concentration can be significantly reduced.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Ane Turner Johnson

Higher education institutions around the world have increasingly come to see information and communication technology (ICT) as vital to the business of teaching and…

Abstract

Higher education institutions around the world have increasingly come to see information and communication technology (ICT) as vital to the business of teaching and learning. Institutions invest a considerable amount of time and resources to erecting the appropriate institutional infrastructure, creating policy and practice, instituting strategy, training faculty, and building the capacity of technology staff. However, in under-resourced regions of the world, such as Africa, ICT, the availability and use of, has several challenges to overcome: a lack of institutional infrastructure, sufficient bandwidth, and limited capacity to employ ICT in the research process or the classroom. Universities report inadequate funding, poor management and infrastructure, resistance to change, inadequate training, and high costs associated with effective ICT use. Moreover, critiques of Western technopositivism surface misgivings related to the performance outcomes and appropriateness of ICT adoption in Africa. In this chapter, the author will explore the work of international organizations and regional and national research and education networks in the diffusion of ICT discourse, consider on-the-ground adoptions and innovation at universities in Nigeria, and reflect on the suitability and sustainability of technology adoption, all within an ICT for development (ICT4D) framework that lenses the evolution of technological applications in higher education. This chapter is significant in that it connects African higher education to ICT4D and frames the various discourses, policy landscapes and practice arenas, as they relate to international actors, continental initiatives, networks, universities, and faculty.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2018
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-416-8

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Mohammad Riahi, Mohammad Sedighi and Hassan Rahmanian

The paper aims to design a process to mechanize traditional chasing and repoussé which is the art of creating an artistic pattern on a sheet metal by making high and low…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to design a process to mechanize traditional chasing and repoussé which is the art of creating an artistic pattern on a sheet metal by making high and low points through utilization of hammer and chisel. In scientific literature, it is a kind of incremental sheet metal forming.

Design/methodology/approach

In the designed process, a magnetic actuator is used as a hammer which converts electric energy into kinetic reciprocal impact energy, and hammering sequence is completely controlled via the designed software. The sheet is bound not to move easily. Then, a hammering mechanism is connected to the numerical control machine. As the magnetic hammer is moved gradually along the defined path, the sheet is chased gradually by controlling the consecutive impacts. Different methods of test sheet entanglement are also discussed to reduce noise and undesired deformations of sheet, and indents are also clarified.

Findings

The designed mechanism enables the user to form desired art patterns faster with more precision via the automated process. The hammering sequence is controlled via computer successfully. The designed magnetic actuator could be commercialized easily. Experiments show that the pitch under sheet is the best. Typical art patterns are chased successfully.

Originality/value

In incremental sheet metal punching, there was no control on hammering sequence before. In this process, the designed magnetic hammer is quite controllable. Also, it is easily attached to the computerized numerical control (CNC) and is suitable for commercial use. Furthermore, the stuff under sheet was not taken into consideration before.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

Jennet Achyldurdyyeva, Li-Fan Wu and Nurbibi Datova

The purpose of this study is to examine the aspects of workplace environment and the experiences of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) employees in an Asian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the aspects of workplace environment and the experiences of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) employees in an Asian context; a subject that has hitherto been somewhat neglected. It responds to a call for more contextual research in the field of employment diversity in organizational management in general.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a mixed method study, which utilizes multiple sources of primary and secondary data and consists of in-depth personal interviews, a survey of LGBT employees, published data (including legislation and state policies), reports issued by social and media organizations, documentary evidence from Taiwanese companies and insights drawn from the existing literature.

Findings

It was found that there is an interplay between the macro, meso and micro levels in the multilevel relational framework applied to diversity of employment in Taiwan. Macrolevel factors, such as supportive legislation, mass media and social tolerance toward LGBT community positively affect mesolevel factors, such as stable and secure social networks among the LGBT community in the form of legal and social organizations (NGOs, social media, bars, restaurants, etc.) as well as many companies inclusion of sexual orientation in their definitions of diversity. However, this is opposed by macrolevel, cultural values related to family structure and intergenerational relationships that inhibit pro-active integration and equality of LGBT individuals at the meso organizational level. Companies headed by older-generation leadership can be slow to advocate, support and promote sexual-orientation diversity in their workplaces. In contrast, microlevel data shows that LGBT employees receive robust psychological support from their peer group, friends and the LGBT community, although gaining acceptance by family and coworkers remains a challenge.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies need to focus on the dynamics of the meso- and microlevel factors by investigating how organizational structure, perspectives of leaders and HR managers, diversity management practices and attitudes and behaviors of LGBT employees and other coworkers affect development and integration of sexual-orientation diversity programs within organizations.

Practical implications

Managers, policy makers in organization as well as educators benefit from the context-sensitive findings and recommendations offered in this paper.

Social implications

Understanding of LGBT individuals employment environment helps to facilitate or hinder the positive development of equal society and benefit both LGBT employees, their coworkers and managers.

Originality/value

Limited research exists on the LGBT employees experiences at work in Asia. This study makes unique contribution to the understanding of sexual orientation category of diversity at work in Taiwan context.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Wojciech Piotr Adamczyk, Grzegorz Kruczek, Ryszard Bialecki and Grzegorz Przybyła

The internal combustion engine operated on gaseous fuels shows great potential in terms of integration of the renewable and traditional sources for an effective solution…

Abstract

Purpose

The internal combustion engine operated on gaseous fuels shows great potential in terms of integration of the renewable and traditional sources for an effective solution for clean energy production challenge. Different fuel mixtures that can be used to power the engine are characterized by various combustion properties, which can affect its overall efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to provide reasonable answer, how the operation condition can change due to different fuel, without enormous cost of prototyping processes using physical models a digital model can be seen as promising technique.

Design/methodology/approach

Presented work discusses the application, and extensive description of two commercial codes Ansys Fluent and Forte for modeling stationary engine fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and biogas. To check the model accuracy, all carried out numerical results were compared against experimental data collected at in-house test rig of single cylinder four stroke engine. The impacts of tested gaseous fuel on the engine working conditions and emission levels were investigated.

Findings

Carried out simulations showed good agreement with experimental data for investigated cases. Application on numerical models give possibility to visualize flame front propagation and pollutant formation for tested fuels. The biogas fuel has shown the impaired early flame phase, which led to longer combustion, lower efficiency, power output, repeatability and in some cases higher HC and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions as a result of combustion during the exhaust stroke. Looking at the CO formation it was observed that it instantly accrue with flame front propagation as a result of methane oxidation, while for NOx formation revers effect was seen.

Originality/value

The application of new approach for modeling combustion process in stationary engines fueled by CNG and alternative biogas fuel has been discussed. The cons and pros of the Forte code in terms of its application for engine prototaping process has been discussed.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2018

Brian Leavy

This interview with the authors of Strategy – Beyond the Hockey Stick offers their insights into a major problem which has bedevilled the strategy process in too many…

Abstract

Purpose

This interview with the authors of Strategy – Beyond the Hockey Stick offers their insights into a major problem which has bedevilled the strategy process in too many companies over the years - the combination of bold but delusional “hockey-stick” forecasts and timid strategic moves – a coupling that severely limits the impact of any strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

The McKinsey authors examined publicly available information on the world’s 2,393 largest companies, and plotted their average annual economic profit

Findings

They found that the curve is extremely steep at the both ends: those in the top quintile average some 30 times as much economic profit as those in the middle three quintiles.

Practical implications

One of the biggest pitfalls in the strategy process is this very human propensity for bold forecasts and timid actions. Strategy requires confronting uncertainly head-on by embracing the notion of probability by calibrating the odds of a strategy succeeding, building in explicit trigger points to re-examine decisions as we learn more. 10;

Originality/value

What has been largely missing from the literature is a study of the average-to-top transition based on an extensive data set, one that encompasses a greater range of performance profiles and average-to-top transition trajectories. This is the knowledge gap that Strategy Beyond the Hockey Stick: People, Probabilities, and Big Moves to Beat the Odds fills.

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Michael Carriger

Although the management and financial literature is replete with much research looking at the impact of downsizing on the financial health and market valuation of…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the management and financial literature is replete with much research looking at the impact of downsizing on the financial health and market valuation of companies employing this practice, there has been very little attention paid to the size of the downsizing effort and its impact. The purpose of this paper is to try and address this lack by looking at companies that downsized in 2008, considering the relative size of the downsizing, and the ongoing financial health and market valuation of the companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of the size or severity of the downsizing event was assessed using various financial measures as well as a measure of market valuation from one to five years after the downsizing event. A data set of 251 companies that were in the Fortune 500 in 2014 and also in the Fortune 500 in 2008, that either did not change or decreased headcount were assessed longitudinally over a five-year period.

Findings

Findings indicate that the size or severity of the downsizing did not impact any measures of profitability or efficiency or market valuation, with one exception. The size of the downsizing event was negatively related to return on investment, one year after the downsizing. On the other hand, the size or severity of the downsizing had a positive relationship on the companies’ ability to have enough cash at hand to cover expenses (current ratio) from one to four years after the downsizing.

Originality/value

This work may provide additional support for the “band-aid solution” theory of downsizing, as suggested by Carriger (2016), downsizing may stop the bleeding but does not address the underlying financial or strategic issue leading to the need to downsize. The hope is that this work will better inform scholars and practitioners, providing a more nuanced picture of the impact of downsizing on corporate financial health and market valuation.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Philipp G. Grützmacher, Andreas Rosenkranz, Adam Szurdak, Markus Grüber, Carsten Gachot, Gerhard Hirt and Frank Mücklich

The paper aims to investigate the possibilities to control friction in lubricated systems by surface patterning, making use of a multi-scale approach. Surface patterns…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the possibilities to control friction in lubricated systems by surface patterning, making use of a multi-scale approach. Surface patterns inside the tribological contact zone tend to directly reduce friction, whereas surface patterns located in the close proximity of the contact area can improve the tribological performance by avoiding lubricant starvation and migration. Finally, optimized surface patterns were identified by preliminary laboratory tests and transferred to a journal bearing, thus testing them under more realistic conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Surface patterns on a large scale (depth > 10 µm) were fabricated by micro- and roller-coining, whereas surface patterns on a small scale (depth < 2 µm) were produced by direct laser interference patterning. The combination of both techniques resulted in multi-scale surface patterns. Tribologically beneficial surface patterns (verified in ball-on-disk laboratory tests) were transferred onto a journal bearing’s shaft and tested on a special test-rig. To characterize the lubricant spreading behavior, a new test-rig was designed, which allowed for the study of the lubricant’s motion on patterned surfaces under the influence of a precisely controlled temperature gradient.

Findings

All tested patterns accounted for a pronounced friction reduction and/or an increase in oil film lifetime. The results from the preliminary laboratory tests matched well, with results from the journal bearing test-rig, both tests showing a maximum friction reduction by a factor of 3-4. Numerical investigations, as well as experiments, have shown the possibility to actively guide lubricant over patterned surfaces. Smaller periodicities, as well as greater structural depths and widths, led to a more pronounced anisotropic spreading and/or greater spreading velocities. Multi-scale surfaces demonstrated the strongest effects regarding the lubricant’s spreading behavior.

Originality/value

Friction, as well as lubricant migration, can be successfully controlled by using micro-coined, laser-patterned and/or multi-scale surfaces. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the study demonstrates for the first time the unique possibility to transfer results obtained in laboratory tests to a real machine component.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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