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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2018

Gopalakrishnan Narayanamurthy, Anand Gurumurthy and Roger Moser

Before initiating the implementation of change for transforming and improving an organization through lean thinking (LT), it has to first select a right value stream…

Abstract

Purpose

Before initiating the implementation of change for transforming and improving an organization through lean thinking (LT), it has to first select a right value stream. Several implementation studies have been documented in literature, but not many studies have addressed this issue of value stream selection. The purpose of this paper is to propose and empirically validate a framework for selecting a value stream to implement LT.

Design/methodology/approach

8A framework is proposed by reviewing the literature on LT implementation case studies. Single case study methodology has been adopted to validate the application of 8A framework for selecting a value stream in an Indian educational institute. Since multiple qualifiers are considered simultaneously, a multi-criteria decision-making approach has been employed for choosing the value stream.

Findings

Utility of the proposed 8A framework for value stream selection was confirmed through its successful application in an educational institute. Out of three alternatives in the case organization, the teaching alternative was chosen for further LT implementation based on the application of 8A framework. Qualitative cross-validation and sensitivity analysis also confirmed the robustness of the value stream selection made using the 8A framework.

Research limitations/implications

Framework proposed in this study comprehensively captures the important qualifiers that were overlooked by the widely adopted first tenet of LT. Future research can attempt to generalize the applicability of 8A framework in different contexts including manufacturing, healthcare, software development, etc. A further study can be carried out in two similar case organizations or in two value streams of the same case organization (say in two different plants) to compare the differences in the outcome of lean implementation when one chooses its value stream for LT implementation without the application of the proposed framework, while another chooses it by applying the 8A framework.

Practical implications

Through structured evaluation of the comprehensive set of qualifiers in 8A framework using a multi-criteria decision making model, an informed decision can be taken by the practitioners in selecting a value stream from the available alternatives before proceeding with the implementation of LT.

Originality/value

After questioning the existing procedure of value stream selection for LT implementation, this study is the first to propose and validate an 8A framework that overcomes the limitations of the existing procedure. Study is also unique in the choice of the case organization as not many research papers have documented implementation of LT from the context of educational institutes.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Mahima Mathur, Ritu Mehta and Sanjeev Swami

This paper develops a comprehensive marketing framework that firms could use as a foundation for developing a successful business model that ensures sustainability in BOP markets.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper develops a comprehensive marketing framework that firms could use as a foundation for developing a successful business model that ensures sustainability in BOP markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a qualitative research approach based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with founders or senior managers of Indian firms who have been successfully operating in the Indian BOP market. The data is then systematically coded and categorized with the help of software to get better insights.

Findings

The findings of the paper indicate that although the traditional 4As of marketing are important, they do not explain the success of firms adequately. Based on the findings of the interviews, we propose an 8A model that comprises the original 4As along with adaptability, assistance, action innovation and accelerating scale.

Practical implications

The proposed 8A framework would be useful for domestic and multi-national firms aiming to make a foray into the Indian BOP market.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on the BOP market by identifying the factors important for succeeding in the BOP market. It builds on the 4A model to propose 8As marketing framework in the context of BOP markets.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds his/her own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Organizational learning is one of those themes that everyone within a firm can get on board with. It sounds important and logical, and no one is going to argue against organizational learning, are they? Once the HR department declares your firm a “learning organization” and ensures that knowledge management processes are updated, new training is rolled out and mentoring introduced across hierarchies, everyone will be happy in the knowledge that they are now part of a learning organization.

Practical implications

This paper provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world’s leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1975

G.H. Garbett and AMRAeS

Smiths Industries is to supply the head‐up display system for the Sea Harrier. The company will design, develop and make the electronic head‐up display and weapon aiming…

Abstract

Smiths Industries is to supply the head‐up display system for the Sea Harrier. The company will design, develop and make the electronic head‐up display and weapon aiming computer system for the latest version of the HS Harrier which will operate from Royal Navy ships.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 47 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

DAVID ELLIS

A behavioural approach to information retrieval system design is outlined based on the derivation of a behavioural model of the information seeking patterns of academic…

Abstract

A behavioural approach to information retrieval system design is outlined based on the derivation of a behavioural model of the information seeking patterns of academic social scientists. The information seeking patterns of a variety of academic social scientists were broken down into six characteristics: starting, chaining, browsing, differentiating, monitoring, and extracting. These characteristics constitute the principal generic features of the different individual patterns, and together provide a flexible behavioural model for information retrieval system design. The extent to which these characteristics are available on existing systems is considered, and the requirements for implementing the features on an experimental system are set out.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Satu Kalliola and Jukka Niemelä

Outsourcing has gained favor since the 1980s, and Finnish paper companies used it as late as 2006, when a group of female cleaners were outsourced from the case plant of…

Abstract

Outsourcing has gained favor since the 1980s, and Finnish paper companies used it as late as 2006, when a group of female cleaners were outsourced from the case plant of this study. This article focuses on the context of outsourcing, characterized by the bargaining power and choices made by the bargaining parties, the responses of the cleaners over time and the potential theoretical explanations of the outcome. The responses, such as disappointment and anger, mental and physical tiredness, sickness absenteeism, and starting to get adjusted, were interpreted in the frameworks of occupational culture, the job characteristics model, old and new craftsmanship, and relational and transactional psychological contracts. The method was a combination of naturalistic inquiry and abduction. The study points out that more than one theoretical framework was needed to gain an understanding of the situation.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Susan L. Hillman and Neha Chheda

The quality of teaching across the world is often defined by students’ academic achievement. Yet, teaching and learning is a complex phenomenon. Standards and policy…

Abstract

The quality of teaching across the world is often defined by students’ academic achievement. Yet, teaching and learning is a complex phenomenon. Standards and policy documents, internationally and within India, specify knowledge and skills for teachers. A variety of evaluation tools exist to measure teaching performance. The authors describe a Teacher Performance Review Process (TPRP) using a diagnostic tool internationally benchmarked and contextualized for India. Initially, 408 teachers from 10 schools completed the TPRP, with 95 teachers from 3 schools completing two cycles of TPRP. The TPRP incorporated multiple sources of evidence for rating each teacher on 27 performance indicators using a four-point scale. Rating frequencies were analyzed and results reported for an initial and second cycle of TPRP. Feedback from teachers and school leaders indicated this process supported improving the quality of teaching. TPRP, implemented as a cyclical process capturing evidence from multiple sources over time, potentially provides comprehensive documentation of the complex phenomenon of teaching performance, and supports teachers in continuous improvement.

Details

Building Teacher Quality in India: Examining Policy Frameworks and Implementation Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-903-3

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Abstract

Details

Dynamic General Equilibrium Modelling for Forecasting and Policy: A Practical Guide and Documentation of MONASH
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-260-4

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2010

Martin Johanson and Pao T. Kao

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to provide a review of literature that analyses the internationalisation of the firm, through the function and role of networks.…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to provide a review of literature that analyses the internationalisation of the firm, through the function and role of networks.

Design/methodology/approach – A total of 23 papers (published between 1988 and 2008) explicitly using network as a research framework to study the internationalisation process of the firm were selected. They have been analysed according to a range of factors, including the author, journal, time frame in which they were published, type of focal firm, country of origin of focal firms, market entered, methods applied in the studies, theories adopted and research topic.

Findings – Networks have emerged as one of the dominant frameworks used to explain the phenomenon of internationalisation. Having originally been applied in studies of firms from developed countries entering similar markets, network theories are now as popular in studies of firms both originating in and entering emerging markets. This review also finds that both qualitative and quantitative methods have been adopted in the studies; however, few papers have tried to combine the two. Furthermore, the network approach has been used for comparative analysis with findings from FDI theory, as well as to supplement international new venture (INV) and born global theories. Lastly, this review highlights topics that have been explored in previous studies and suggests areas for further research.

Originality/value – This is the first review paper on this subject and as such it contributes to the growing body of knowledge on the network approach and assists in understanding the internationalisation phenomenon of the firm.

Details

Reshaping the Boundaries of the Firm in an Era of Global Interdependence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-088-0

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