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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Robert A. Peterson and David Altounian

This chapter reports the results of an empirical study on the “gender–performance gap,” the alleged difference in business performance between firms started or owned by…

Abstract

This chapter reports the results of an empirical study on the “gender–performance gap,” the alleged difference in business performance between firms started or owned by females and males. Although numerous studies have compared the business performance of firms started by or owned by female and male entrepreneurs, most research to date has employed financial performance metrics and has often produced inconsistent results. The present research compared gender-based business performance by examining self-perceptions of a large sample of female and male Black and Mexican-American entrepreneurs. As such, the present study overcame several limitations of prior gender–performance gap research and addressed entrepreneurial groups seldom studied. While there were no perceptual differences between female and male entrepreneurs surveyed regarding the performance of their respective businesses, Mexican-American entrepreneurs surveyed perceived the performance of their business as being better than Black entrepreneurs surveyed, and this result held for both females and males. Findings from the study provide insights into the perceptions held by Black and Mexican-American female and male entrepreneurs and provide a context for further race and gender studies.

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2021

Pooja Jha and Md. Moddassir Alam

This study investigates the antecedents of women entrepreneurs’ performance in an emerging economy. Based on the review of extant literature, six antecedents of women…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the antecedents of women entrepreneurs’ performance in an emerging economy. Based on the review of extant literature, six antecedents of women entrepreneurs’ performance, namely, motivation, networking, socio-cultural, business environment, training and development, and financials were proposed and subsequently empirically examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Gaps in the literature were identified, based on which the theoretical background of the study was formulated. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to confirm the factor-item structure. The impact of explanatory variables was investigated using the structural equation modeling (SEM) based path analysis.

Findings

The study concludes that motivation, networking, socio-cultural, business environment, training and development, and financials have a significant positive influence on the performance of the women entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

There is a dearth of quality research that holistically investigates the key antecedents of performance among women entrepreneurs. Most existing studies have not considered the possible antecedents of performance concomitantly. Additionally, the relationships have been measured individually rather than at the construct level. Further, a majority of the existing studies investigating the performance of women entrepreneurs have been confined to settings within developed countries. By providing insight into the antecedents of women entrepreneurs’ performance elsewhere, the present study attempts to bridge these identified gaps. This study is expected to advance the knowledge about the factors influencing the performance of women entrepreneurs in emerging economies such as India. These insights will likely be valuable when creating policies related to this crucial aspect of economic development.

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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2021

Fang Zhao, Llandis Barratt-Pugh, Peter Standen, Janice Redmond and Yuliani Suseno

Drawing on social network and social capital literature, this study aims to explore how digital entrepreneurs utilize social networks to build their entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on social network and social capital literature, this study aims to explore how digital entrepreneurs utilize social networks to build their entrepreneurial capability, creating and developing business ventures in a digitally networked society.

Design/methodology/approach

The study takes a qualitative approach, interviewing 35 digital entrepreneurs with businesses operating across multiple industry sectors in Western Australia.

Findings

The findings suggest that structural social capital provides a key resource with groups of relational contacts who facilitate in building entrepreneur capability, the venture and customer markets. Relational social capital provides a foundation of trust between entrepreneurs and social network members that is strategically important for digital entrepreneurship (DE). Cognitive social capital provides mechanisms to form relationships based on shared values across social networks.

Research limitations/implications

The study produces early evidence that in a multiplexed networking world, social capital accrual and use online is different from that of off-line. More empirical studies are needed to understand the complexity of the changing nature of online and off-line social networks, the consequential social capital and their interdependence in DE.

Practical implications

This is an exploratory qualitative study using a limited sample of 35 Australian digital entrepreneurs to explore the impact of social network interaction on digital entrepreneurs and their ventures, with the purpose of stimulating a social network approach when studying DE. This study confirms the critical importance of entrepreneurial social networks in the digital age and provides empirical evidence that online networks foster business development, while off-line networks feed self-development.

Originality/value

The study contributes to current research on DE as a dedicated new research stream of entrepreneurship. Specifically, the study contributes to a greater understanding of how digital entrepreneurs leverage social networks in today's digitally connected society.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Chi Thi Phuong Nguyen, Duong Tuan Nguyen and Hang Thu Nguyen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of entrepreneurs’ personality traits on firm innovation performance through the mediation role of entrepreneurs’ innovativeness.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of entrepreneurs’ personality traits on firm innovation performance through the mediation role of entrepreneurs’ innovativeness.

Design/methodology/approach

The data consist of 2,574 firms from a survey of small and medium-scale manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam, a developing and transitioning economy where SMEs constitute an integral part of the economy. The estimation results based on the structural equation model was applied to analyze the data.

Findings

The results indicate that an entrepreneur’s innovativeness is positively associated with his extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience but negatively accompanied with his neuroticism. Besides, the three traits – openness to experience, conscientiousness and extraversion have positive indirect effects, while neuroticism has a negative indirect effect on technological improvement and new technology adoption. However, the effects of agreeableness on entrepreneurial innovativeness and firm innovation performance are insignificant. In addition, the diverse backgrounds of the entrepreneur such as education and ethnics are also found to influence his innovativeness and to have indirect effects on firm innovation performance.

Originality/value

This study may contribute to the immature literature on the entrepreneurial process within SMEs by presenting empirical evidence on the relationship between entrepreneurial personality traits and firm innovation with a large sample of SMEs in Vietnam, an emerging economy where SMEs constitute an integral part of the economy.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Isyaku Salisu, Aminullah Abdurrasheed Abdullah, Munir Shehu Mashi, Md. Mahmudul Alam and Norashidah Hashim

This study aims to investigate the influence of creativity and resource availability on career competencies (CC) and career success (CS) of entrepreneurs in Nigeria using…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of creativity and resource availability on career competencies (CC) and career success (CS) of entrepreneurs in Nigeria using the intelligent career framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was obtained using answers to questionnaires given to 348 successful entrepreneurs. The data was analysed using non-parametric software (Smart-PLS).

Findings

The results indicate that entrepreneurs who possess “know-why”, “know-how” and “know-whom” can access the required resources and are doing well in their careers. It is suggested that these competencies were significantly related to entrepreneurial CS. Resource availability moderates the relationship of knowing-how, knowing-why competencies and CS, whilst creativity moderates only the link between knowing-whom and entrepreneurial CS.

Research limitations/implications

The results help us to comprehend better the nature of successful entrepreneurial careers and the prominent role of tripartite competencies in achieving a successful career. Also emphasised here is the prominence of a more holistic perspective of these components based on a mix of social, motivational and human capital.

Practical implications

These findings hinted that entrepreneurs should pay uniform consideration in fostering each CC. There are implications for career advisers, practitioners and entrepreneurship programmes.

Originality/value

To the authors’ best knowledge, this is first-of-its-kind research that used primary source data in understanding CC – “knowing-how, knowing-whom and knowing-why” – with entrepreneurs’ CS in Nigeria.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Esteban R. Brenes, Gabriel Rodríguez, Joseph Acuña, Yadira Villalobos and Caleb A. Pichardo

By analyzing variables from the fields of business and neuropsychology, this document examines alternative combinations of behavioral economics and neuropsychological…

Abstract

Purpose

By analyzing variables from the fields of business and neuropsychology, this document examines alternative combinations of behavioral economics and neuropsychological characteristics that would explain a successful entrepreneurial profile.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on information gathered through a survey of 1,080 entrepreneurs. The findings offer interesting perspectives for academics, professionals and government institutions, which illustrate various neuropsychological characteristics that a person must have to be a successful entrepreneur. The method consists of a novel perspective that integrates qualitative comparative analysis (QCAs), a method based on Boolean algebra that offers a study from a configurational perspective.

Findings

From the mixture of configurations, the paper explores following possible traits of an entrepreneurial mindset: cognitive flexibility, risk-taking, decision-making and teamwork.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature on emerging attempts and approaches to understand the entrepreneurial mindset and the possible skillset that underpins successful entrepreneurship.

Propósito

Mediante el análisis de variables de los campos de los negocios y la neuropsicología, este documento examina combinaciones alternativas de la economía del comportamiento y las características neuropsicológicas que llevan a los emprendedores en perfiles exitosos.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

La investigación se basa en información recopilada a través de una encuesta a 1.080 emprendedores. Los hallazgos ofrecen perspectivas interesantes para académicos, profesionales e instituciones gubernamentales, que ilustran diversas características neuropsicológicas que una persona debe tener para ser un emprendedor exitoso. El método consiste en una perspectiva novedosa que integra el análisis comparativo cualitativo (QCA), un método basado en el álgebra de Booleana que ofrece un estudio desde una perspectiva configuracional.

Hallazgos

A partir de la mezcla de configuraciones, el artículo explora los siguientes rasgos posibles de una mentalidad emprendedora: flexibilidad cognitiva, toma de riesgos, toma de decisiones y trabajo en equipo.

Originalidad/valor

este documento contribuye a la literatura sobre intentos y enfoques emergentes para comprender la mentalidad emprendedora y el posible conjunto de habilidades que sustenta el emprendimiento exitoso.

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Jingjing Qu

Underpinned by the attraction-selection-attrition theory, this paper aims to investigate the impact of entrepreneurship on an individual’s expected retirement age and…

Abstract

Purpose

Underpinned by the attraction-selection-attrition theory, this paper aims to investigate the impact of entrepreneurship on an individual’s expected retirement age and explore how job satisfaction and expected retirement financial insufficiency (ERFI) as key factors can explain that.

Design/methodology/approach

A framework including direct and indirect relationships among key factors is empirically tested by using a pooled data sets consists of 13,420 individuals from the UK Household Longitudinal Survey, the analysis uses the entropy balance matching method and combined with quasi-bayesian monte Carlo method and hierarchy regressions to enhance the robustness of results.

Findings

The research finds entrepreneurs plan to retire later than organizational employees. In addition, a strong mediating impact of job satisfaction and moderating role of ERFI on the relationship between entrepreneurship and expected retirement age is verified.

Originality/value

The theoretical perspective and findings offer a novel insight into the research on entrepreneurs’ decision of retirement. The findings suggest entrepreneurs as crucial policy stakeholders contribute to retirement deferment should be valued. Effective interventions could be delicately designed in the future to unleash the potential of entrepreneurship in dealing with aging challenges.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Michele Pinelli, Christian Lechner, Sascha Kraus and Eric Liguori

This paper proposes an Exchange-Based View of the value creation process. The Borrowing from marketing literature, the EBV advances that entrepreneurs and stakeholders are…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes an Exchange-Based View of the value creation process. The Borrowing from marketing literature, the EBV advances that entrepreneurs and stakeholders are tied by exchange relationships, through which they co-create value by reciprocally making and realizing promises of value.

Design/methodology/approach

Propositions are developed and offered to advance the role of exchange in the entrepreneurial value creation process.

Findings

The authors conceptualize the enterprise as a system of exchange relationships between entrepreneurs and their stakeholders, thus proposing an exchange-based view of entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

Such an account of the role of entrepreneurs and of their relationship with the stakeholders has meaningful implications for our understanding of the entrepreneurial tasks of opportunity recognition and exploitation.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Sujata Mukherjee

The purpose of this paper is to examine the motives and the business model canvas adopted by urban poor women to set up microenterprises in the informal sector.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the motives and the business model canvas adopted by urban poor women to set up microenterprises in the informal sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative analysis used in the paper is based on empirical findings from field work conducted in Mumbai and Pune district in the state of Maharashtra situation on the western coast of the Indian sub-continent. In total, 63 women microentrepreneurs were interviewed using an interview guide, which contained open-ended questions regarding choices made to become an entrepreneur, business canvas mechanics, family and community support to start and manage their businesses. The paper presents findings across the sample and two selected case studies.

Findings

In contrast to the view that women’s informal sector micro entrepreneurship is a result of “involuntary exclusion” or “poverty”, this paper found that women’s motives are a result of a wide variety of factors including supplementing family income, gain social recognition and a variety of other reasons. The business canvas of the entrepreneurs focussed on key partners, resource planning, customer orientation and sales promotion.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of the study is that it focussed on women micro entrepreneurs in the urban informal sector in Mumbai and Pune. Similar studies can be carried out in other mega-metro cities with a large urban poor population in India.

Social implications

Venturing in the microenterprise sector is an important way for employment generation amongst women from the low-income groups in the urban informal sector. Women are becoming important players in the microenterprise sector and have tremendous relevance in India as the contribution of this sector to the Indian economy is significant.

Originality/value

There are very few studies in the Indian context, which focus upon the business canvas of women micro entrepreneurs in the urban informal sector. This study, therefore, presents new knowledge around women’s micro entrepreneurship in India.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

George C. Joseph, Nimitha Aboobaker and Zakkariya K.A.

This study aims to explore the behavioral patterns of entrepreneurs, their cognitive styles and personality characteristics that can lead to a self-destructive chain of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the behavioral patterns of entrepreneurs, their cognitive styles and personality characteristics that can lead to a self-destructive chain of events during the transition from a fledgling business to one capable of long-term, profitable growth. This study adopts the self-regulation attitude theory to uncover the reasons for premature start-up scaling, which will help founders to study on their cognitive biases, emotions and behaviors and make efforts to do what does not come naturally to them.

Design/methodology/approach

The respondents for this qualitative study were selected from a group of entrepreneurs with extensive experience with technology start-ups that have either failed or succeeded during their development stages. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants, who were selected through snowball sampling, on the theme of understanding “How do premature scaling mistakes happen?”. Thematic analysis was used to unearth common themes.

Findings

The results of this study identified the following themes, “comparison,” “emotional over-reaction,” “impatience,” “mistaken customer priorities,” “overestimation” and “overconfidence,” which eventually leads to premature scaling. The underlying decision-making heuristics of entrepreneurs can be identified as engulfed in different cognitive biases and emotions resulting in negative behavioral patterns, as in the case of premature scaling. Of the six themes, “comparison,” “mistaken customer priorities,” “overestimation” and “overconfidence relates to cognitive bias” and “emotional over-reaction” and “impatience” relate to emotional factors.

Research limitations/implications

The study was made possible with the support of the voluntary participants chosen by purposive and snowballing data sampling. The interviewee and interviewer biases could have also crept in as part of this qualitative approach. The study pertains only to start-ups in the information technology sector and further studies need to be done to generalize the results across industries as well.

Practical implications

This early-stage underestimation of unexpected obstacles in the entrepreneurship journey necessitates a focus on the entrepreneur too, as much as the concept. In these hectic and fast-paced circumstances, aspiring entrepreneurs must be taught how to deal objectively with themselves and others, as well as think strategically. Leaders who scale do so because they take purposeful measures to overcome their weaknesses through self-discipline, soliciting advice from others and using their right to change their attitude and points of view.

Originality/value

The study frames the new approach into the entrepreneurial literature, linking it to self-regulation attitude theory and adds to the nascent literature on neuroentrepreneurship which discuss entrepreneurial cognition, decision-making, and entrepreneurial behavior. This study attempted to explore the reasons behind the premature scaling of startups on an individual level. This study is pioneering in exploring the cognitive factors underlying an entrepreneur’s decision that results in premature scaling. This study provides insights for academicians, entrepreneurs and policymakers and helps understand the cognitive journey that leads to premature scaling.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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