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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

Nashwan Dawood

The current uptake of 4D planning in industry is slow and there is a need to demonstrate its value over traditional planning technologies. The aim of this research study…

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1493

Abstract

Purpose

The current uptake of 4D planning in industry is slow and there is a need to demonstrate its value over traditional planning technologies. The aim of this research study is to develop a novel approach to establish the value of a 4D tool in the construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The exploratory research strategy draws on several social science research methods to collect information from human subjects. This exploratory research work has used literature review, open‐ended questionnaire, surveys, semi‐structured interviews and historical site records. These have been analysed in order to identify, develop and quantify 4D‐based key performance indicators.

Findings

The paper identifies and quantifies 4D‐based key performance indicators. Analysis of the planning efficiency (hit rate percentages) measure on three projects shows that, on an average, a 17 per cent increase in the average industry hit rate was achieved by the use of 4D technology. Also the quantification of communication efficiency measure has shown that on average 30 per cent of meeting time was saved by the use of 4D planning.

Originality/value

The complexity and rapidly paced development of today's projects are challenging the industry to find new innovative approaches to deliver projects. 4D is emerging as a construction‐planning technology to address some of these challenges. 4D planning has the potential to improve visualisation of building design and construction, but its implementation in the industry has yet to reach maturity. This technology enables clients, contractors, planners and sub‐contractors to visualise and understand design and scheduling issues at the early stages of the project.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2009

Nashwan Dawood and Sushant Sikka

Despite its benefits, the uptake of 4D planning in the construction industry is slow and therefore there is a need to demonstrate its value over traditional planning

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1763

Abstract

Purpose

Despite its benefits, the uptake of 4D planning in the construction industry is slow and therefore there is a need to demonstrate its value over traditional planning technologies. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel approach that demonstrates the value of 4D tools to the construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The research strategy utilised draws on several social science research methods. The data collection methods employed included a literature review, an open‐ended questionnaire, surveys, semi‐structured interviews and the analysis of historical site records. The data collected were analysed using qualitative and quantitative techniques in order to identify, develop and quantify 4D‐based key performance indicators.

Findings

This paper identifies and quantifies 4D‐based key performance indicators using case study analysis. In the case studies it was found that, on average, a 17 per cent increase in planning efficiency were achieved by the use of 4D technology, while the communication efficiency measure illustrated that, on average, a 30 per cent reduction in the time used for meetings was achieved by the use of 4D planning.

Practical implications

The complexity and rapid pace of development in today's construction projects are challenging the industry to find new innovative approaches to delivering projects. 4D tools are emerging as a construction planning technology that addresses some of these challenges. 4D planning has the potential to improve the visualisation of building design and construction, but its implementation in the industry has yet to reach maturity.

Originality/value

The paper highlights technology that enables clients, contractors, planners and sub‐contractors to visualise and understand design and scheduling issues at the early stages of a project.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Barry J. Gledson and David Greenwood

British construction industry KPI data collected over recent years shows a trend in projects exceeding their time schedules. In 2013, the UK Government set a target for…

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2625

Abstract

Purpose

British construction industry KPI data collected over recent years shows a trend in projects exceeding their time schedules. In 2013, the UK Government set a target for projects timeframes to reduce by 50 per cent. Proposed interventions included more rapid project delivery processes, and consistent improvements to construction delivery predictions, deployed within the framework of 4D Building Information Modelling (BIM). The purpose of this paper is to use Rogers’ Innovation Diffusion theory as a basis to investigate how this adoption has taken place.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 97 construction planning practitioners were surveyed to measure 4D BIM innovation take-up over time. Classic innovation diffusion research methods were adopted.

Findings

Results indicated an increasing rate of 4D BIM adoption and reveal a time lag between awareness and first use that is characteristic of this type of innovation.

Research limitations/implications

Use of a non-probability sampling strategy prevents the results being generalisable to the wider construction population. Future research directions and methods are suggested, including qualitative investigations into decision-making processes around 4D BIM, and case studies exploring the consequences of 4D BIM adoption.

Practical implications

Recommendations of how to facilitate the adoption of 4D BIM innovation are proposed, which identify the critical aspects of system compatibility and safe trialling of the innovation.

Originality/value

This paper reinforces 4D BIM as an innovation and records its actual UK industry adoption rate using an accepted diffusion research method. By focusing on UK industry-wide diffusion the work also stands apart from more typical research efforts that limit innovation diffusion exploration to individual organisations.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Wei Zhou, David Heesom, Panagiotis Georgakis and Joseph H.M. Tah

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the CSCW in collaborative 4D modelling and its user interface (UI)/interaction designs for prototyping. Four-dimensional (4D

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the CSCW in collaborative 4D modelling and its user interface (UI)/interaction designs for prototyping. Four-dimensional (4D) modelling technology has potentials to integrate geographically dispersed planners to achieve collaborative construction planning. However, applying this technology in teamwork remains a challenge in computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW).

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopted user-centred design (UCD) methodology to investigate a usable 4D collaboration prototype through analysis, design and usability testing. By applying CSCW theories, it first clarified the meaning of 4D CSCW to formulate design propositions as design target. By leveraging UCD theories, subsequently, the first-stage research sought an optimal standalone 4D modelling prototype following a parallel design approach. At the second stage, it further investigated into a collaborative 4D modelling prototype using an iterative design. It adopted collaborative task analysis into the UI/interaction design extension for a collaborative prototype based on results obtained from the first stage. The final usability testing was performed on the collaborative prototype to evaluate the designed CSCW and UI in a controlled geographically dispersed teamwork situation.

Findings

The test results and user feedback verified their usability. It also disclosed design weaknesses in collaborators’ awareness and smooth tasks’ transitions for further enhancement.

Originality/value

The combination of CSCW and UCD theories is practical for designing collaborative 4D modelling. It can also benefit designs for collaborative modelling in other dimensions like cost analysis, sustainable design, facility management, etc. in building information modelling.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Chris Allen and John Smallwood

Construction planning will play an increasingly more critical role within the realm of the built environment due to the unprecedented growth in the industry and a general…

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2102

Abstract

Purpose

Construction planning will play an increasingly more critical role within the realm of the built environment due to the unprecedented growth in the industry and a general skills shortage. Existing practices are failing to deliver the desired results for construction companies and clients alike. The increasing availability of 3D models has facilitated their use in a process known as 4D planning, allowing the visual planning of activities including the communication of logistical and other interfaces. The purpose of the research was to better understand the implementation of such a process, and determine the benefits thereof.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of the literature was followed by an observation/participation case study. A further survey of construction personnel was conducted to provide data to inform opinion's generated during the case study.

Findings

The results of the research suggest that 4D planning provides the tools for visualising the process implications in creating 3D reality whilst facilitating the improved coordination, communication and delivery of a project to programme.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study emanate from a single project environment, namely a case study, and therefore further research should be undertaken to substantiate and validate the findings.

Originality/value

The findings have major implications in that the benefits of the use of 4D planning have been documented. Consequently, clients need to mandate the use of 3D in the design phase, to enable design phase information to be used downstream for planning, off‐site pre‐fabrication and facilities management. Contractors need to use 4D models to evaluate their critical activities, maximise the use of labour and materials, and communicate the site‐based planning process.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Heng Li, Greg Chan, Martin Skitmore and Ting Huang

Traditional construction planning relies upon the critical path method and bar charts. Both of these methods suffer from visualization and timing issues that could be…

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1126

Abstract

Purpose

Traditional construction planning relies upon the critical path method and bar charts. Both of these methods suffer from visualization and timing issues that could be addressed by 4D technology specifically geared to meet the needs of the construction industry. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new construction planning approach based on simulation by using a game engine.

Design/methodology/approach

A 4D automatic simulation tool was developed and a case study was carried out. The proposed tool was used to simulate and optimize the plans for the installation of a temporary platform for piling in a civil construction project in Hong Kong. The tool simulated the result of the construction process with three variables: equipment, site layout and schedule. Through this, the construction team was able to repeatedly simulate a range of options.

Findings

The results indicate that the proposed approach can provide a user-friendly 4D simulation platform for the construction industry. The simulation can also identify the solution being sought by the construction team. The paper also identifies directions for further development of the 4D technology as an aid in construction planning and decision making.

Research limitations/implications

The tests on the tool are limited to a single case study and further research is needed to test the use of game engines for construction planning in different construction projects to verify its effectiveness. Future research could also explore the use of alternative game engines and compare their performance and results.

Originality/value

The authors proposed the use of game engine to simulate the construction process based on resources, working space and construction schedule. The developed tool can be used by end-users without simulation experience.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2021

Cristina Toca Pérez and Dayana Bastos Costa

This paper proposes to apply the lean philosophy principle of minimizing or eliminating non-value adding activities combined with 4D building information modeling (BIM…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes to apply the lean philosophy principle of minimizing or eliminating non-value adding activities combined with 4D building information modeling (BIM) simulations to reduce transportation waste in construction production processes.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts design science research (DSR) because of its prescriptive character to produce innovative constructions (artifacts) to solve real-world problems. The artifact proposed is a set of constructs for evaluating the utility of 4D BIM simulations for transportation waste reduction. The authors performed two learning cycles using empirical studies in projects A, B and C. The construction process of cast-in-place (CIP) reinforcement concrete (RC) was selected to demonstrate and evaluate 4D BIM's utility. The empirical studies focused on understanding the current transportation waste, collecting actual performance data during job site visits and demonstrating the usage of 4D BIM.

Findings

In the first cycle, 4D BIM successfully allowed users to understand the CIP-RC process's transportation activities, which were modeled. In the second cycle, 4D BIM enabled better decision-making processes concerning the definitions of strategies for placing reusable formworks for CIP concrete walls by planning transportation activities.

Practical implications

In Cycle 2, three different scenarios were simulated to identify the most suitable formwork assembly planning, and the results were compared to the real situations identified during the job site visits. The scenario chosen demonstrated that the 4D BIM simulation yielded an 18.75% cycle time reduction. In addition, the simulation contributed to a decrease in transportation waste that was previously identified.

Originality/value

The original contribution of this paper is the use of 4D BIM simulation for managing non-value adding activities to reduce transportation waste. The utility of 4D BIM for the reduction of those conflicts considered three constructs: (1) the capacity to improve transportation activity efficiency, (2) the capacity to improve construction production efficiency and (3) the capacity to reduce transportation waste consequences.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2019

Aneetha Vilventhan and R. Rajadurai

The rapid development of the construction industry requires effective ways to monitor and control the project, and the use of 4D BIM is found to be very efficient. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The rapid development of the construction industry requires effective ways to monitor and control the project, and the use of 4D BIM is found to be very efficient. The purpose of this paper is to consider development, application and evaluation of 4D Bridge Information Modelling (BrIM) models for an ongoing bridge project.

Design/methodology/approach

An ethnographic action-based case study research methodology is adopted in this study. An ongoing bridge construction project in India is chosen and the 4D BrIM application is evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively using planned percentage complete (PPC) measurements and semi-structured interviews, respectively.

Findings

The evaluation of the case study shows an increase in PPC values from 26.5 to 56.4 per cent after implementation of 4D BrIM in the project. The application of 4D BrIM in the construction phase benefits the project team in material delivery planning, project monitoring and control, construction schedule improvement, documentation and coordination.

Practical implications

The developed models are practically applied to the ongoing project and the positive benefits are observed. It is shown that 4D BrIM has the potential to improve the construction of bridge projects.

Originality/value

Studies have contributed towards the development and implementation of 3D BrIM models for bridge projects. Limited efforts have been taken to analyse how 4D BrIM models help in the overall management of bridge projects. This study adds value to the existing literature through development, implementation and systematic qualitative and quantitative evaluation of 4D BrIM models.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2021

Barry Gledson

The purpose of this study is to establish an enhanced model of the innovation-decision process (IDP), specifically for construction. As context, innovation diffusion…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to establish an enhanced model of the innovation-decision process (IDP), specifically for construction. As context, innovation diffusion theory (IDT) is concerned with explaining how some innovations successfully stick whilst others fail to propagate. Because theoretical models provide abstracted representations of systems/phenomena, established IDT models can help decision-making units with innovation-related sense-marking and problem-solving. However, these occasionally fail or require enhancement to represent phenomena more successfully. This is apparent whenever middle-range theory seems ill-fitted to the complexity of construction.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research via 13 semi-structured interviews occurred, with participants recruited via convenience and purposive sampling strategies. The study forms part of a broader mixed-method study (n = 246) informed by a research philosophy of pragmatism, investigating the applicability of classic IDT to the adoption of four-dimensional (4D) building information modelling (4D BIM) by the UK construction sector.

Findings

This diffusion study resulted in the adaptation of an existing IDP model, ensuring a better contextual fit. Classified more specifically as a modular-technological-process innovation, 4D BIM with its potential to provide construction planning improvements is used as a vehicle to show why, for construction, an existing model required theoretical extensions involving additional stages, decision-action points and outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

This model can assist construction industry actors with future adoption/rejection decisions around modular-technological-process innovations. It also aids the understanding of scholars and researchers, through its various enhancements and by reinforcing the importance of existing diffusion concepts of compatibility and trialability, for these innovation types.

Originality/value

An enhanced model of the IDP, specifically for construction, is established. This construction-centric contribution to IDT will be of interest to construction scholars and to practitioners.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Damrong Chantawit, Bonaventura H.W. Hadikusumo, Chotchai Charoenngam and Steve Rowlinson

Safety planning in construction project management is separated from other planning functions, such as scheduling. This separation creates difficulties for safety…

Abstract

Safety planning in construction project management is separated from other planning functions, such as scheduling. This separation creates difficulties for safety engineers to analyse what, when, why and where safety measures are needed for preventing accidents. Another problem occurs due to the conventional practice of representing project designs using two‐dimensional (2D) drawings. In this practice, an engineer has to convert the 2D drawings into three‐dimensional (3D) mental pictures which is a tedious task. Since this conversion is already difficult, combining these 2D drawings with safety plans increases the difficulty. In order to address the problems, 4DCAD‐Safety is proposed. This paper discusses the design and development of 4DCAD‐Safety application and testing its usefulness in terms of assisting users in analysing what, when, where and why safety measures are needed.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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