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Article

Kay Whitehead

In February 1922 the editor of the SA Teachers’ Journal introduced aCountry Corner’ column that was to be contributed by a member of the Women Teachers Progressive…

Abstract

In February 1922 the editor of the SA Teachers’ Journal introduced aCountry Corner’ column that was to be contributed by a member of the Women Teachers Progressive League (WTPL) under the pen name ‘Tish’. Tish was Phebe Watson, the WTPL secretary (a position she had held since its inauguration in 1915), Women’s Warden at the Teachers College and Mistress of Method in charge of the short course of training for country teachers. This article focuses on representations of the country teacher in the Country Corner column in the interwar years. I argue that Phebe invoked contemporary discourses of youth and femininity to construct the rural teacher as a youthful, responsible, attractive and marriageable woman. Following on from recent research into ways in which city functioned both as a place and representation in education, I also begin to identify discourses of the country and the city in constructions of the teacher and teachers’ work.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

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Book part

Thomas M. Smith and Albert Motivans

This chapter addresses the issue of teacher quantity, quality and their interrelationships. It first sets out the scope of the ‘quantity gap’ in primary teachers in…

Abstract

This chapter addresses the issue of teacher quantity, quality and their interrelationships. It first sets out the scope of the ‘quantity gap’ in primary teachers in sub-Saharan Africa, from 1991 to the present and towards the EFA target date of 2015. It then assesses different measures of ‘quality’ among current primary teaching forces. It begins by looking at how countries compare in terms of the percentage of teachers that meet nationally specific criteria of a ‘qualified’ teacher and as linked to an internationally comparable benchmark of teachers’ educational attainment. The next section looks beyond minimum qualification standards to examine the educational qualifications that teachers actually based on data covering 13 South and East African countries. Among the same group of countries, it opens a discussion concerning direct measures of teachers’ knowledge of science and mathematics and academic skills. The final section then examines measures of in-service training or the continuing professional development of the current teaching force based on the results of a regional assessment study.

Details

Education for All
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1441-6

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Book part

Motoko Akiba

These are headlines of news articles in a national newspaper in a country outside of the United States. The media coverage of teacher scandals increased since 2001…

Abstract

These are headlines of news articles in a national newspaper in a country outside of the United States. The media coverage of teacher scandals increased since 2001, reaching the highest 89 cases in 2004. The teachers in this country, the readers would conclude, have serious problems. They would wonder what is wrong with these teachers and speculate that teaching is not a well-respected or well-paid occupation in this country.

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Teacher Reforms Around the World: Implementations and Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-654-5

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Book part

Kabba E. Colley

This chapter focuses on a study, which investigates the question: How do teacher education policies match teacher education practices in Anglophone West Africa? Teacher

Abstract

This chapter focuses on a study, which investigates the question: How do teacher education policies match teacher education practices in Anglophone West Africa? Teacher education policy in this chapter refers to action statements in verbal or written form made by national education authorities/agencies about teacher education, while teacher education practice refers to the work that teachers do. Using the method of research synthesis, multi-layered, purposeful sampling of various data sources, Boolean and non-Boolean search strategies, qualitative and quantitative analytical procedures, the study identified over a hundred documents. Out of these, 77 documents met the criteria for inclusion in the study. The distribution of research outcomes by Anglophone West African countries were as follows: 18.2% were on Gambia, 27.3% were on Ghana, 10.4% were on Liberia, 24.7% were on Nigeria, and 19.5% were on Sierra Leone. From this research synthesis, it is evident that there is a gap between teacher education policy and practice in Anglophone West Africa. Most teacher education policies are “add-on,” meaning that they were formulated as part of a larger national policy framework on basic, secondary and tertiary education. In addition, the research synthesis found that Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone are very similar in terms of their pre-service teacher training models, but differ in their in-service and professional development systems, while Liberia has a slightly different in-service model with varying durations. The limitations and implications of the findings for further comparative and international education research are discussed in the chapter.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2014
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-453-4

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Book part

John C. Weidman, W. James Jacob and Daniel Casebeer

There has been a resurgence of interest in comparative and international research on teacher education that has been driven, in large part, by the emergence over the past…

Abstract

There has been a resurgence of interest in comparative and international research on teacher education that has been driven, in large part, by the emergence over the past two decades of comprehensive international studies of student achievement supported by (1) the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and (2) the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). Widely published country rankings that set benchmarks for student achievement suggest the importance of understanding more fully what specific characteristics set highly ranked countries apart, especially quality of teaching and teacher education.

Recent literature on comparative and international teacher education is reviewed, focusing on special issues of Prospects (Vol. 42, March 2012, “Internationalization of Teacher Education”), sponsored by the UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE) in Geneva, Switzerland, and the International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education (Vol. 11, August 2013, “International Perspectives on Mathematics and Science Teacher Education for the Future”), sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan.

A conceptual framework for describing the complexity of teacher education in comparative and international context is presented, adapting an approach used for understanding educational change and reform in emerging democracies. The chapter concludes with a discussion of theoretical perspectives that have been applied to teacher education in comparative and international education with recommendations for new directions that might inform scholarly understanding as well as practice.

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Article

Adam E. Nir and Melly Naphcha

The purpose of research is to attempt to determine to what extent the salary level of teachers working in public educational systems is connected with the trend towards…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of research is to attempt to determine to what extent the salary level of teachers working in public educational systems is connected with the trend towards privatization considering that privatization has become nowadays a prominent phenomenon in educational systems around the world.

Design/methodology/approach

A secondary analysis of the 2003 data coming from 29 OECD countries is conducted attempting to reveal what educational as well as economic antecedents other than the GDP per capita may account for the differences among various countries in the salary level of teachers working in public education.

Findings

When GDP per capita is controlled in the analysis, it is evident that teacher salary level is correlated with the degree of privatization characterizing a particular educational system. Specifically, the evidence suggests that if less than 15 percent of the students study in private schools in a given state, teachers' salaries are likely to be below the expected salary according to the state's GDP per capita.

Originality/value

These findings enable the conclusion that the existence of a private sector alongside the public one may indirectly contribute to an increase of the salary level of teachers working in the public education sector.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part

Gita Steiner-Khamsi

In focusing on the changing dynamics of education governance, this chapter draws on a few key concepts of policy borrowing research, notably the focus on reception and…

Abstract

In focusing on the changing dynamics of education governance, this chapter draws on a few key concepts of policy borrowing research, notably the focus on reception and translation of global education policy, and sheds light on the temporal and spatial dimensions of policy transfer. It is not sufficient to simply acknowledge that one and the same global education policies means something different to different actors in different contexts. In addition, to providing a “thick description” of why global education policies are received and how they are translated, a specific strand of policy borrowing research – well represented in this edited volume – examines the global/local nexus and acknowledges that local actors are positioned simultaneously in two spaces: in their own (cultural/local) context and in a broader transnational “educational space.” From a systems theory perspective, the broader educational space is Umwelt (environment) and therefore local actors interact at critical moments with the broader educational space. The policy bilingualism (or in the work of Tavis Jules, the “policy trilingualism” when the local, regional, and global is taken into the account) is a result of policy actors operating simultaneously in two spaces that are populated with two different audiences: local and global actors. The example of bonus payments in Kyrgyzstan, a local adaptation of global teacher accountability reform, is used to explain how the method of comparison is used as an analytical tool to understand the global/local nexus in the policy process.

Details

The Global Educational Policy Environment in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-044-2

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Article

George Odhiambo

The purpose of this paper is to examine issues of quality and quality assurance in Kenyan schools, identify reasons why Kenya government has difficulties in achieving its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine issues of quality and quality assurance in Kenyan schools, identify reasons why Kenya government has difficulties in achieving its well documented search for quality education and to trace the process for ensuring the accountability of teachers in Kenya. This focus is done under conditions of significant changes in government policies and educational restructuring.

Design/methodology/approach

The reflections are done through a review of variety of research and analytical sources.

Findings

The review shows that the government, whose approach has been ambivalent and paradoxical, has determined teacher accountability and that the underlying cause of poor quality education in Kenya's schools is not the performance of teachers per se but deeply rooted management practices and other government policies which will have to change if this dream is to be realized. The evaluation of teachers' work should not be separated from development since quality is dependent on professional development. There is no development without challenge and quality development depends on the participation of all persons involved in teaching and learning.

Practical implications

The most obvious practical implication of this paper is that education in Kenya needs complete overhaul and not piecemeal reforms. Above all, there is need to invest regularly in the development of teachers, as teachers need access to continuous and effective updating and updating systems.

Originality/value

This paper provides an opportunity for reflection and builds a foundation on some of the key challenges that face education and teachers in Kenya. The paper suggests directions for leading Kenyan schools into a successful future.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part

Alexander W. Wiseman and Emily Anderson

The Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2014 provides an opportunity for reflection and debate of current issues in the field. Central among these is…

Abstract

The Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2014 provides an opportunity for reflection and debate of current issues in the field. Central among these is how comparative and international education (CIE) is defined by scholars and practitioners, and how these understandings contribute to the field’s sense of professional and academic identity. The work of teachers and teaching in classrooms worldwide comprises much of the CIE field’s technical core and focus of policymaking as well as other relevant activity. As a result, the education of teachers and their professional development are key, and often undervalued, components. Based upon this foundation, the 2014 Annual Review highlights ways that teacher education and professional development impact CIE research and professional activity, and vice versa.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2014
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-453-4

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Article

Tiina Leino Lindell

The digitalization of society places new demands on education. It is apparent since most countries have introduced curricula requirements to digitalize teaching. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The digitalization of society places new demands on education. It is apparent since most countries have introduced curricula requirements to digitalize teaching. This study examines the organizational support teachers need to digitalize teaching. The study is being conducted in Sweden because they have experienced challenges with the introduction of new national digitalization requirements. Thus, this study explores the following research question: What organizational support do Swedish teachers describe they need to meet the curriculum requirements for digitalization?

Design/methodology/approach

Cultural–historical activity theory and qualitative methods have been used to explore the research aim and answer the question.

Findings

The results show that teachers need organizational support to gain equal and easy access to digital tools. Moreover, digital tools in an organization must be relevantly related to the requirements. Teachers also need support to increase their knowledge as well as the knowledge of the students. Also, organizations must support teachers by distributing the work of digitalization clearly and reasonably. These results, thus, show that teachers cannot be solely responsible for meeting these curriculum requirements. They need organizational support in the process.

Originality/value

The study reveals teachers' recurring problems concerning digitalized education and their need for organizational support. Thereby, the knowledge can be used to avoid similar problems, in organizations on different society levels. This contribution is useful for organizations, politicians, school leaders, principals and teachers who are introducing 1:1 and new curriculum requirements for digitalization of education.

Details

The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4880

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