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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

A. Calahorra, S. Sali, Z. Hamish and H. Dodiuk

Peel adhesion of an epoxy filleting compound and Parylene C conformal coating to plasma treated, solder mask coated substrates and the apparent contact angle of water on the…

Abstract

Peel adhesion of an epoxy filleting compound and Parylene C conformal coating to plasma treated, solder mask coated substrates and the apparent contact angle of water on the treated surfaces were evaluated. No significant improvement was achieved in the case of the epoxy filleting adhesive for most solder mask coatings studied. On the other hand, Parylene C peel adhesion significantly increased after substrates were treated with air plasma and reached the level of Silane coupling agent primed substrates. This was in contrast to the decrease in Parylene adhesion to argon plasma treated substrates in comparison with the non‐treated substrates. This was related to the oxygen functionalities created on the surfaces by the air plasma versus the ablative nature of the argon plasma. No clear correlation was found between peel strength and the water contact angle in the case of the epoxy adhesive, while for the Parylene conformal coating peel strength achieved its maximum value at the middle of the contact angle range which resulted from the pretreatments applied in this study. It is concluded that air plasma is a very efficient solder mask pretreatment for Parylene conformal coating that can replace Silane primer. Also, if a calibration curve is established for each solder mask‐adhesive and solder mask‐coating system, the apparent water contact angle can serve as a convenient quality control tool for printed circuit finishing processes.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

A. Calahorra, S. Sali, L. Drori and S. Kenig

The insulation resistance of polyurethane and poly (para dichloroxylelene) conformal coating was characterised following exposure to hygrothermal environment. Three types of test…

Abstract

The insulation resistance of polyurethane and poly (para dichloroxylelene) conformal coating was characterised following exposure to hygrothermal environment. Three types of test specimens were used—the standard Y type pattern, the ‘comb’ pattern and the ‘twin’ conductor type. The PCB with the comb pattern has been found to be the best testing specimen for the evaluation and comparison of conformal coating materials and processes. Using this type of PCB, the effects of predrying and thickness in polyurethane coated PCBs have been studied. While predrying has proved to be beneficial for preventing degradation of insulation resistance upon exposure to hygrothermal conditions, only marginal improvement of resistance is obtained when the polyurethane coating thickness has been doubled from 50 to 100 µm. Tin‐plated copper exhibited enhanced insulation resistance compared with bare copper for both polyurethane and polyxylelene coatings. Finally, a thin polyxylelene coating has demonstrated improved moisture barrier properties compared with a thicker polyurethane coating as determined from the resistance degradation with exposure duration to heat and humidity.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Book part
Publication date: 5 May 2017

Bartosz Sawik, Javier Faulin and Elena Pérez-Bernabeu

The purpose of this chapter is to solve multi-objective formulation for traveling salesman and transportation problems. Computations are based on real data for the road freight…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to solve multi-objective formulation for traveling salesman and transportation problems. Computations are based on real data for the road freight transportation of a Spanish company. The company was selected because of its importance in Spanish economy and market. This company is important in the whole country; however, it has its higher importance in the northern part of Spain. The requirements for these models are the minimization of total distance and the CO2 emissions. To achieve this, it is required to know and carry out the minimization of the total distance traveled by the trucks during the deliveries. The deliveries are going to be executed between the different locations, nodes, in the region, and Elorrio, where the depot is situated. The data have been used to decide the best route in order to obtain a minimization of cost for the company. As it was mentioned earlier, the problems are focused on the reduction of the amount of CO2 emissions and minimization of total distance; by studying different parameters, the best solutions of route transportation have been obtained. The software used to solve these models is CPLEX solver with AMPL programming language.

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1953

M. ROBERT‐HENRI BAUTIER

Avant‐propos sous les auspices de l'Institut international de Coopération intellectuelle, paraissait en 1934 le t. I, consacré à l'Europe, du Guide international des Archives. Le…

Abstract

Avant‐propos sous les auspices de l'Institut international de Coopération intellectuelle, paraissait en 1934 le t. I, consacré à l'Europe, du Guide international des Archives. Le questionnaire envoyé à tous les États européens comportait sous les points 4 et 6 les questions suivantes: ‘Existe‐t‐il un guide général pour les diverses catégories d'Archives ou des guides particuliers pour l'une ou l'autre d'entre elles?’ et ‘Existe‐t‐il des catalogues imprimés, des publications tant officielles que privées, susceptibles de constituer un instrument complet de référence pour tout ou partie importante des fonds d'archives?’ Les réponses des divers pays à ces questions, malgré leur caractère très inégal, ont fait du Guide international un bon instrument d'information générale sur les Archives. Malheureusement les circonstances ont empêché la publication du volume consacré aux États non européens, tandis que le temps qui s'écoulait tendait à rendre périmés les renseignements fournis sur les Archives européennes.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Book part
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Bartosz Sawik

In this chapter, four bi-objective vehicle routing problems are considered. Weighted-sum approach optimization models are formulated with the use of mixed-integer programming. In…

Abstract

In this chapter, four bi-objective vehicle routing problems are considered. Weighted-sum approach optimization models are formulated with the use of mixed-integer programming. In presented optimization models, maximization of capacity of truck versus minimization of utilization of fuel, carbon emission, and production of noise are taken into account. The problems deal with real data for green logistics for routes crossing the Western Pyrenees in Navarre, Basque Country, and La Rioja, Spain.

Heterogeneous fleet of trucks is considered. Different types of trucks have not only different capacities, but also require different amounts of fuel for operations. Consequently, the amount of carbon emission and noise vary as well. Modern logistic companies planning delivery routes must consider the trade-off between the financial and environmental aspects of transportation. Efficiency of delivery routes is impacted by truck size and the possibility of dividing long delivery routes into smaller ones. The results of computational experiments modeled after real data from a Spanish food distribution company are reported. Computational results based on formulated optimization models show some balance between fleet size, truck types, and utilization of fuel, carbon emission, and production of noise. As a result, the company could consider a mixture of trucks sizes and divided routes for smaller trucks. Analyses of obtained results could help logistics managers lead the initiative in environmental conservation by saving fuel and consequently minimizing pollution. The computational experiments were performed using the AMPL programming language and the CPLEX solver.

Book part
Publication date: 5 May 2017

Bartosz Sawik, Javier Faulin and Elena Pérez-Bernabeu

The purpose of this chapter is to optimize multi-criteria formulation for green vehicle routing problems by mixed integer programming. This research is about the road freight…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to optimize multi-criteria formulation for green vehicle routing problems by mixed integer programming. This research is about the road freight transportation of a Spanish company of groceries. This company has more power in the north of Spain and hence it was founded there. The data used for the computational experiments are focused in the northern region of Spain. The data have been used to decide the best route in order to obtain a minimization of costs for the company. The problem focused on the distance traveled and the altitude difference; by studying these parameters, the best solution of route transportation has been made. The software used to solve this model is CPLEX solver with AMPL programming language. This has been helpful to obtain the results for the research and some conclusions have been obtained from them.

Details

Applications of Management Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-282-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2024

Neda Rasooli, Fariborz Jolai, Mohammad Mehdi Sepehri and Afsaneh Tehranian

The childbirth process is a complex and vital event that requires careful analysis and improvement. This experience can shape a woman's perspective on motherhood and even affect…

Abstract

Purpose

The childbirth process is a complex and vital event that requires careful analysis and improvement. This experience can shape a woman's perspective on motherhood and even affect her mental health. Healthcare providers must prioritize improving the birth experience for women. In this interdisciplinary research, a combination of business process modeling (BPM) and medicine have been used with the aim of realizing an improved delivery experience and increased maternal satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The data collection of this study was done by observing 518 childbirth processes and interviewing the chief of labor, chief residents, and midwives in the obstetrics and gynecology department of a hospital in Tehran from October 2022 to February 2023.

Findings

The research has been done in four main stages. The first phase is to model the primary process and sub-processes of normal vaginal delivery (NVD). The second phase is validation using expert confirmation and process mining (PM). The third phase is the analysis of the causes of maternal dissatisfaction in labor. The fourth phase of the heuristics redesigning and improving the process, in which for the first time three new categories have been presented including hospital-based, patient-based, and medical technique-based results show BPM intervention effect can be far-reaching in improving patient care and optimizing operational efficiency.

Originality/value

This study is one of only a few to adopt a process-oriented perspective to show how BPM can be used in clinical processes and has specifically examined an essential clinical process, i.e. childbirth.

Highlights

  1. Developing business process management (BMP) applications in a medical special process related to childbirth as interdisciplinary research.

  2. A combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques contains engineering software and management approaches for a Case study, Implementation of BPM lifecycle in the women's hospital in Iran, Tehran, for a clinical process, which is called, normal vaginal delivery (NVD) process for fetal expulsion normally.

  3. Modeling NVD clinical process and sub-process for the first time by BPMN2.0 notations in visual paradigm (VP) software and Validation of the made model with process mining (PM), by Disco process mining software. This was done through event log collection from HIS at the hospital.

  4. Improving the childbirth process by redesigning heuristics and Introducing two new categories special for clinical process improvement for the first time.

  5. Clinical process improvement heuristics obtained in this research are not consistent with the previous seven categories presented in previous studies such as Marlon Dumas' book. Therefore, we have introduced two new heuristics to redesign clinical processes compatible with medical centers, including hospital-based, patient-based, and medical technique-based.

  6. Providing a framework for clinical process modeling and improvement containing steps and tools.

Developing business process management (BMP) applications in a medical special process related to childbirth as interdisciplinary research.

A combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques contains engineering software and management approaches for a Case study, Implementation of BPM lifecycle in the women's hospital in Iran, Tehran, for a clinical process, which is called, normal vaginal delivery (NVD) process for fetal expulsion normally.

Modeling NVD clinical process and sub-process for the first time by BPMN2.0 notations in visual paradigm (VP) software and Validation of the made model with process mining (PM), by Disco process mining software. This was done through event log collection from HIS at the hospital.

Improving the childbirth process by redesigning heuristics and Introducing two new categories special for clinical process improvement for the first time.

Clinical process improvement heuristics obtained in this research are not consistent with the previous seven categories presented in previous studies such as Marlon Dumas' book. Therefore, we have introduced two new heuristics to redesign clinical processes compatible with medical centers, including hospital-based, patient-based, and medical technique-based.

Providing a framework for clinical process modeling and improvement containing steps and tools.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2023

Felipe Furtini Haddad, Kelly Carvalho Vieira and João de Deus Souza Carneiro

This paper aims to identify the profiles of beginner and experienced consumers (BCs and ECs) of craft beer and evaluate their perception, knowledge and purchase intention.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the profiles of beginner and experienced consumers (BCs and ECs) of craft beer and evaluate their perception, knowledge and purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 291 craft beer consumers including 148 BCs and 143 ECs participated in the study, which was divided into 2 stages: quantitative research through a questionnaire and conjoint analysis.

Findings

BCs are mostly female, with a lower age, income and consumption frequency, presented a shallower understanding of International Bitterness Units (IBU) and considered 7.0% alcohol by volume (ABV) as a high-relative value in craft beers. Otherwise, ECs are mostly men with a higher age and consumption frequency, and they don't consider 50 IBU as high bitterness. The results of conjoint analysis indicate that both groups of consumers attribute greater relative importance to ABV and nonalcoholic beers had lower purchase intentions. Finally, the authors show that beer with 30 IBU and 4.5% ABV is preferred by both BCs and ECs.

Originality/value

The authors' identification about the distinct behaviors of different groups of consumers, based on their consumption time of craft beer, as managerial implications for industries producing craft beer and, as a theoretical contribution, the authors have defined “BCs” and “ECs” based on the experiences with and durations of craft beer consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 126 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 October 2023

Kathrin Kirchner, Ralf Laue, Kasper Edwards and Birger Lantow

Medical diagnosis and treatment processes exhibit a high degree of variability, as during the process execution, healthcare professionals can decide on additional steps, change…

Abstract

Purpose

Medical diagnosis and treatment processes exhibit a high degree of variability, as during the process execution, healthcare professionals can decide on additional steps, change the execution order or skip a task. Process models can help to document and to discuss such processes. However, depicting variability in graphical process models using standardized languages, such as Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), can lead to large and complicated diagrams that medical staff who do not have formal training in modeling languages have difficulty understanding. This study proposes a pattern-based process visualization that medical doctors can understand without extensive training. The process descriptions using this pattern-based visualization can later be transformed into formal business process models in languages such as BPMN.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors derived patterns for expressing variability in healthcare processes from the literature and medical guidelines. Then, the authors evaluated and revised these patterns based on interviews with physicians in a Danish hospital.

Findings

A set of business process variability patterns was proposed to express situations with variability in hospital treatment and diagnosis processes. The interviewed medical doctors could translate the patterns into their daily work practice, and the patterns were used to model a hospital process.

Practical implications

When communicating with medical personnel, the patterns can be used as building blocks for documenting and discussing variable processes.

Originality/value

The patterns can reduce complexity in process visualization. This study provides the first validation of these patterns in a hospital.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2018

Alessio Ferrari, Hans Friedrich Witschel, Giorgio Oronzo Spagnolo and Stefania Gnesi

Business processes (BPs) of public administrations (PAs) are often described in the form of written procedures or operational manuals. These business process descriptions are…

Abstract

Purpose

Business processes (BPs) of public administrations (PAs) are often described in the form of written procedures or operational manuals. These business process descriptions are expected to be properly understood and applied by civil servants, who have to provide legally compliant service provisions to the citizens. However, process descriptions in the PA are sometimes hard to read, ambiguous, or vague, leading to false interpretations or even incorrect execution of the processes. The purpose of this paper is to focus on improving the descriptions of BPs to be used in PAs.

Design/methodology/approach

To this end, the authors present an in-depth domain analysis, including a literature review and interviews with PA stakeholders belonging to different realities. From this analysis, the authors identified a set of 52 typical defects of process descriptions.

Findings

The authors provide a set of guidelines and a template to constrain the definition of these documents and to mitigate the identified defects. Furthermore, the authors outline research challenges in the field of quality assessment of textual process descriptions for the PA.

Research limitations/implications

This paper addresses the needs of any PA officer who has to write an official procedure or operational manual, and should be studied by researchers who wish to provide automatic strategies to check the quality of these documents.

Originality/value

Text quality issues have been addressed in various fields (e.g. requirements engineering), but not in the area of BP descriptions of PAs. The contribution consists in the study of the quality issues that occur and create problems in the practice of this particular domain. Based on this insight, we provide directions for research that will find solutions to mitigate the issues.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

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