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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2019

Ming-Yue Xiong, Liang Zhang, Peng He and Wei-Min Long

The transistor circuit based on Moore's Law is approaching the performance limit. The three-dimensional integrated circuit (3-D IC) is an important way to implement More…

Abstract

Purpose

The transistor circuit based on Moore's Law is approaching the performance limit. The three-dimensional integrated circuit (3-D IC) is an important way to implement More than Moore. The main problems in the development of 3-D IC are Joule heating and stress. The stresses and strains generated in 3-D ICs will affect the performance of electronic products, leading to various reliability issues. The intermetallic compound (IMC) joint materials and structures are the main factors affecting 3-D IC stress. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the design of the 3-D IC.

Design/methodology/approach

To optimize the design of 3-D IC, the numerical model of 3-D IC was established. The Taguchi experiment was designed to simulate the influence of IMC joint material, solder joint array and package size on 3-D IC stress.

Findings

The simulation results show that the solder joint array and IMC joint materials have great influence on the equivalent stress. Compared with the original design, the von Mises stress of the optimal design was reduced by 69.96 per cent, the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) was increased by 10.46 dB and the fatigue life of the Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu solder joint was increased from 415 to 533 cycles, indicating that the reliability of the 3-D IC has been significantly improved.

Originality/value

It is necessary to study the material properties of the bonded structure since 3-D IC is a new packaging structure. Currently, there is no relevant research on the optimization design of solder joint array in 3-D IC. Therefore, the IMC joint material, the solder joint array, the chip thickness and the substrate thickness are selected as the control factors to analyze the influence of various factors on the 3-D IC stress and design. The orthogonal experiment is used to optimize the structure of the 3-D IC.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 December 2021

Pushkar Prakash Kamble, Subodh Chavan, Rajendra Hodgir, Gopal Gote and K.P. Karunakaran

Multi-jet deposition of the materials is a matured technology used for graphic printing and 3 D printing for a wide range of materials. The multi-jet technology is…

Abstract

Purpose

Multi-jet deposition of the materials is a matured technology used for graphic printing and 3 D printing for a wide range of materials. The multi-jet technology is fine-tuned for liquids with a specific range of viscosity and surface tension. However, the use of multi-jet for low viscosity fluids like water is not very popular. This paper aims to demonstrate the technique, particularly for the water-ice 3 D printing. 3 D printed ice parts can be used as patterns for investment casting, templates for microfluidic channel fabrication, support material for polymer 3 D printing, etc.

Design/methodology/approach

Multi-jet ice 3 D printing is a novel technique for producing ice parts by selective deposition and freezing water layers. The paper confers the design, embodiment and integration of various subsystems of multi-jet ice 3 D printer. The outcomes of the machine trials are reported as case studies with elaborate details.

Findings

The prismatic geometries are realized by ice 3 D printing. The accuracy of 0.1 mm is found in the build direction. The part height tends to increase due to volumetric expansion during the phase change.

Originality/value

The present paper gives a novel architecture of the ice 3 D printer that produces the ice parts with good accuracy. The potential applications of the process are deliberated in this paper.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Svetlana Obydenkova, Nicholas C. Anzalone and Joshua M. Pearce

Isolated communities face a variety of inconveniences including severe remoteness, poor roads and extreme climate conditions, resulting in the lack of security of supply…

899

Abstract

Purpose

Isolated communities face a variety of inconveniences including severe remoteness, poor roads and extreme climate conditions, resulting in the lack of security of supply chains and exorbitant prices for cargo delivery. This paper aims to investigate the present advantages and prospects of applying 3-D printing to improve economics and everyday life of remote communities, reindeer herder case taken as an example.

Design/methodology/approach

This study covers the use of a low-cost open-source 3-D printer (RepRap) capable of fused filament fabrication to reduce operating costs for nomadic reindeer herder groups. Three case studies are provided for reindeer-specific applications to probe economic and technical viability of the technology, namely, ear-tags, electric fence components and lasso accessories.

Findings

3-D printed objects feature technical characteristics similar to those of analogues available on the market while reducing the price by 63 per cent. Distributed 3-D printing reduces the cost of raw materials by 68 per cent and shipping costs by 50 because of lower trip frequency. If all reindeer herders globally were to adopt distributed manufacturing of the three aforementioned sample items only, their annual savings from such solution would amount to US$2m. The paper discovers other economic, entrepreneurial, technical and environmental opportunities offered by 3-D printing put to service the needs of remote communities.

Research limitations

As the paper is the first-ever study of 3-D printing potential applied to the reindeer husbandry case, it is based on a more thorough analysis of the techno-economic feasibility of the technology, while cultural and entrepreneurial factors have been discussed as preconditions only.

Practical implications

The paper might serve as a valuable source of information for entrepreneurs, as well as for students and academics for further case studies in this area.

Originality/value

In remote conditions, 3-D printing offers a more sustainable way of good manufacturing. Numerous open source designs already available for specialists, financial effectiveness, environmental benefits and vast opportunities for entrepreneurs are among the most promising advantages of the technology.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Anthony D. Songer, James E. Diekmann, Khaled‐Al Rasheed and Benjamin Hays

Three‐dimensional (3‐D) CAD and walk‐thru are promising technologies in design and construction. While gaining widespread acceptance in design, the use of 3‐D and…

Abstract

Three‐dimensional (3‐D) CAD and walk‐thru are promising technologies in design and construction. While gaining widespread acceptance in design, the use of 3‐D and walk‐thru during the construction phases of projects is evolving slowly. One significant barrier to acceptance includes lack of documented cost/benefit analysis. Experimental results reported herein provide quantitative evidence of the advantages of 3‐D CAD and walk‐thru for planning construction projects. The results provide strong evidence of the practical benefits and appropriate areas of application for 3‐D CAD and walk‐thru technology.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Farzana Shafique and Ann Riedling

The purpose of this paper is to explore the concepts of Library 2.0 and Library 3‐D and provide a proposal for taking advantage of the new opportunities prevailing in the…

5140

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the concepts of Library 2.0 and Library 3‐D and provide a proposal for taking advantage of the new opportunities prevailing in the adoption of Library 2.0 and Library 3‐D concepts. The specific objectives of this study are as follows: to review the status of research in Pakistan on any aspect of Web 2.0, Library 2.0 and Library 3‐D; to explore how a user‐centered library can be developed with the help of Library 2.0 and Library 3‐D applications; to find out information professionals' opinions in this regard; and to provide a proposal for adoption of Library 2.0 and Library 3‐D tools.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is descriptive in nature and is based on a literature review and personal interviews. The researchers reviewed the findings of previous surveys recently conducted by researchers in Pakistan on different aspects of Web 2.0, Library 2.0 and Library 3‐D. These surveys assisted the researchers in exploring the current status of acceptability of these applications by the library community in Pakistan. Moreover, semi‐structured interviews were conducted to gain an in‐depth understanding of the phenomena under study. Finally, keeping in mind the findings of the literature reviewed, previous surveys and current interviews, a proposal for the survival of libraries in Pakistan in an era of emerging technologies is given.

Findings

It was found that libraries in Pakistan are now becoming aware of the use of Library 2.0 Second Life for Library Services.

Research limitations/implications

The interviews being limited to a purposive sample of information professionals, care has to be taken in generalizing the findings of the study.

Practical implications

The paper not only presents a good understanding of different concepts, such as Library 1.0, Library 2.0 and Library 3D, but also their application.

Originality/value

The paper is the first in Pakistan to deal with the emerging concept of Library 3‐D. It also provides a proposal for information professionals in using Library 2.0 and Library 3‐D applications for library services.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2009

Jaekyung Park, Yunja Nam, Kueng‐mi Choi, Yuri Lee and Kyu‐Hye Lee

The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships between consumers' body types and characteristics such as shopping orientation, past experience with fit…

3567

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships between consumers' body types and characteristics such as shopping orientation, past experience with fit problems, attitudes toward internet shopping and attitudes toward 3‐D body scanning.

Design/methodology/approach

This study collected body data from 441 Korean females who participated in 3‐D body scanning. Using a hierarchical cluster analysis, the body scanning identified five body types. Then body types and shopping characteristics variables were analyzed.

Findings

Slim respondents showed significantly higher hedonic shopping orientation and their attitude to internet shopping was positive, since they evaluated using the internet as being “fun”. By contrast, respondents with larger body types considered the convenience of internet shopping to be the most important feature. Respondents, regardless of their body types, regarded 3‐D body scanning as an enjoyable, futuristic and interesting experience. Moreover, respondents showed a high inclination to spend more money for customization services which utilize the 3‐D scanning technique.

Originality/value

This study analyzed Korean females' body shapes using 3‐D scanned body measurements. This study can contribute to integrate knowledge in the body measurement sector and the consumer behavior sector.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Irina Tatiana Garces and Cagri Ayranci

A review on additive manufacturing (AM) of shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) is put forward to highlight the progress made up to date, conduct a critical review and…

Abstract

Purpose

A review on additive manufacturing (AM) of shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) is put forward to highlight the progress made up to date, conduct a critical review and show the limitations and possible improvements in the different research areas within the different AM techniques. The purpose of this study is to identify academic and industrial opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces the reader to three-dimensional (3 D) and four-dimensional printing of shape memory polymers (SMPs). Specifically, this review centres on manufacturing technologies based on material extrusion, photopolymerization, powder-based and lamination manufacturing processes. AM of SMPC was classified according to the nature of the filler material: particle dispersed, i.e. carbon, metallic and ceramic and long fibre reinforced materials, i.e. carbon fibres. This paper makes a distinction for multi-material printing with SMPs, as multi-functionality and exciting applications can be proposed through this method. Manufacturing strategies and technologies for SMPC are addressed in this review and opportunities in the research are highlighted.

Findings

This paper denotes the existing limitations in the current AM technologies and proposes several directions that will contribute to better use and improvements in the production of additive manufactured SMPC. With advances in AM technologies, gradient changes in material properties can open diverse applications of SMPC. Because of multi-material printing, co-manufacturing sensors to 3D printed smart structures can bring this technology a step closer to obtain full control of the shape memory effect and its characteristics. This paper discusses the novel developments in device and functional part design using SMPC, which should be aided with simple first stage design models followed by complex simulations for iterative and optimized design. A change in paradigm for designing complex structures is still to be made from engineers to exploit the full potential of additive manufactured SMPC structures.

Originality/value

Advances in AM have opened the gateway to the potential design and fabrication of functional parts with SMPs and their composites. There have been many publications and reviews conducted in this area; yet, many mainly focus on SMPs and reserve a small section to SMPC. This paper presents a comprehensive review directed solely on the AM of SMPC while highlighting the research opportunities.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Yangwei Wang, Peilun Lv, Jian Li, Liying Yu, Guodong Yuan and Yanling Guo

This paper aims to propose a suitable atomizing solidification chitosan (CS) gel liquid extrusion molding technology for the three dimensional (3D) printing method, and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a suitable atomizing solidification chitosan (CS) gel liquid extrusion molding technology for the three dimensional (3D) printing method, and experiments verify the feasibility of this method.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper mainly uses experimental means, combined with theoretical research. The preparation method, solidification forming method and 3D printing method of CS gel solution were studied. The CS gel printing mechanism and printing error sources are analyzed on the basis of the CS gel ink printing results, printing performance with different ratios of components by constructing a gel print prototype, experiments evaluating the CS gel printing technology and the effects of the process parameters on the scaffold formation.

Findings

CS printing ink was prepared; the optimal formula was found; the 3 D printing experiment of CS was completed; the optimal printing parameters were obtained; and the reliability of the forming prototype, printing ink and gel printing process was verified, which allowed for the possibility to apply the 3 D printing technology to the manufacturing of a CS gel structure.

Originality/value

This study can provide theoretical and technical support for the potential application of CS 3 D printed gels in tissue engineering.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Lise Justesen and Jan Mouritsen

The purpose of this paper is to analyze relations among different kinds of visualization in annual reports and to trace their interaction with activities in marketing and…

1784

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze relations among different kinds of visualization in annual reports and to trace their interaction with activities in marketing and sales, in design and planning, and in operations. For this purpose it is intended to produce insight into the referents that make up a particular image found in the annual report: the 3‐D visualization.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a case study of a firm that uses different kinds of visualization in many parts of its activities. The case study is based on different kinds of empirical data, such as annual reports, interviews and field observations. This allows a better understanding of relations and translation between visualization and organizational practices. The paper draws on theoretical work on photography and 3‐D visualizations and is inspired by the actor‐network theory approach in its analysis of how various kinds of visualizations interact.

Findings

It is suggested that visualization is important in all aspects of the firm's activities such as accounting, communication, selling, planning and operations. It is shown how the visualizations interact with one another and are superimposed on one another to develop even stronger modes of reporting in the annual report and stronger coordination towards the market, production and operations. Visualizations in annual reports are not merely window dressing but also their traces and referents have to be found elsewhere than in the financial reporting system.

Research limitations/implications

This is a single case study, and more cases need to be analyzed to understand the complexities of interactions between visualizations.

Originality/value

The paper produces insight into the referents that make up a particular image found in the annual report: the 3‐D visualization.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Medicine has been one of the pioneering areas of 3-D printing, which itself is one of the most significant current developments in manufacturing. The technology could…

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