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Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) has produced heterogeneous and domain-specific effects on cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the effect of RIF on…
Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) has produced heterogeneous and domain-specific effects on cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the effect of RIF on verticality perception or estimation of subjective visual vertical (SVV) in young adults. The significance of SVV is that it is essential for spatial orientation, upon which many daily activities depend.
Verticality perception was assessed with a computerized rod and frame test (CRFT) in two visual conditions: without a surrounding frame and with a distracting tilted frame. The tilted frame condition measures level of visual dependence or reliance of visual cues for posture and orientation. In total, 39 young adult men were recruited at different stages of Ramadan fasting: 21 were tested at the end of the first week (Week 1) and 18 others at the end of the third week (Week 3) of Ramadan. Also, 39 participants were recruited to serve as a non-fasting control group. Factorial ANOVA analyses were conducted to identify the main effects of fasting status, time-of-day and the interaction between them on blood glucose levels, nocturnal sleep duration and vertical alignment errors.
The main effect of fasting status on glucose level was significant (p = 0.03). There was a significant time-of-day main effect on glucose levels (p = 0.007) and sleep duration (p = 0.004) only in fasting participants. Neither the main effects of fasting status nor time-of-day were significant for rod alignment errors in both visual conditions. The interaction of fasting status and time-of-day was not significant either. This may indicate that any negative effect of Ramadan fasting on activities that are critically dependent on verticality perception and spatial orientation, such as sports and driving, may not be due to verticality misperception.
The present study was the first to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on spatial orientation. It demonstrated robustness of verticality perception to fasting status and the point of fasting during Ramadan. Verticality perception was also unaffected by time-of-day effects in non-fasting and fasting groups at two different points of Ramadan. This study corroborates others reporting heterogeneous effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function.
The correlation structure of the Burrell and Cane mixed Poisson model for library loans with ageing is presented and is illustrated by data from the University of Sussex…
The correlation structure of the Burrell and Cane mixed Poisson model for library loans with ageing is presented and is illustrated by data from the University of Sussex. The approach is compared and contrasted with that originally formulated by Morse and most recently re‐evaluated by Beheshti and Tague. Directions for future investigation are suggested.
Starting from a basis laid by Burrell, this paper develops a stochastic model of library borrowing using the Negative Binomial distribution. This shows an improvement over previous characterizations for academic libraries and accords well with new data obtained at Huddersfield Public Library. Evidence concerning the process of issue decay is presented and employed to obtain an optimum stock turnover rate for any collection in its ‘steady state’. A method is then given by which simple relegation tests can be constructed to maintain such as optimum turnover. Although not the ‘final word’ in circulation modelling, the negative binomial distribution extends the range of model applicability into the area of high volume, rapid movement collections with some success.
The success of many high‐contact services depends on customers' compliance with providers' instructions. While existing service marketing literature urges increased…
The success of many high‐contact services depends on customers' compliance with providers' instructions. While existing service marketing literature urges increased attention to customer compliance, there is, to date, little research investigating its role of compliance in service settings. Based on social cognitive theory, this study aims to fill this important research gap, developing and testing a model to explore the antecedents and consequences of customer compliance in high‐contact service settings. Service friendship is included as a mediator between the antecedents and compliance. Two control variables, relationship duration and contact frequency, were also included in the model.
A research framework is proposed to suggest the antecedents and consequences of both service friendship and customer compliance. Extant research from various research streams is reviewed, deriving 11 hypotheses. Data collected from customers of high‐contact service industries are examined through structural equation modeling.
Results show that the service provider's social skills, customer orientation, and expertise are positively related to service friendship and customer compliance, which in turn affect customer satisfaction and anticipated future interaction. The control variables are also both positively associated with service friendship and anticipated future interaction.
This research represents an early attempt at explaining what affects customer compliance in high‐contact service settings. Future research directions are discussed, with emphasis on incorporating customer characteristics, service interaction characteristics, and employee viewpoints to better understand service friendship and compliance in different service settings.
Customer compliance is a vital component of high‐contact service interactions between employees and customers. Service managers should encourage the formation of customer compliance in conjunction with service friendship to achieve better service outcomes.
This study represents the first study in the service marketing literature to establish a model that explains the mechanism of customer compliance in general service settings. The addition of two control variables representing relationship quantity also enhances the originality and contribution of this study.
The purpose of this paper is to consider a number of issues around the poor adoption of healthcare simulation models and reflect whether there has been a broad failure of…
The purpose of this paper is to consider a number of issues around the poor adoption of healthcare simulation models and reflect whether there has been a broad failure of academic healthcare simulation modellers to build models that reflect real healthcare problems as acknowledged by healthcare stakeholders. This paper will also review the role of healthcare planners within the health sector and propose that they are well suited to act as change agents to improve the adoption of simulation within the sector.
This paper reviewed academic evidence around poor adoption of simulation modelling in healthcare, including differences to other sectors, its size and complexity, stakeholder issues and current and future challenges to improve operational efficiency. This paper also reviewed the role of healthcare planning and its valuable links with health stakeholders, suggesting that these links could be exploited to increase simulation modelling within the healthcare sector to improve operational efficiency.
This paper highlights the strong links between healthcare planning and the healthcare stakeholders and proposes that healthcare planning can play a key role in adoption of healthcare simulation modelling to achieve operational efficiency improvements.
This paper illustrates the potential link between healthcare planning and healthcare stakeholders to achieve operational improvements within the health sector.
Medical practice guidelines are increasingly being used by managed care plans to ensure quality of care while achieving cost reductions. However, it is unclear that…
Medical practice guidelines are increasingly being used by managed care plans to ensure quality of care while achieving cost reductions. However, it is unclear that physicians are complying with these clinical protocols. This paper reviews pertinent literature to assist in: understanding why physicians encounter different incentives for complying with guidelines; identifying initiatives that managed care plans can utilize in managing clinical guidelines; and, identifying a research agenda for investigating issues surrounding physician compliance with guidelines.