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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1968

H.F. DAMMERS

Two years ago in March 1966 Dr Batten suggested that the newly formed Co‐ordinate Indexing Group should embark on a constructive co‐operative project, preferably one that…

Abstract

Two years ago in March 1966 Dr Batten suggested that the newly formed Co‐ordinate Indexing Group should embark on a constructive co‐operative project, preferably one that would involve all members willing to participate in such a venture.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Damien Bricard, Florence Jusot, Alain Trannoy and Sandy Tubeuf

This chapter aims to quantify and compare inequalities of opportunity in health across European countries considering two alternative normative ways of treating the…

Abstract

This chapter aims to quantify and compare inequalities of opportunity in health across European countries considering two alternative normative ways of treating the correlation between effort, as measured by lifestyles, and circumstances, as measured by parental and childhood characteristics, championed by Brian Barry and John Roemer. This study relies on regression analysis and proposes several measures of inequality of opportunity. Data from the Retrospective Survey of SHARELIFE, which focuses on life histories of European people aged 50 and over, are used.

In Europe at the whole, inequalities of opportunity stand for almost 50% of the health inequality due to circumstances and efforts in Barry scenario and 57.5% in Roemer scenario. The comparison of the magnitude of inequalities of opportunity in health across European countries shows considerable inequalities in Austria, France, Spain and Germany, whereas Sweden, Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland present the lowest inequalities of opportunity. The normative principle on the way to treat the correlation between circumstances and efforts makes little difference in Spain, Austria, Greece, France, Czech Republic, Sweden and Switzerland, whereas it would matter the most in Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Poland and Denmark.

In most countries, inequalities of opportunity in health are mainly driven by social background affecting adult health directly, and so would require policies compensating for poorer initial conditions. On the other hand, our results suggest a strong social and family determinism of lifestyles in Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Poland and Denmark, which emphasises the importance of inequalities of opportunity in health within those countries and calls for targeted prevention policies.

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2014

Yixiao Sun

New asymptotic approximations are established for the Wald and t statistics in the presence of unknown but strong autocorrelation. The asymptotic theory extends the usual…

Abstract

New asymptotic approximations are established for the Wald and t statistics in the presence of unknown but strong autocorrelation. The asymptotic theory extends the usual fixed-smoothing asymptotics under weak dependence to allow for near-unit-root and weak-unit-root processes. As the locality parameter that characterizes the neighborhood of the autoregressive root increases from zero to infinity, the new fixed-smoothing asymptotic distribution changes smoothly from the unit-root fixed-smoothing asymptotics to the usual fixed-smoothing asymptotics under weak dependence. Simulations show that the new approximation is more accurate than the usual fixed-smoothing approximation.

Abstract

Details

Structural Models of Wage and Employment Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44452-089-0

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2018

Ana Suárez Álvarez and Ana Jesús López Menéndez

The aim of this chapter is to shed some light on the behavior of Income Inequality and Inequality of Opportunity over time for 26 European countries. The analysis is…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to shed some light on the behavior of Income Inequality and Inequality of Opportunity over time for 26 European countries. The analysis is carried out using microdata collected by the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC), which incorporates a wide variety of personal harmonized variables, allowing comparability between countries. The availability of this database for years 2004 and 2010 is particularly relevant to assess changes over time in the main inequality indices and the contribution of circumstances to inequality of opportunity. Furthermore, a bootstrap estimation is performed with the aim of testing whether the differences between both years are statistically significant.

Details

Inequality, Taxation and Intergenerational Transmission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-458-9

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Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2019

See-Nie Lee

We investigate the link between firm volatility and risk-taking (RT) among 4232 institutions across 11 countries during the period of 2000–2017 and find RT is negatively…

Abstract

We investigate the link between firm volatility and risk-taking (RT) among 4232 institutions across 11 countries during the period of 2000–2017 and find RT is negatively correlated with volatility measures. Second, a decomposition of the primary risk measure, the Z score and Merton distance-to-default, reveals that high RT contributed to lower stock return volatility mainly through better corporate governance, firm size, higher information efficiency, and strong BOD. Third, Australia firms engage in more RT compared to other countries. Finally, majority of the selected countries show the negative impact of RT in firm volatility in the pre-crises period (2002–2006) and during the crises period (2007–2009) but not in the post-crises period (2010–2014).

Details

Asia-Pacific Contemporary Finance and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-273-3

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Antonio Koceski and Vladimir Trajkovski

The aim of this study is to determine what changes occur in the health status of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to neurotypical controls.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to determine what changes occur in the health status of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to neurotypical controls.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed a comparative analysis of data collected from 72 subjects with ASD and 75 neurotypical controls aged 3–24 years using the Rochester Health Status Survey IV (RHSS-IV). A structured individual interview was conducted to compare the health status of subjects in Macedonia.

Findings

A majority of people with ASD take vitamins, supplements and use recommended drug therapies compared to the neurotypical population and experience a larger number of side effects (p = 0.000). Compared to people with neurotypical development, children with ASD have a higher prevalence of oral ulcers (31.9% vs 17.3%; p = 0.039), changes in neurological health status – epilepsy (19.4% vs 2.7%; p = 0.001) and ADD/ADHD (only persons with ASD-19.4%; p = 0.000); respiratory diseases – angina (30.5% vs 8%; p = 0.000), rhinitis and/or sinusitis (40.3% vs 17.3%; p = 0.02); changes in the gastrointestinal system – constipation (31.9% vs 10.6%; p = 0.02), intestinal inflammation (19.4% vs 8%; p = 0.043), permeable intestines (only persons with ASD – 13.9%; p = 0.000) and the presence of the fungus Candida albicans (19.4% vs 4%; p = 0.043); psychiatric disorders – sleep problems (only in people with ASD – 18%; p = 0.000) and tics (6.9% vs 2.6%; p = 0.25) and skin diseases – eczema/allergic skin rash (36.1% vs 18.7%; p = 0.02).

Originality/value

Many children with ASD have health problems. These findings support and complement the professional literature on their mutual causality.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2016

Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog and Sunny Li Sun

We take a state-stewardship view on corporate governance and executive compensation in economies with strong political involvement, where state-appointed managers act as…

Abstract

Purpose

We take a state-stewardship view on corporate governance and executive compensation in economies with strong political involvement, where state-appointed managers act as responsible “stewards” rather than “agents” of the state.

Methodology/approach

We test this view on China and find that Chinese managers are remunerated not for maximizing equity value but for increasing the value of state-owned assets.

Findings

Managerial compensation depends on political connections and prestige, and on the firms’ contribution to political goals. These effects were attenuated since the market-oriented governance reform.

Research limitations/implications

Economic reform without reforming the human resources policies at the executive level enables the autocratic state to exert political power on corporate decision making, so as to ensure that firms’ business activities fulfill the state’s political objectives.

Practical implications

As a powerful social elite, the state-steward managers in China have the same interests as the state (the government), namely extracting rents that should adhere to the nation (which stands for the society at large or the collective private citizens).

Social implications

As China has been a communist country with a single ruling party for decades, the ideas of socialism still have a strong impact on how companies are run. The legitimacy of the elite’s privileged rights over private sectors is central to our question.

Originality/value

Chinese executive compensation stimulates not only the maximization of shareholder value but also the preservation of the state’s interests.

Details

The Political Economy of Chinese Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-957-2

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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2014

Tetsushi Fujimoto, Sayaka K. Shinohara and Tsuyoshi Oohira

This study examines the impact of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on depression for employed husbands and wives in Japan, the moderating role of own psychological family…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the impact of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on depression for employed husbands and wives in Japan, the moderating role of own psychological family involvement in the relationship between WFC and depression, and the moderating role of spouses’ family and job involvement in the relationship between WFC and depression.

Methodology/approach

We use a matched sample of Japanese employed husbands and wives to examine the relationships between inter-spousal dynamics about work–family conflict and psychological well-being.

Findings

We found that (1) the effect of WFC on depression was larger for wives, (2) husbands’ and wives’ own psychological family involvement did not moderate the relationship between WFC and their depression, and (3) spousal family and job involvement operated as a moderator only for husbands. While WFC reduced husbands’ depression when their wives were highly involved in their jobs psychologically and behaviorally, WFC increased husbands’ depression when their wives were highly involved in family at both psychological and behavioral levels.

Practical implications

Employers need to take into account the importance of looking simultaneously at the ways employed husbands and wives work when trying to understand how workplace conditions may be changed to ameliorate psychological well-being for spouses.

Originality/value of chapter

This study suggests that an experience of conflict between work and family is likely to deteriorate the psychological well-being for employed husbands and wives in non-Western contexts like Japan. Furthermore, spousal involvements in family and work domains are likely to play moderating roles in the relationship between WFC and depression.

Details

Family Relationships and Familial Responses to Health Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-015-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2018

Claudia Sámano-Robles

This chapter examines the impact of education on income inequality in 18 Latin American countries between 2000 and 2010. This period has raised interest in the academic…

Abstract

This chapter examines the impact of education on income inequality in 18 Latin American countries between 2000 and 2010. This period has raised interest in the academic community because inequality has fallen across the region, after several years of consistent high levels. Employing the novel technique proposed by Firpo, Fortin, and Lemieux (2007), the author’s research provides a detailed decomposition of inequality. Three main findings emerge from the author’s results: First, the expansion of education increases inequality in six countries but reduces inequality in four countries. Second, the changes in returns to education are the driving component of the effects of education on inequality. Those countries where education contributes to a fall in inequality are those where the returns to education fell at the top of the income distribution. Third, the rise in the average years of education, considered alone, had an inequality-increasing effect in most of the countries under analysis.

Details

Inequality, Taxation and Intergenerational Transmission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-458-9

Keywords

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