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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Cynthia L. Istook and Su‐Jeong Hwang

The ability to customise garments for fit is directly tied to the availability of a comprehensive, accurate set of measurements. To obtain accurate physical measurements…

Abstract

The ability to customise garments for fit is directly tied to the availability of a comprehensive, accurate set of measurements. To obtain accurate physical measurements, a basic knowledge and set of skills are required that are not often found in the average salesperson at a retail clothing outlet. The development of three‐dimensional body‐scanning technologies may have significant potential for use in the apparel industry, particularly for customisation or mass customisation strategies to be employed. The purpose of this study was to review all the 3D body scanning systems currently available and to determine the underlying principles that allow these systems to work. Specifications of each system were compared in order to provide some direction for further research into the integration of these systems with current apparel CAD pattern design or pattern generation technologies.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Michael Groenendyk and Riel Gallant

The purpose of this paper is to describe how 3D printing and scanning technology was implemented by the Dalhousie University Libraries in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Insights…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how 3D printing and scanning technology was implemented by the Dalhousie University Libraries in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Insights will be outlined about the benefits of these technologies in terms of data visualization and archival practices, as well as the potential user base for library‐centered 3D printing and scanning services.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes why the Dalhousie University Libraries purchased a 3D printer and scanner, the challenges of maintaining these technologies and instructing students in their use, and how Dalhousie faculty members and students have made use of these technologies for their own research purposes.

Findings

3D printing and scanning technologies can be of use to a much wider range of Faculties than have traditionally had access to them. The unique role libraries have on university campuses allows them to function as universal access points for these technologies. By offering 3D scanning technology, they can also use this technology internally for archival purposes.

Originality/value

While much has been written on 3D printing and scanning technology, very little has been written about how these technologies could relate to academic libraries. This paper sets the groundwork for further exploration into how 3D technologies can improve and expand library services.

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2018

PengPeng Hu, Duan Li, Ge Wu, Taku Komura, Dongliang Zhang and Yueqi Zhong

Currently, a common method of reconstructing mannequin is based on the body measurements or body features, which only preserve the body size lacking of the accurate body…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently, a common method of reconstructing mannequin is based on the body measurements or body features, which only preserve the body size lacking of the accurate body geometric shape information. However, the same human body measurement does not equal to the same body shape. This may result in an unfit garment for the target human body. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel scanning-based pipeline to reconstruct the personalized mannequin, which preserves both body size and body shape information.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors first capture the body of a subject via 3D scanning, and a statistical body model is fit to the scanned data. This results in a skinned articulated model of the subject. The scanned body is then adjusted to be pose-symmetric via linear blending skinning. The mannequin part is then extracted. Finally, a slice-based method is proposed to generate a shape-symmetric 3D mannequin.

Findings

A personalized 3D mannequin can be reconstructed from the scanned body. Compared to conventional methods, the method can preserve both the size and shape of the original scanned body. The reconstructed mannequin can be imported directly into the apparel CAD software. The proposed method provides a step for digitizing the apparel manufacturing.

Originality/value

Compared to the conventional methods, the main advantage of the authors’ system is that the authors can preserve both size and geometry of the original scanned body. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: decompose the process of the mannequin reconstruction into pose symmetry and shape symmetry; propose a novel scanning-based pipeline to reconstruct a 3D personalized mannequin; and present a slice-based method for the symmetrization of the 3D mesh.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Ivana Špelic

In order to present a significant usage of the computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems in the apparel and textile industry, the current…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to present a significant usage of the computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems in the apparel and textile industry, the current literature has been observed. Although the CAD/CAM systems have also been increasingly applied to all fields apparel and textile manufacturing for the last few decades, improving the precision, productivity and the organization of the information flow, they have not been fully utilized in these industrial fields. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is structured in three main sections showing the vast applicability of the CAD/CAM systems, the benefits provided by them and the future trend in their development.

Findings

Although the initial development of the CAD/CAM systems strived to completely eliminate manual and time-consuming operations, they have not been accepted in practice due to their inflexibility at making changes and the time needed for regenerating a complex parametric model. The textile and apparel industries show slow progress in acquiring the CAD/CAM systems.

Originality/value

This CAD/CAM technology enabled the customization in the design process according to individual needs and directed the textile and the apparel industry to moving into new directions such as the mass customization to personalization. The paper makes clear that although this technological concept is rather old, the use of the CAD/CAM systems will inevitably broaden in terms of applicability to new production stages.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2017

Erika Anneli Pärn and David Edwards

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of laser scanning and 3D modelling devices, modes of delivery and applications within the architecture…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of laser scanning and 3D modelling devices, modes of delivery and applications within the architecture, engineering, construction and owner-operated sector. Such devices are inextricably linked to modern digital built environment practices, particularly when used in conjunction with as-built building information modelling (BIM) development. The research also reports upon innovative technological advancements (such as machine vision) that coalesce with 3D scanning solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis of literature is used to develop: a hierarchy of the modes of delivery for laser scan devices; a thematic analysis of 3D terrestrial laser scan technology applications; and a componential cross-comparative tabulation of laser scan technology and specifications.

Findings

Findings reveal that the costly and labour intensive attributes of laser scanning devices have stimulated the development of hybrid automated and intelligent technologies to improve performance. Such developments are set to satisfy the increasing demand for digitisation of both existing and new buildings into BIM. Future work proposed will seek to: review what coalescence of digital technologies will provide an optimal and cost-effective solution to accurately re-constructing the digital built environment; conduct case studies that implement hybrid digital solutions in pragmatic facilities management scenarios to measure their performance and user satisfaction; and eliminate manual remodelling tasks (such as point cloud reconstruction) via the use of computational intelligence algorithms integral within cloud-based BIM platforms.

Originality/value

Although laser scanning and 3D modelling have been widely covered en passant within the literature, scant research has conducted a holistic review of the technology, its applications and future developments. This review presents concise and lucid reference guidance that will intellectually challenge, and better inform, both practitioners and researchers.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2017

Arzu Vuruskan and Susan P. Ashdown

The design and testing of clothing for activewear requires complex assessments of the suitability of the clothing when the body is in motion. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

The design and testing of clothing for activewear requires complex assessments of the suitability of the clothing when the body is in motion. The purpose of this paper is to investigate full body 3D scanning of active body poses in order to develop “watertight” digital models and half-scale dress forms to facilitate design, pattern making and fit analyses. Issues around creating a size set of scans in order to facilitate fit testing of activewear across a size range were also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Researchers experimented to discover effective methods for 3D body capture in the cycling position and reconstruction of the body in a reliable way. In total, 25 cyclists were scanned and size representatives were selected from these participants. Methods of creating half-scale forms were developed that make optimum use of modern materials and technologies. Half-scale dress forms were created in two active positions in a range of sizes for fit testing and design. A set of half-scale and full-scale bike shorts in two styles were manufactured and fit tested on the half-scale forms compared to fit testing on the scan participants to test validity of this method of assessing fit.

Findings

Issues in capturing and reconstructing areas occluded in the scanning process, and reconstructing the interface with the bicycle seat were addressed. Active digital forms were developed across the size range, from which both digital avatars and physical mannequins were developed for pattern development and fit testing. The production and use of precisely half-scaled tools for garment testing was achieved and validated by comparing fit test results in active positions on the half-scale forms and on participants who were scanned to create these forms.

Originality/value

Design modifications for active positions to date are based on linear measurements alone, which do not define the 3D body adequately. Despite much research using body scanners, only limited data exist on the body in active poses, and the concept of creating half-scale forms by scanning fit models throughout the size range in active body positions is a novel concept. The progress made in resolving material and process experiments in creating the actual half-scale forms, and testing their suitability for fit testing provides a basis for further research aimed at developing similar dress forms for other activewear garments.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Kristy Henson, Paul Constantino, F. Robin O’Keefe and Greg Popovich

The topic of human skeletal analysis is a sensitive subject in North America. Laws and regulations surrounding research of human skeletal material make it difficult to use…

Abstract

Purpose

The topic of human skeletal analysis is a sensitive subject in North America. Laws and regulations surrounding research of human skeletal material make it difficult to use these remains to characterize various populations. Recent technology has the potential to solve this dilemma. Three-dimensional (3D) scanning creates virtual models of this material, and stores the information, allowing future studies on the material. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To assess the potential of this methodology, the authors compared processing time, accuracy and costs of computer tomography (CT) scanner to the Artec Eva portable 3D surface scanner. Using both methodologies the authors scanned and 3D printed one adult individual. The authors hypothesize that the Artec Eva will create digital replicas of <5 percent error based on Buikstra and Ubelaker standard osteometric measurements. Error was tested by comparing the measurements of the skeletal material to the Artec data, CT data and 3D printed data.

Findings

Results show that larger bones recorded by the Artec Eva have <5 percent error of the original specimen while smaller more detailed images have >5 percent error. The CT images are closer to <5 percent accuracy, with few bones still >5 percent error. The Artec Eva scanner is inexpensive in comparison to a CT machine, but takes twice as long to process the Eva’s data. The Artec Eva is sufficient in replication of larger elements, but the CT machine is still a preferable means of skeletal replication, particularly for small elements.

Originality/value

This research paper is unique because it compares two common forms of digitization, which has not been done. The authors believe this paper would be of value to natural history curators and various researchers.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2020

Quentin Kevin Gautier, Thomas G. Garrison, Ferrill Rushton, Nicholas Bouck, Eric Lo, Peter Tueller, Curt Schurgers and Ryan Kastner

Digital documentation techniques of tunneling excavations at archaeological sites are becoming more common. These methods, such as photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital documentation techniques of tunneling excavations at archaeological sites are becoming more common. These methods, such as photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), are able to create precise three-dimensional models of excavations to complement traditional forms of documentation with millimeter to centimeter accuracy. However, these techniques require either expensive pieces of equipment or a long processing time that can be prohibitive during short field seasons in remote areas. This article aims to determine the effectiveness of various low-cost sensors and real-time algorithms to create digital scans of archaeological excavations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a class of algorithms called SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) along with depth-sensing cameras. While these algorithms have largely improved over recent years, the accuracy of the results still depends on the scanning conditions. The authors developed a prototype of a scanning device and collected 3D data at a Maya archaeological site and refined the instrument in a system of natural caves. This article presents an analysis of the resulting 3D models to determine the effectiveness of the various sensors and algorithms employed.

Findings

While not as accurate as commercial LiDAR systems, the prototype presented, employing a time-of-flight depth sensor and using a feature-based SLAM algorithm, is a rapid and effective way to document archaeological contexts at a fraction of the cost.

Practical implications

The proposed system is easy to deploy, provides real-time results and would be particularly useful in salvage operations as well as in high-risk areas where cultural heritage is threatened.

Originality/value

This article compares many different low-cost scanning solutions for underground excavations, along with presenting a prototype that can be easily replicated for documentation purposes.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Lu Lu, Kit-Lun Yick, Sun Pui Ng, Joanne Yip and Chi Yung Tse

The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively assess the three-dimensional (3D) geometry and symmetry of the torso for spinal deformity and the use of orthotic bracewear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively assess the three-dimensional (3D) geometry and symmetry of the torso for spinal deformity and the use of orthotic bracewear by using non-invasive 3D body scanning technology.

Design/methodology/approach

In pursuing greater accuracy of body anthropometric measurements to improve the fit and design of apparel, 3D body scanning technology and image analysis provide many more advantages over the traditional manual methods that use contact measurements. To measure the changes in the torso geometry and profile symmetry of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, five individuals are recruited to undergo body scanning both with and without wearing a rigid brace during a period of six months. The cross-sectional areas and profiles of the reconstructed 3D torso models are examined to evaluate the level of body symmetry.

Findings

Significant changes in the cross-sectional profile are found amongst four of the patients over the different visits for measurements (p < 0.05), which are consistent with the X-rays results. The 3D body scanning system can reliably evaluate changes in the body geometry of patients with scoliosis. Nevertheless, improvements in the symmetry of the torso are found to be somewhat inconsistent among the patients and across different visits.

Originality/value

This pilot study demonstrates a practical and safe means to measure and analyse the torso geometry and symmetry so as to allow for more frequent evaluations, which would result in effective and optimal treatment of spinal deformation.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Chao Chen, Llewellyn Tang, Craig Matthew Hancock and Penghe Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the development of an innovative mobile laser scanning (MLS) method for 3D indoor mapping. The generally accepted and used…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the development of an innovative mobile laser scanning (MLS) method for 3D indoor mapping. The generally accepted and used procedure for this type of mapping is usually performed using static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) which is high-cost and time-consuming. Compared with conventional TLS, the developed method proposes a new idea with advantages of low-cost, high mobility and time saving on the implementation of a 3D indoor mapping.

Design/methodology/approach

This method integrates a low-cost 2D laser scanner with two indoor positioning techniques – ultra-wide band (UWB) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU), to implement a 3D MLS for reality captures from an experimental indoor environment through developed programming algorithms. In addition, a reference experiment by using conventional TLS was also conducted under the same conditions for scan result comparison to validate the feasibility of the developed method.

Findings

The findings include: preset UWB system integrated with a low-cost IMU can provide a reliable positioning method for indoor environment; scan results from a portable 2D laser scanner integrated with a motion trajectory from the IMU/UWB positioning approach is able to generate a 3D point cloud based in an indoor environment; and the limitations on hardware, accuracy, automation and the positioning approach are also summarized in this study.

Research limitations/implications

As the main advantage of the developed method is low-cost, it may limit the automation of the method due to the consideration of the cost control. Robotic carriers and higher-performance 2D laser scanners can be applied to realize panoramic and higher-quality scan results for improvements of the method.

Practical implications

Moreover, during the practical application, the UWB system can be disturbed by variances of the indoor environment, which can affect the positioning accuracy in practice. More advanced algorithms are also needed to optimize the automatic data processing for reducing errors caused by manual operations.

Originality/value

The development of this MLS method provides a novel idea that integrates data from heterogeneous systems or sensors to realize a practical aim of indoor mapping, and meanwhile promote the current laser scanning technology to a lower-cost, more flexible, more portable and less time-consuming trend.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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