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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Barry Wellman, Dimitrina Dimitrova, Zack Hayat, Guang Ying Mo and Lilia Smale

Long-standing traditions of long-distance collaboration and networking make scholars a good test case for differentiating hype and reality in distributed, networked…

Abstract

Long-standing traditions of long-distance collaboration and networking make scholars a good test case for differentiating hype and reality in distributed, networked organizations. Our study of Canadian scholars in the GRAND research networks finds that they function more as connected individuals and less as members of a single bounded work group, often meeting their needs by tapping into diversified, loosely knit networks. Their internet use interpenetrates with in-person contact: the more they use one, the more they use the other. Despite digital networking, local proximity is important for collaboration and seniority for inter-team and interdisciplinary boundary spanning.

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Contemporary Perspectives on Organizational Social Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-751-1

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Michelle L. Frisco, Molly A. Martin and Jennifer Van Hook

Social scientists often speculate that both acculturation and socioeconomic status are factors that may explain differences in the body weight between Mexican Americans…

Abstract

Social scientists often speculate that both acculturation and socioeconomic status are factors that may explain differences in the body weight between Mexican Americans and whites and between Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants, yet prior research has not explicitly theorized and tested the pathways that lead both of these upstream factors to contribute to ethnic/nativity disparities in weight. We make this contribution to the literature by developing a conceptual model drawing from Glass and McAtee’s (2006) risk regulation framework. We test this model by analyzing data from the 1999–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Our conceptual model treats acculturation and socioeconomic status as risk regulators, or social factors that place individuals in positions where they are at risk for health risk behaviors that negatively influence health outcomes. We specifically argue that acculturation and low socioeconomic status contribute to less healthy diets, lower physical activity, and chronic stress, which then increases the risk of weight gain. We further contend that pathways from ethnicity/nativity and through acculturation and socioeconomic status likely explain disparities in weight gain between Mexican Americans and whites and between Mexican immigrants and whites. Study results largely support our conceptual model and have implications for thinking about solutions for reducing ethnic/nativity disparities in weight.

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Maria Vincenza Ciasullo and Orlando Troisi

The purpose of this paper is to study how a small to medium‐size enterprise (SME) in Campania (Italy) integrated sustainability into its corporate strategy, and how its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study how a small to medium‐size enterprise (SME) in Campania (Italy) integrated sustainability into its corporate strategy, and how its sustainable corporate strategies reflect on intangible assets.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper, an exploratory study based on grounded theory, analyzes are interviews with the entrepreneurial team and top and middle management. Findings are integrated with documentary analysis, internal process data and archival material.

Findings

Ethics and value systems play a significant role in devising sustainable corporate strategy. Competitive strategies, innovation, quality and responsibility are reflected in management procedures and the supply network system involving partners in sustainable innovation processes.

Research limitations/implications

A single case study obviously limits the generalizing of the findings.

Practical implications

Entrepreneurs and managers can benefit from the study to build a relational network for sustainable development.

Originality/value

The process of sustainable value creation, sharing and the co‐creation of knowledge emerges fully in the case study analyzed. The study pivots on issues of innovation and eco‐sustainability as drivers for corporate sustainability and business ethics.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Umberto Carabelli and Vito Leccese

The paper aims to examine favor and non‐regression clauses, appearing ‐ in several occasionsjointly ‐ in European Community social directives, in order to underline the…

Abstract

The paper aims to examine favor and non‐regression clauses, appearing ‐ in several occasions jointly ‐ in European Community social directives, in order to underline the differences in their nature, function and effects on Member States’ legislation, also considering that the favour clause is now present in the article 137 of the Treaty.

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Managerial Law, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

V. Kobelev

The purpose of this paper is to derive the exact analytical expressions for torsion and bending creep of rods with the Norton-Bailey, Garofalo and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to derive the exact analytical expressions for torsion and bending creep of rods with the Norton-Bailey, Garofalo and Naumenko-Altenbach-Gorash constitutive models. These simple constitutive models, for example, the time- and strain-hardening constitutive equations, were based on adaptations for time-varying stress of equally simple models for the secondary creep stage from constant load/stress uniaxial tests where minimum creep rate is constant. The analytical solution is studied for Norton-Bailey and Garofalo laws in uniaxial states of stress.

Design/methodology/approach

The creep component of strain rate is defined by material-specific creep law. In this paper the authors adopt, following the common procedure Betten, an isotropic stress function. The paper derives the expressions for strain rate for uniaxial and shear stress states for the definite representations of stress function. First, in this paper the authors investigate the creep for the total deformation that remains constant in time.

Findings

The exact analytical expressions giving the torque and bending moment as a function of the time were derived.

Research limitations/implications

The material isotropy and homogeneity preimposed. The secondary creep phase is considered.

Practical implications

The results of creep simulation are applied to practically important problem of engineering, namely for simulation of creep and relaxation of helical and disk springs.

Originality/value

The new, closed form solutions with commonly accepted creep models allow a deeper understanding of such a constitutive model's effect on stress and deformation and the implications for high temperature design. The application of the original solutions allows accurate analytic description of creep and relaxation of practically important problems in mechanical engineering. Following the procedure the paper establishes closed form solutions for creep and relaxation in helical, leaf and disk springs.

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Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Michael Lewis, Jane Ireland, Carol Ireland, Gail Derefaka, Kimberley McNeill and Philip Birch

This paper aims to assess whether the factor structure of the Psychopathic Processing and Personality Assessment (PAPA) could be confirmed in a large community sample (n

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess whether the factor structure of the Psychopathic Processing and Personality Assessment (PAPA) could be confirmed in a large community sample (n = 1,850), comprising three subsamples of adult men (n = 189, 248 and 198) and women (n = 499, 469 and 247). It was predicted that the four-factor solution originally proposed in earlier studies (i.e. dissocial tendencies, emotional detachment, disregard for others, lack of sensitivity to emotion) would be replicated and produce a multi-dimensional structure consistent across sex.

Design/methodology/approach

This study explored the structure of the newly developed PAPA among a non-forensic sample.

Findings

Although exploratory analysis indicated a four-factor solution, the structure was different with “lack of sensitivity to emotion” being replaced by “responsiveness to perceived aggression.” Confirmatory analyses supported this structure among women, yet a three-factor structure was preferred for men that excluded emotional detachment.

Research limitations/implications

This study highlights the importance of attending to sex differences when assessing for psychopathy.

Originality/value

This is the first confirmatory factor analysis completed on the PAPA, with the findings conveying its value when assessing for psychopathic traits among a community sample.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

L. Aldieri, M. Cincera, A. Garofalo and C.P. Vinci

The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of traditional inputs and firms' R&D capital on labour productivity growth.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of traditional inputs and firms' R&D capital on labour productivity growth.

Design/methodology/approach

The study measures the effects of the traditional inputs on firms' productivity growth, through four procedures: OLS in first differences, within group, GMM in first differences and GMM system.

Findings

Whatever the specification considered, the more efficient estimates obtained from the GMM system show a similar effect of the firm's R&D stock upon its labour productivity performance.

Practical implications

The results suggest that physical capital plays a more prominent role for European firms than for US ones, while employees are more productive in the USA.

Originality/value

By presenting some empirical evidence on the effects of R&D on labour productivity, at the firm level, the present study makes two main contributions to the existing literature. First, a unique firm‐level database for European and US firms is used. It is self evident that firms in these countries operate in different economic and institutional settings; as a consequence the results identify some robust common effects concerning the two areas considered (the USA versus Europe) at the micro level. Second, service and manufacturing sectors are merged.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Denise A. Garofalo

Reference Manager Professional Edition is designed to collect, format, and store up to 65 000 references. These references can be displayed or printed as bibliographies by…

Abstract

Reference Manager Professional Edition is designed to collect, format, and store up to 65 000 references. These references can be displayed or printed as bibliographies by Reference Manager, or copied into wordprocessing documents. Reference Manager Professional Edition runs under Microsoft Windows 3.1 on IBM/PCs, PS/2s and compatible computers; 4 Mb of RAM memory are recommended but the package will run with 2 Mb. Reference Manager Professional Edition sells for $398 and a capture module lists for an added $100, from Research Information Systems, Camino Corporate Center, 2355 Camino Vida Roble, Carlsbad, CA 92009, USA. Tel: +1 (619) 438 5526 or (800) 722 1227. Fax: +1 (619) 4385573.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2010

Tony Kai Pong Leung and John Adams

Peter F. Drucker (1909‐2005) was an influential modern management theorist. This paper, however, aims to challenge his diagnosis and prescriptions on the public sector for…

Abstract

Purpose

Peter F. Drucker (1909‐2005) was an influential modern management theorist. This paper, however, aims to challenge his diagnosis and prescriptions on the public sector for over‐simplifying several complex issues and not being sufficiently comprehensive. With the support of the empirical findings of a survey in the government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSARG), the authors seek to supplement Drucker's discussion on government and to propose managerial actions for implementing change.

Design/methodology/approach

An e‐mail questionnaire survey of 700 randomly selected government employees in Hong Kong was conducted. Additional information was gathered from senior management to validate the survey results.

Findings

In line with Drucker, HKSARG employees, as a whole, are reluctant to change. But statistical tests show that there are heterogeneous behavioural groups. Specifically, younger and more educated staff are more willing to change. The existence of these groups has both practical and managerial implications for implementing change.

Research limitations/implications

The usable sample is relatively small (n=66).

Practical implications

The government should not be viewed and understood unidirectionally. Management should target the younger and more educated users first to build up sufficient user mass and adopt peer pressure for a more successful level of implementation of IT usage across all staff. Job rotation and flexible entry and exit options are worth considering, too.

Originality/value

This research validates empirically the nature of HKSARG. It demonstrates that researchers' challenges to Drucker's views on government are well founded. More research on the characteristics of the public sector is required for better understanding of the real nature of these large, bureaucratic organisations.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Urban Dynamics and Growth: Advances in Urban Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-481-3

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