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Marine fisheries are one of the few economic activities present everywhere along the Kenyan coastline. The local population is involved mainly in artisanal fishing which…
Marine fisheries are one of the few economic activities present everywhere along the Kenyan coastline. The local population is involved mainly in artisanal fishing which uses small non‐motorized fishing crafts that stay close to shore. Some of the catch is destined for local consumption but most is for sale. The purpose of this paper is to question whether fish traders in artisanal fisheries along the Kenyan coast earn enough money from only fish trading to support a household.
Fish traders were surveyed at two landing sites at each of five coastal tracts. Structured questionnaires, informal interviews and participatory observations were used in collecting data.
Average income for the fish traders from only fish trading was Ksh 1,268 per week; only 20.3 percent of the households was at or above the poverty line. However, there was a large difference between male and female traders in earning. Men earned Ksh 1,693 per week and women Ksh 795 per week. The poverty line for households was reached by 30.8 percent of the male traders but only by 8.8 percent of the female traders.
Livelihood diversification could greatly help improve the income. It was estimated that when earnings other than from fish trading (from the traders or someone else in the household) were added to that of fish trading, 27.4 percent of the households was at or above the poverty line. For men traders, it was 54 percent of the households but for women it was only 15 percent.
Tree fodder is an important constituent of livestock feed in the mid‐hills of Nepal, particularly so during the dry winter. The purpose of this paper is to compare the…
Tree fodder is an important constituent of livestock feed in the mid‐hills of Nepal, particularly so during the dry winter. The purpose of this paper is to compare the ranking of tree fodders by indigenous goat raisers to the selectivity of fodder by goats.
Fodder from six trees, namely, khanayo (Ficus semicordata), sal (Shorea robusta), kabro (Ficus lacor), pakhuri (Ficus globerrima), katus (Catannopsis tribuloides) and aanp (Mangifera indica) are used. Goat raisers rank the six fodders, giving 1 as the most preferred by goats and 6 as the least preferred. In addition, a feeding trial is carried out in which the six fodders are offered simultaneously to adult, castrated male and lactating, female local khari goats and intake of each fodder is determined.
Khanayo (1.00) is ranked highest by the goat farmers, followed by kabro (2.47), pakhuri (3.58), sal (4.16), aanp (4.56) and katus (5.21). Selectivity by the goats is highest in khanayo and kabro, intermediate in aanp and pakhuri and lowest in katus and sal. The correlation between farmer ranking and goat selectivity approaches significance (r=0.48; Mantel P<0.09). A significant correlation is found between fodder selections of male and female goats (r=0.68; Mantel P<0.01). Among components, fodder selectivity of goats is highly correlated (P<0.01) with calcium concentration only. Generally, goats select fodders high in calcium and crude protein and minimize intakes of fodders high in lignin and condensed tannins.
The indigenous population is knowledgeable about the fodder preference of goats but, in practice, they generally offer only one fodder species to the goats at a feeding. However, this paper shows that the goats consume and, most likely, require a mixed diet of tree fodders in satisfying their requirements of nutrients and energy while minimizing their intake of detrimental. This should be taken into consideration by the farmers when feeding their livestock.
This paper comments on Allan Gibb’s keynote address to the Small Business and Enterprise Conference earlier this year reproduced in this issue of the Journal. Gibb offers a…
This paper comments on Allan Gibb’s keynote address to the Small Business and Enterprise Conference earlier this year reproduced in this issue of the Journal. Gibb offers a critical assessment of the ways in which small business theory and research and policy making have handled the transfer of ideas as a basis for small business support policies. The arguments offered are hard hitting and persuasive, especially as an explanation for the poor record of support programmes in transitional economies. This response extends Gibb’s arguments, drawing out some implications. For instance, one of his themes is that small business theorising and research needs to give more attention to cultural and non‐economic phenomena, and this paper suggests ways in which this needs to occur. It concludes that, by accepting Gibb’s arguments, policy making would be more effective and small business theorising and research would be stronger, achieving closer relations with other social science disciplines.