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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Kirsten Butcher, Madlyn Runburg and Michelle Hudson

This paper aims to examine the impact of using digitized objects for inquiry with middle-school classrooms. Research analyzed critical thinking processes and student…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of using digitized objects for inquiry with middle-school classrooms. Research analyzed critical thinking processes and student engagement during collaborative investigations with 3D models of authentic objects.

Design/methodology/approach

Digitized objects were 3D scans of fossils from the paleontology collection at the Natural History Museum of Utah implemented as 3D prints and 3D virtual models. Verbal protocol analysis examined critical thinking processes during collaborative student learning. Engagement was assessed via student feedback and a classroom observation protocol.

Findings

The findings demonstrated that digitized objects facilitated key critical thinking processes, particularly observation, problem finding, elaboration and evaluation. Student feedback was very positive and focused on strong interest in 3D technologies and the ability to engage in authentic exploration. Observations showed very high levels of on-task engagement.

Research limitations/implications

Additional research is necessary to determine if findings generalize across varied learner populations, including broader age ranges and socioeconomic samples, to activities implemented as fully online experiences and to digitized objects from varied domains.

Originality/value

Findings demonstrate digitized objects are effective methods to engage students in critical thinking and to promote engagement with authentic objects during classroom learning. Results demonstrate strong potential of new technologies to leverage the educational impact of digitized objects from local collections, setting the stage for expanded educational outreach by museums and libraries.

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Ph. Guerlain and B. Durand

The paper aims to present several methods that were developed, evaluated and finally used as part of a 3D electronic tailor especially adapted to the clothing industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present several methods that were developed, evaluated and finally used as part of a 3D electronic tailor especially adapted to the clothing industry.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental top down approach taking care of building a system adapted to the constraints of the textile industry was used. The research was to the rapidity, the robustness and the comfort of the future system during the development cycle.

Findings

A robust and efficient method for digitizing a human body in 3D that is usable for the measurement process with duration and accuracy adapted to the domain of textile industry.

Research limitations/implications

The research is bound to many constraints. Some are expressed by the customers of the electronic tailor, some depend on the manufacturing process of the clothes and of course, some depend on economic requirements. Of course, the system is not fixed because it must be adapted and improved to be able to follow the evolution of the manufacturing process.

Practical implications

This research permitted the creation of a marketed product improved for a few years by successfully measuring thousands of people.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates the usefulness of choosing a digitizing process. It shows the importance of keeping in mind the whole digitizing process for making the mesh generation and the measurements taken. The resulting mannequin proves that the process works well.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Colin Bradley

The process of capturing object form through surface data sampling and generating a CAD model of the part is termed reverse engineering because the process is the opposite…

Abstract

The process of capturing object form through surface data sampling and generating a CAD model of the part is termed reverse engineering because the process is the opposite of the normal design and manufacturing sequence. In the context of general manufacturing methods, reverse engineering is an important process for instances where a product initially exists as a designer’s model in a medium such as styling foam or modelling clay. The digitisation process can be achieved through spatial measurements taken manually by a co‐ordinate measuring machine (CMM). However, 3D computer vision systems are now being applied to the reverse engineering task owing to their ability to rapidly digitise the more intricate and free‐form surface patches that are common in many modern consumer items. New modelling software reduces the large number of data points into a more manageable number which can be translated into CAD drawings. The CAD drawings permit generation of CNC machine tool cutter paths or production of stereolithography “masters”.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

P. Ng, P.S.V. Lee and J.C.H. Goh

The traditional way of making a prosthetic socket is by draping a heated thermoplastic sheet over the positive mould, or by applying layers of woven materials together…

Abstract

The traditional way of making a prosthetic socket is by draping a heated thermoplastic sheet over the positive mould, or by applying layers of woven materials together with acrylic resins over the positive mould. This process is extremely labour intensive, and it usually takes two to three days to make one socket. This paper presents the development of a prosthetics Computer‐Aided‐Manufacturing (CAM) system that utilises Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology. The system reduces the socket making time from days to less than 4 h. Clinical and biomechanical studies are conducted to evaluate the comfort and fit of the new socket during gait. Preliminary investigation of the new socket shows that its functional characteristics are very similar to that of a traditional socket

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Syed Hammad Mian, Mohammed Abdul Mannan and Abdulrahman M. Al-Ahmari

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of surface topology on the performance of laser line scanning probe and to suggest methodology for 3D

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of surface topology on the performance of laser line scanning probe and to suggest methodology for 3D digitization of specular surfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Two different molds, one having milled surface and the other with polished surface, were used to identify effect of surface characteristics on the performance of laser line scanning probe mounted on bridge-type coordinate measuring machine. The point cloud data acquisition of two surfaces was carried out using different combinations of laser scanning parameters. The point cloud sets thus obtained were analyzed in terms of completeness, noise and accuracy. The polished mold which exhibited specular reflection was digitized at different scanning angles of laser line scanning probe using the best combination of scanning parameters.

Findings

Results confirmed that surface characteristics play important role to determine quality of the reverse engineering (RE) process. The results in terms of completeness, accuracy and noise for point cloud sets have successfully been obtained for milled and polished surfaces. Three-dimensional (3D) comparison analysis suggested larger deviation in cases of polished surface as compared to milled surface. The point cloud set acquired with proposed approach was better in terms of both completeness and noise reduction.

Originality/value

There has been an increased demand for measurement of metallic, polished and shiny surfaces in automotive, aerospace and medical industries. These surfaces are very difficult to scan because they exhibit specular reflection instead of diffuse reflection. Laser line scanning probe which is a non-contact method is in great demand for RE. This is due to the fact that it possesses very high data acquisition speed. However, laser scanning is hugely affected by surface characteristics which in turn govern specular reflection.In this paper, it has been shown that a surface that exhibits various degrees of specular reflection can be digitized efficiently if appropriate combination of scanning parameters and positions of laser line scanning probe are used. Also, this paper has attempted to offer a procedure to overcome incompleteness and noise in 3D data as obtained by the laser line scanning probe.

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2011

Boppana V. Chowdary, Ayanna‐Rene De Noon, Fahraz Ali and Clement A.C. Imbert

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive work flow for the improvement of the Reverse Engineering (RE) process in producing non‐uniform rational B‐splines…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive work flow for the improvement of the Reverse Engineering (RE) process in producing non‐uniform rational B‐splines (NURBS) models from scanned point cloud data. This should become a reliable guide in the creation of desired 3D‐CAD models in order to improve efficiency of downstream operations and further to make decisions regarding quality control.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper deals with a detailed investigation of operations in achieving an object's accuracy in the data editing phase and data fitting phase that employs the use of a 3D scanner. A case example involving the ShapeGrabber® AI310 laser scanner was used in digitizing the physical object. Operations considered for investigation at the data editing phase include relaxation, decimation of triangles and sharpening of edges. Contour detection, construct patches, target patch count, grid construction and grid resolution are selected as the operations for investigation in the data fitting phase. Evaluation of the generated digitized models was carried out by performing tests which include 3D Comparisons and Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerance (GD & T) testing.

Findings

The process of data editing is considered to be extremely time consuming which requires a high degree of skill in order to carry out the data manipulation steps. For the purpose of investigation, an electrical socket cover was considered as the object for digitization. The study found some contributors to enhance the quality of the digital model that can be used in the first piece inspection. The results indicate that although the operations associated with the data fitting phase affect the overall quality of the digitized model; they are however, limited by whatever the quality achieved at the data editing phase.

Practical implications

The RE work flow described in this research will assist designers and practitioners in improving both the efficiency and effectiveness of design and manufacturing functions.

Originality/value

The data editing and fitting processes are time consuming due to various adjustments necessary in obtaining a NURBS model from the digitized data. Thus, the proposed RE work flow identified the steps to realize the desired CAD models from the point cloud data. Moreover, from this study, practitioners will get a concise overall understanding about which geometrical features need to be adjusted so that the required model can be achieved; instead of the need to develop this procedure by themselves through the process of trial and error.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Brad Grinstead, Sreenivas Sukumar, David Page, Andreas Koschan, David Gorsich and Mongi A. Abidi

To present a Mobile Scanning System for digitizing three‐dimensional (3D) models of real‐world terrain.

Abstract

Purpose

To present a Mobile Scanning System for digitizing three‐dimensional (3D) models of real‐world terrain.

Design/methodology/approach

A combination of sensors (video, laser range, positioning, orientation) is placed on a mobile platform, which moves past the scene to be digitized. Data fusion from the sensors is performed to construct an accurate 3D model of the target environment.

Findings

The developed system can acquire accurate models of real‐world environments in real time, at resolutions suitable for a variety of tasks.

Originality/value

Treating the individual subsystems of the mobile scanning system independently yields a robust system that can be easily reconfigured on the fly for a variety of scanning scenarios.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Jian Gao, Janet Folkes, Oguzhan Yilmaz and Nabil Gindy

The aim of the paper is to provide an economically viable solution for the blade repair process. There is a continual increase in the repair market, which requires an…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to provide an economically viable solution for the blade repair process. There is a continual increase in the repair market, which requires an increased level of specialised technology to reduce the repair cost and to increase productivity of the process.Design/methodology/approach – This paper introduces the aerospace component defects to be repaired. Current repair technologies including building‐up and machining technology are reviewed. Through the analysis of these available technologies, this paper proposes an integrated repair strategy through information integration and processes concentration.Findings – Provides detailed description and discussion for the repair system, including 3D digitising system, repair inspection, reverse engineering‐based polygonal modelling, and adaptive laser cladding and adaptive machining process.Originality/value – This paper describes a 3D non‐contact measurement‐based repair integration system, and provides a solution to create an individual blade‐oriented nominal model to achieve adaptive repair process (laser cladding/machining) and automated inspection.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 77 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

David G. Alciatore and Terry T. Wohlers

Focuses on the development and testing of software for reading and formatting digitized data and exporting it to rapid prototyping (RP). Research and development over two…

Abstract

Focuses on the development and testing of software for reading and formatting digitized data and exporting it to rapid prototyping (RP). Research and development over two years has involved the implementation of special computer‐aided sculpting software that runs on UNIX workstations and which imports 3D polygonal mesh data in STL, OBJ and DXF formats, then re‐shapes it, much like the pushing and pulling on the surface of a rubber membrane. Specifying a wall thickness gives the model volume, prior to exporting an STL file. Describes how data has been imported form laser digitizing systems, had its shape changed and then how RP parts have been created from the model data.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Kristy Henson, Paul Constantino, F. Robin O’Keefe and Greg Popovich

The topic of human skeletal analysis is a sensitive subject in North America. Laws and regulations surrounding research of human skeletal material make it difficult to use…

Abstract

Purpose

The topic of human skeletal analysis is a sensitive subject in North America. Laws and regulations surrounding research of human skeletal material make it difficult to use these remains to characterize various populations. Recent technology has the potential to solve this dilemma. Three-dimensional (3D) scanning creates virtual models of this material, and stores the information, allowing future studies on the material. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To assess the potential of this methodology, the authors compared processing time, accuracy and costs of computer tomography (CT) scanner to the Artec Eva portable 3D surface scanner. Using both methodologies the authors scanned and 3D printed one adult individual. The authors hypothesize that the Artec Eva will create digital replicas of <5 percent error based on Buikstra and Ubelaker standard osteometric measurements. Error was tested by comparing the measurements of the skeletal material to the Artec data, CT data and 3D printed data.

Findings

Results show that larger bones recorded by the Artec Eva have <5 percent error of the original specimen while smaller more detailed images have >5 percent error. The CT images are closer to <5 percent accuracy, with few bones still >5 percent error. The Artec Eva scanner is inexpensive in comparison to a CT machine, but takes twice as long to process the Eva’s data. The Artec Eva is sufficient in replication of larger elements, but the CT machine is still a preferable means of skeletal replication, particularly for small elements.

Originality/value

This research paper is unique because it compares two common forms of digitization, which has not been done. The authors believe this paper would be of value to natural history curators and various researchers.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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