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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

M. Weinhold

Printed (circuit) boards have been used in the electronics industry for the past 25 years and more. The technology used to design and manufacture PCBs is well known and…

Abstract

Printed (circuit) boards have been used in the electronics industry for the past 25 years and more. The technology used to design and manufacture PCBs is well known and accepted. Recently, however, designers of electronic equipment have shown that the use of newer materials and systems, such as flexible and moulded circuits, hybrid circuits, or a combination of these, can significantly improve the cost/performance ratio for electronic interconnects. This paper examines some of the many possibilities open to electronics designers and how these new opportunities can improve the economics and performance of electronic equipment.

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Circuit World, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

F.W. Haining, R.F. Shaul, R.W. Keim and R.M. Murcko

The circuit elements of every printed circuit board have the potential for failure during test and/or use. These failures can occur by forming short‐circuits between…

Abstract

The circuit elements of every printed circuit board have the potential for failure during test and/or use. These failures can occur by forming short‐circuits between adjacent circuit elements, or by forming open‐circuits in the conductors. The risk sites can be identified by type, and the total number enumerated by manual inspection of the photolithographic masks used to fabricate the printed circuit layers. However, the circuit density of high performance printed circuit boards has become so great that meaningful manual analysis has become impractical. A more effective method is to use special graphics programs to analyse the computer‐aided design (CAD) data. The methodology developed to perform the CAD analysis of high performance printed circuit boards for short‐circuits utilises two powerful computer graphic tools: the Interactive Graphics System and the Unified Shapes Checking system. Test data for open‐circuits are generated using specially written alphanumeric routines. The data can be used for stress testing the printed circuit boards by wiring up special test modules that are plugged into the boards and then placing the boards into environmental test chambers. The printed circuits are checked for short‐circuits by putting them into groups that have no risk of shorting to each other (zero risk), and placing the groups in parallel under an electrical potential. The flow of current between the groups would indicate a short‐circuit. Similarly, the printed circuits can be checked for open‐circuits, by stringing them together into groups in series, and measuring the changes in resistance under thermal stress. Both types of test data can also be used for in‐process testing.

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Circuit World, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1975

P.A. Trigg

In this issue of the Journal we continue with our series on National and International Committees for Printed Wiring by examining the work carried out by the Radio and…

Abstract

In this issue of the Journal we continue with our series on National and International Committees for Printed Wiring by examining the work carried out by the Radio and Electronic Components Manufacturers Federation (RECMF). Within the Federation there are two Committees involved with printed circuits, namely, the Printed Circuit Manufacturers Group and Panel Z—Printed Circuit Techniques and Materials. In this article it is the former which is discussed. Note: Readers who are associated with, or are members of committees dealing with printed circuits or applied techniques are invited to contact the Editor with a view to preparing an article on their behalf for publication in this series. This invitation is extended to readers on a world wide basis.

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Circuit World, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Jun Yang and Jing Liu

This paper aims to demonstrate the practicability of the liquid metal printer, developed in the authors’ laboratory, in the direct manufacture and assembly of circuit

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to demonstrate the practicability of the liquid metal printer, developed in the authors’ laboratory, in the direct manufacture and assembly of circuit boards at the end customer side using GaIn24.5 alloy as printing ink at room temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

A practical procedure for printing a real designed frequency modulation (FM) radio circuit on flexible and transparent substrate using liquid metal printer was established. Necessary electronic components are then assembled on this circuit board. To enhance the mechanical stability of the FM radio circuit board, we further package the circuit board using room temperature vulcanizing silicone rubber. Finally, an efficient way to recycle the liquid metal ink and electronic components is presented at the end of circuit board’s life cycle.

Findings

Methods of designing the circuit patterns that are applicable to liquid metal printer are similar to the conventional printed circuit board (PCB) designing strategies. The procedure of applying liquid metal printer for printing the circuits is entirely automatic, cost-effective and highly time-saving, which allows the user to print out desired device in a moment. Through appropriate packaging, the FM radio circuit board can be flexibly used. These PCBs own many outstanding merits including easy modification and stretchability. Nearly all liquid metal ink and components can be recycled.

Originality/value

The present end-customer-oriented liquid metal printing opens the way for large-scale personal electronics manufacture which is expected to initiate many emerging applications in education, design, industry, entertainment and more maker targets.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Konrad Futera, Konrad Kielbasinski, Anna Młozniak and Malgorzata Jakubowska

The purpose of this paper is to present the result of research on a new fabrication technology of printed circuits board and electronics modules. The new method is based…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the result of research on a new fabrication technology of printed circuits board and electronics modules. The new method is based on inkjet printing technique on flexible substrates using new generations of heterophase inks. New fabrications method was used to print microwave waveguides and signal splitters as new technology demonstrators.

Design/methodology/approach

A fully Inkjet printed filter was printed on a flexible, transparent Kapton foil using heterophase inks developed in Instytut Technologii Materiałów Elektronicznych (ITME) for the purpose of this research based on graphene and silver nanoparticles.

Findings

A microwave module was printed using two types of Inkjet printers – PixDro LP50 with KonicaMinolta 512 printhead – and developed in an Instytut Tele- i Radiotechniczny (ITR) laboratory printer using MicroDrop a 100-μm glass nozzle printhead. Fully printed microwave circuits were evaluated by their print quality and electrical properties.

Originality/value

Fully Inkjet printed microwave circuits using the heterophase graphene ink were evaluated by their print quality and electrical properties.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1986

S. Gazit

The increasing use of high switching speed systems in both microwave electronics and high speed logic devices has created the need for printed circuit boards which are…

Abstract

The increasing use of high switching speed systems in both microwave electronics and high speed logic devices has created the need for printed circuit boards which are based on low dielectric constant and low loss materials. In addition, these circuit materials must be capable of withstanding elevated temperatures typical of hostile service environments and of board fabrication processes. Such low dielectric constant rigid boards are commercially available from a few sources. However, there is a growing demand for low dielectric constant flexible printed circuit boards for interconnecting rigid boards or in rigid/flex applications where high speed, fast rise times, controlled impedance and low crosstalk are important. A new family of thin laminates which are suitable for fabrication of flexible low dielectric constant printed circuit boards have been developed by Rogers Corporation. These circuit materials are called ROhyphen;2500 laminates and offer flexible interconnections in high speed electronic systems. RO‐2500 circuit materials are based on microglass reinforced fluorocarbon composites and have a typical dielectric constant of 25. The transmission line properties of these materials have been evaluated by the IPC‐FC‐201 test method. The results indicated that these circuit materials improve the propagation velocity by about 10% and the rise time by about 30% when compared with the same geometry, polyimide film based, flexible PCs in stripline constructions. Also, dimensional stability of these laminates after etch and heat ageing is improved over that of the standard flex circuit materials based on polyimide film. RO‐2500 laminate properties have been evaluated by the IPC‐TM‐650 test methods, which are widely accepted by the flexible PCB industry.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1974

G.C. Wilson

With the first issue of this journal a series of articles begins which describes the functions and activities of the various committees dealing with printed circuits

Abstract

With the first issue of this journal a series of articles begins which describes the functions and activities of the various committees dealing with printed circuits. Among those to be included in this series, but not necessarily in the order outlined below, are: International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) —TC 52 Printed Circuits British Standards Institute (BSI) —TLE/19 (Printed Circuits) Electronic Engineering Association (EEA) —Printed Circuit Committee Radio and Electronic Component Manufacturers Federation (RECMF) —Panel Z (Printed Circuits) To start the series, an introductory article has been written by G. C. Wilson who, as a member of three of the committees mentioned, is certainly qualified to contribute an authoritative article on this specific subject.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Aneta Arazna, Kamil Janeczek and Konrad Futera

This paper aims to present the results of investigations of inkjet-printed electronic circuits fabricated on a flexible substrate (KAPTON foil) using silver nanoparticles ink.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the results of investigations of inkjet-printed electronic circuits fabricated on a flexible substrate (KAPTON foil) using silver nanoparticles ink.

Design/methodology/approach

Fully inkjet-printed conductive circuit tracks were printed on a flexible, transparent KAPTON foil, using a commercial 40LT-15 C nanosilver ink as well as a PixDro LP50 inkjet printer with KonicaMinnolta 512 printhead. After cure, electrical properties by resistance measurements and printing quality by optical and SEM microscopic observation of conductive tracks were examined. Afterwards, the tested samples were annealed for 1, 2 and 3 h at 150°C or subjected to cycling bending.

Findings

It was found that silver nanoparticles ink could be used for the preparation of electronic circuits using the inkjet printing technique. The obtained patterns had appropriate mapping and good quality. It was also noticed that thermal annealing caused a decrease in resistivity values of the tested lines irrespective of their width. Approximately 34 per cent decrease was achieved in the values of resistivity of all the tested lines after the first hour of thermal annealing. After the second hour, the values of resistivity decreased by another 50 per cent. There were no visible changes in resistivity values after 1,000 cycles of bending.

Originality/value

In this paper, the results of thermal annealing and bending tests of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle conductive tracks on flexible substrate were presented. That is very important information for producing printed circuit boards using ecological, rapid and low-cost inkjet printing techniques, particularly during the production of printed circuit boards on flexible substrates working in different conditions of mechanical and thermal stresses.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1981

It seems scarcely more than a few weeks since the First Printed Circuit World Convention was held in the Cafe Royal in London. Its great success encouraged its organisers…

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Abstract

It seems scarcely more than a few weeks since the First Printed Circuit World Convention was held in the Cafe Royal in London. Its great success encouraged its organisers, the Institute of Printed Circuits—USA; the Printed Circuits Group‐Institute of Metal Finishing—UK; the Institute of Circuit Technology—UK; and the European Institute of Printed Circuits—Switzerland, to plan a Second World Convention.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1985

P. Eisler

This is the final part of an abridged version of the previously unpublished writings of Paul Eisler, universally acknowledged as the inventor of the printed circuit board…

Abstract

This is the final part of an abridged version of the previously unpublished writings of Paul Eisler, universally acknowledged as the inventor of the printed circuit board and many other technical innovations. The content of the extracts presented has concentrated mainly on Dr Eisler's efforts in the field of printed circuit technology, followed by a few details of some of his other areas of invention.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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