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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Peter Preisendoerfer, Ansgar Bitz and Frans J. Bezuidenhout

The purpose of this article is to investigate the current self-employment rate as well as entrepreneurial intentions of the township’s population on the basis of an

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to investigate the current self-employment rate as well as entrepreneurial intentions of the township’s population on the basis of an empirical case study of a single township. It is often assumed that the black population of South Africa (mostly living in townships) has a low participation rate in entrepreneurial activities and a low level of entrepreneurial ambitions. Besides the level of entrepreneurship, personal and socio-economic factors affecting participation in entrepreneurship are explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The article uses a face-to-face survey of about 350 adult residents of the township under investigation.

Findings

Contrary to the common assumption, entrepreneurial activity, which also includes all kinds of informal business ventures, cannot be qualified as low in the township under investigation. The same holds true for entrepreneurial ambitions, that is, people’s intentions to start their own business in the near future. The factors influencing the probability of self-employment are similar to what we know from many other studies in the field of entrepreneurship. Socio-demographic attributes (gender, age), human capital factors (schooling, health) and social network resources (membership of organizations, self-employed friends) are significant predictors of entrepreneurial activity. It proves to be difficult, however, to explain who, in fact, articulates entrepreneurial ambitions.

Practical implications

The findings show that the basic prerequisites for expanding black entrepreneurship in South Africa are in place. Politically, it seems appropriate to initiate more public support programs for black entrepreneurship, as such programs can help to translate entrepreneurial ambitions into action. However, to stay realistic, the contribution of entrepreneurship to overcome the structural problems of deprivation and poverty of the black population of South Africa should not be overestimated.

Originality/value

The article is based on a careful survey in a township using a random sample. Given the rare access to a disadvantaged township community, the result that there is no evidence of “lack of entrepreneurial impetus” deserves scientific and political attention.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2012

Rachel Meyer

In a context of increasing globalization and neoliberal restructuring and with labor's power diminishing vis-à-vis employers, American workers have turned in recent years…

Abstract

In a context of increasing globalization and neoliberal restructuring and with labor's power diminishing vis-à-vis employers, American workers have turned in recent years to community-based campaigns targeting local government. These mobilizations have received considerable attention from scholars who see this emerging community orientation as a significant strategic innovation. This study, alternatively, focuses on the subjective and ideological consequences of such mobilizations for those engaged in protest. In particular, it seeks to extend social movement theory regarding the transformative impact of collective action by asking: how do distinct forms of collective action bring about particular kinds of consciousness and identity among participants?

Scholars rooted in a variety of traditions – from theorists of “post-industrial” society and “new” social movements to state theorists and geographers – have suggested that identities fostered at the local level are characterized by a “defensive,” “introverted,” or “retrospective” quality. This study examines a local mobilization, the case of a living wage campaign in Chicago, which deviates from these expectations. Through an analysis of interviews with participants, I find that instead of spurring defensiveness the campaign engendered a citizenship identity that was both active and inclusive. In explaining why my findings diverge from existing theories of identity formation, my analysis highlights three conceptual deficiencies in the literature with respect to (1) the distinction between local versus transnational collective action, (2) the relationship between social movement goals/tactics and outcomes, and (3) the prioritization of “new” social movements over the labor movement. Examining the citizenship identities that developed during Chicago's living wage campaign is instructive, finally, for understanding the sources of counter-hegemonic subjectivity within a broader context of eroding citizenship rights and a dominant market fundamentalist ideology. More generally, this analysis paves the way for a more productive engagement among theories of social movements, citizenship, labor, and globalization.

Details

Political Power and Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-867-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2008

A. Bezuidenhout, C. Mlambo and W.D. Hamman

In financial analysis, forecasting often involves regressing one time series variable on another. However, to ensure that the models are correctly specified, one needs to…

Abstract

In financial analysis, forecasting often involves regressing one time series variable on another. However, to ensure that the models are correctly specified, one needs to first test for stationarity, co‐integration and causality. In testing for causality, the variables should be stationary. If non‐stationary, one can estimate the model in difference form, unless the variables are co‐integrated. This article determines whether cash flow and earnings variables are stationary, and which variable causes the other, using econometric analysis. In most cases, cash flow variables are found to cause earnings variables. This is so when the models are estimated in levels. However, when estimated in first differences, the causal relationship tends to be reversed such that earnings cause cash flows. Further study is recommended, whereby panel data could be used to improve the power of the tests.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2017

Sizwe Timothy Phakathi

This chapter examines and discusses the unintended outcomes of the production bonus scheme the mine had instituted to motivate and increase the productivity of the…

Abstract

This chapter examines and discusses the unintended outcomes of the production bonus scheme the mine had instituted to motivate and increase the productivity of the frontline mining teams. This is crucial given that the maladministration of the bonus system could lead to a range of undesired outcomes such as deteriorating levels of trust between management and frontline workers, prioritisation of production at the expense of safety, poor work relations and ultimately low levels of organisational, employee and team performance. There are a number of organisational, management and labour factors that can render a production bonus scheme effective or ineffective. These factors influence the nature and extent of worker reactions to the bonus scheme.

This chapter examines and discusses the factors that influenced the reaction of the mining teams to the team-based production bonus scheme and the extent to which mine management fulfilled its side of the bargain in the implementation of the production bonus. The chapter highlights the manner in which the team-based bonus system influenced teams of stope workers to engage in their informal organisational practice of making plan (planisa) in order to offset the snags that jeopardised their prospects of earning the production bonus. The chapter reveals that, to a large extent, the productivity bonus generated conflict rather than cooperation at the point of production down the mine. As a result, the incentive scheme failed to live up to expectations by not eliciting the desired levels of organisational, worker and team performance at the rock-face.

Details

Production, Safety and Teamwork in a Deep-Level Mining Workplace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-564-1

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Carel Nicolaas Bezuidenhout, Shamim Bodhanya and Linda Brenchley

Sugar from cane remains an important economic contributor in many countries. A lack of collaboration has been identified as a key problem in many of these regions. To…

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Abstract

Purpose

Sugar from cane remains an important economic contributor in many countries. A lack of collaboration has been identified as a key problem in many of these regions. To date, few sugar researchers have exploited the valuable supply chain collaboration knowledge available in the literature, such as the Supply Chain Collaboration Index (SCCI). This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from three sugarcane milling areas. The SCCI was contextualised from a psychological perspective and used in the quantitative data analyses. A special objective was to raise a number of pertinent questions, which would fast track stakeholders to a new level of collaboration.

Findings

Many relationships in the supply chain remain relatively positive. The main attributes of concern are stability, reliability, trust, personal relationships and communication. A lack of these attributes causes fragmentation, opportunism and a desire to over‐control. Mutuality and communication are key leverages in the system.

Research limitations/implications

There is a need to understand how collaboration could be enhanced when stakeholders hold different balances of power. This study is still limited to sugarcane milling in South Africa.

Practical implications

This paper demonstrates a partially quantitative research methodology to understand collaboration in a food supply chain. The authors also propose a tool to help industry stakeholders to resolve current problems.

Originality/value

The psychological profiling of SCCI attributes and subsequent correspondence analyses is original. A framework of collaboration questions combined with Kepner‐Tregoe Problem Analyses is unique. These tools are generic to any agricultural supply chain.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Sandra Hildbrand and Shamim Bodhanya

This paper aims to explore the complexity that characterises sugarcane production and supply systems by applying soft systems methodology (SSM) and the viable system model…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the complexity that characterises sugarcane production and supply systems by applying soft systems methodology (SSM) and the viable system model (VSM) based on an interpretive systemic approach. It seeks to understand the extent to which these methodologies may assist in exploring such a complexity.

Design/methodology/approach

SSM and VSM were combined with qualitative research methods to explore two sugarcane production and supply systems’ potential improvement possibilities.

Findings

Trust, transparency and communication shortcomings, poor miller–grower relationships, deficient systemic commitment, insular view, milling inefficiencies, sugarcane quality, quantity and consistency shortcomings, the industry setup and the lack of a common driver are core issues. SSM and VSM facilitated a thorough understanding, yet could not address detected deficiencies.

Research limitations/implications

The research was restricted to two milling areas, and only SSM and VSM were applied.

Practical implications

Presented findings can be used as a basis to facilitate improvement in sugarcane production and supply systems and to advocate the continuity of holistic considerations.

Originality/value

Neither SSM nor VSM have been applied in the sugar industry context. The sugarcane production and supply systems have been holistically investigated, and soft issues have been considered.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Elisha R.T. Chiware

The paper presents a literature review on research data management services in African academic and research libraries on the backdrop of the advancing open science and…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper presents a literature review on research data management services in African academic and research libraries on the backdrop of the advancing open science and open research data infrastructures. It provides areas of focus for library to support open research data.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature analysis and future role of African libraries in research data management services were based on three areas as follows:open science, research infrastructures and open data infrastructures. Focussed literature searches were conducted across several electronic databases and discovery platforms, and a qualitative content analysis approach was used to explore the themes based on a coded list.

Findings

The review reports of an environment where open science in Africa is still at developmental stages. Research infrastructures face funding and technical challenges. Data management services are in formative stages with progress reported in a few countries where open science and research data management policies have emerged, cyber and data infrastructures are being developed and limited data librarianship courses are being taught.

Originality/value

The role of the academic and research libraries in Africa remains important in higher education and the national systems of research and innovation. Libraries should continue to align with institutional and national trends in response to the provision of data management services and as partners in the development of research infrastructures.

Details

Library Management, vol. 41 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2017

Sizwe Timothy Phakathi

This chapter provides an ethnographic account of conducting organisational research in a deep-level gold mining workplace. The ethnography presented in this book entailed…

Abstract

This chapter provides an ethnographic account of conducting organisational research in a deep-level gold mining workplace. The ethnography presented in this book entailed living in the mine hostel, observing and participating in the production tasks of the underground mining teams for a full production shift for a period stretching over six months. The chapter discusses the day-to-day running of the production process at the rock-face down the mine. This section is important for understanding the organisation of the production cycle and the actions of the mining teams, foremen and management to ensuring the smooth daily running of the production process inside the pit. Furthermore, the chapter presents an overview of AfricaGold’s business performance in terms of operational efficiency, productivity and safety.

Details

Production, Safety and Teamwork in a Deep-Level Mining Workplace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-564-1

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Book part
Publication date: 4 November 2021

Gloria Sauti

Online teaching particularly through Open Distance and e-Learning (ODeL) has become a phenomenon in the twenty-first century. ODeL and blended approaches inevitably lead…

Abstract

Online teaching particularly through Open Distance and e-Learning (ODeL) has become a phenomenon in the twenty-first century. ODeL and blended approaches inevitably lead to increasing dependence on electronic communication systems. The University of South Africa (Unisa), where the author teaches, enables students through its Learner Management System to interact with lecturers and e-tutors online. The responsibilities of e-tutors are of an educative and technical nature. Their roles include guiding and assisting students, encouraging active participation, responding to their queries and grading their assignments. In addition, e-tutors provide notifications and assign tasks or activities that students are expected to complete and submit. In several cases, these forms of assistance are absent, when there is a lack of follow-up within the response period which is 24 hours – missing notifications and lack of guidance – rendering these e-tutors ineffective. The chapter provides strategies that were analyzed and implemented to motivate effective tutoring and enhance student participation learning. The author draws on her analysis as a virtual ethnographer and long-term participant observer as an e-tutor and lecturer who supervised e-tutors and taught a large number of students – 2,500. The objective of the chapter is to encourage effective tutoring that can enhance students’ success.

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2014

Sandra Hildbrand and Shamim Bodhanya

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the viable system model (VSM) as a valuable tool to the food industry. A sugarcane supply chain was used to evaluate VSM's…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the viable system model (VSM) as a valuable tool to the food industry. A sugarcane supply chain was used to evaluate VSM's applicability to the food industry by exploring how VSM can help to understand its complexity.

Design/methodology/approach

VSM and qualitative research methods were combined in an interactive manner to produce a VSM diagnosis.

Findings

The VSM diagnosis highlighted that while continuity of the system is not at risk, many improvement opportunities exist. For example, the local mill management lacks autonomy, essential operational measurement cannot be realised, coordination is deficient and a vision or identity for the mill area and a joint effort to engage in strategic considerations is missing. Miller-grower fragmentation surfaced as one cause of these shortcomings.

Research limitations/implications

Although VSM revealed shortcomings, it was unable to facilitate interventions for improvement. VSM's capacity in dealing with shortcomings should be strengthened and the merit of VSM in other food-related supply systems should be investigated.

Practical implications

Millers and growers need to become genuine partners and work jointly on the issues that challenge the system to realise the full potential that is embedded in the system.

Originality/value

VSM has not been applied in the sugar industry context and the amount of researches that explore sugarcane supply chains holistically is limited.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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