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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2012

Cameron K. Tuai

Purpose – The integration of librarians and technologists to deliver information services represents a new and costly organizational challenge for many library…

Abstract

Purpose – The integration of librarians and technologists to deliver information services represents a new and costly organizational challenge for many library administrators. To understand how to control the costs of integration, this study uses structural contingency theory to study the coordination of librarians and technologists within the information commons.

Design/methodology/approach – This study tests the structural contingency theory expectation that an organization will achieve higher levels of performance when there is a positive relationship between the degree of workflow interdependence and the complexity of coordinative structures necessary to integrate these workflows. This expectation was tested by (a) identifying and collecting a sample of information common; (b) developing and validating survey instruments to test the proposition; and (c) quantitatively analyzing the data to test the proposed contingency theory relationship.

Findings – The contingency theory expectations were confirmed by finding both a positive relationship between coordination and interdependence and a positive relationship between perceptions of performance and degree of congruency between interdependence and coordination.

Limitations – The findings of this study are limited to both the context of an information common and the structures tested. Future research should seek to both broaden the context in which these findings are applicable, and test additional structural relationships as proposed by contingency theory

Practical implications – This study contributes to the library profession in a number of ways. First, it suggests that managers can improve IC performance by matching coordination structures to the degree of interdependence. For instance, when librarians and technologists are strictly co-located, managers should coordinate workflows using less resource-intensive policies rather than meetings. Second, the instruments developed in this study will improve the library manager's ability to measure and report unit interdependence and coordination in a valid and reliable manner. Lastly, it also contributes to the study of structural contingency theory by presenting one of the first empirical confirmations of a positive relationship between interdependence and coordination.

Originality/value – This study represents one of the first empirical confirmations of the structural contingency theory expectations of both a positive relationship between workflow interdependence and coordination, and a positive relationship between performance and coordination's fit to workflow interdependence. These findings are of value to both organizational theorists and to administrators of information commons.

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Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-313-1

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Richard D. Waters

Using the contingency theory's classification of leaders, the purpose of this paper is to examine how the categories of public relations leaders incorporate relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the contingency theory's classification of leaders, the purpose of this paper is to examine how the categories of public relations leaders incorporate relationship building tactics into their public relations programming and explore how this categorization of leaders corresponds with existing public relations role theory.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey (n=539) of public relations practitioners in the USA was carried out using established scales for the contingency theory of leadership and public relations role theory.

Findings

The contingency theory of leadership accurately describes the leadership styles enacted by the industry. An individual's use of stewardship strategies during public relations programming was successfully able to predict leadership orientation.

Originality/value

The results strengthen the argument posed the contingency theory of accommodation in public relations that environmental factors have strong implications on industry practices. One's leadership traits are not sufficient by themselves in determining who will succeed in managing and leading different professional scenarios.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1988

Valarie A. Zeithaml, P. “Rajan” Varadarajan and Carl P. Zeithaml

The contingency approach and its relevance to theory building and research in marketing is described. The approach is delineated and its theoretical foundations traced…

Abstract

The contingency approach and its relevance to theory building and research in marketing is described. The approach is delineated and its theoretical foundations traced. Several established contingency theories within the management discipline are outlined and the research they have stimulated on related topics in marketing are highlighted. An assessment of the current state of the contingency approach in marketing literature is then provided.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Mohamed A. Omran and Ahmed M. El-Galfy

The purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive and critical overview of the theoretical perspectives used in the accounting disclosure literature including economic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive and critical overview of the theoretical perspectives used in the accounting disclosure literature including economic theories, political and social theories.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews and discusses in details the positive accounting theory (PAT), agency theory, signalling theory, political economy theory (PET), stakeholder theory, legitimacy theory and contingency theory to identify the situations suit each of these perspectives.

Findings

The main finding shows that there is no universal theory applicable for all situations or societies. For example, PAT is probably used when a corporation believes that its primary responsibility is to use its resources and engage in activities designed to maximise its profits. On the other hand, the PET seems to better explain why some corporations appear to respond to government or public pressure for information about their social impact. The agency theory provides the required framework to evaluate accounting choices and disclosure decisions in market-based studies. While the legitimacy theory seems to be more suitable for multinational corporations working in developed/democratic countries, the stakeholder theory seems to be most suitable for multinational corporations working in developing/dictator countries; whereas a corporation can manage its stakeholders. The contingency theory supports our main finding that different theories are required for different situations, as it clearly indicates that management's preferences of reporting practices are related to the nature of environmental and organisational constraints rather than their relative income effects.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the limited body of literature concerning the accounting disclosure theories and to identify the main theoretical perspective that can be used in the accounting disclosure research.

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2019

Sule Ishola Omotosho and Hod Anyigba

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize corporate entrepreneurial strategy using collaborative dynamics of contingency and agency theories, and to demonstrate how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize corporate entrepreneurial strategy using collaborative dynamics of contingency and agency theories, and to demonstrate how some constructs of these two theories are integrated to support long-term strategies of entrepreneurial firms in sustaining their competitive advantages and enhancing their performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Review of literature on strategic entrepreneurship, firm growth, contingency and agency theories were explored to support the conceptualized framework of the entrepreneurial strategy developed in this paper. The authors adopt a vignette approach to problematize theoretical gaps identified. The vignette was also used to embody the entrepreneurial strategy matrix developed.

Findings

This paper suggests that the effectiveness of corporate entrepreneurial strategies is influenced by the impacts of contingent environment and agency problem of goal conflicts. It provides some propositions for qualitative and empirical research that will extend the rigours of strategic entrepreneurship literature.

Practical implications

This paper highlights the implications of understanding and adopting diverse competitive and sustenance strategies. It provides avenues for entrepreneurial firms to take cognizance and use of the contingency and agency approaches to influence their long-term strategic directions to stay competitive. Institutional authorities will also benefit from having a conceptual reference and guide to further improve their entrepreneurship policies.

Originality/value

The authors took three novel steps to address the existing gap in the literature. First, the theories of entrepreneurship, contingency and agency were bound together and unified as a single framework to conceptualize entrepreneurial strategy. Second, the identified gaps were embodied in a vignette to problematize the theoretical issues and lastly, some testable propositions were put forward to explain different forms of entrepreneurial strategy. The authors also developed a corporate entrepreneurial strategy matrix based on the Covin and Miles (1999) forms of corporate entrepreneurship. It forms the basis for the propositions.

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Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Duane M. Covrig

Contingency and institutional theories of organizational development are used to describe and interpret the 100‐year history of a health science university and to then…

Abstract

Purpose

Contingency and institutional theories of organizational development are used to describe and interpret the 100‐year history of a health science university and to then make a case for teaching organizational sociology in administrative preparation programs.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary and secondary documents were analyzed to delineate the university's history.

Findings

Results indicated that organizational development was the result of complex institutional commitments that were challenged by and reinterpreted in the face of controversial and unanticipated contingencies. Both contingency and institutional theories help explain organizational processes. Organizational sense‐making theories from Karl Weick explain conflicting findings related to the tensions between old and new, the known and unknown, and the set and novel environmental and organizational processes.

Research limitations/implications

This research shows the usefulness of organizational theory in helping administrators develop more elaborate ways of thinking about their schools. The process of theory crafting and testing encourages essential openness and curiosity in administrators.

Practical implications

Administrative candidates should be introduced to the content and processes of organizational sociology as a way of thinking about their leadership and organizational processes.

Originality/value

Organizational theory, including organizational sociology, contingency theory, institutional theory, and sense‐making remain viable in the study of educational organizations and can provide new administrators with a guide for their own meaning construction.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Kwo‐Shing Hong, Yen‐Ping Chi, Louis R. Chao and Jih‐Hsing Tang

With the popularity of electronic commerce, many organizations are facing unprecedented security challenges. Security techniques and management tools have caught a lot of…

Abstract

With the popularity of electronic commerce, many organizations are facing unprecedented security challenges. Security techniques and management tools have caught a lot of attention from both academia and practitioners. However, there is lacking a theoretical framework for information security management. This paper attempts to integrate security policy theory, risk management theory, control and auditing theory, management system theory and contingency theory in order to build a comprehensive theory of information security management (ISM). This paper suggests that an integrated system theory is useful for understanding information security management, explaining information security management strategies, and predicting management outcomes. This theory may lay a solid theoretical foundation for further empirical research and application.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Bruno S. Silvestre, Minelle E. Silva, Allan Cormack and Antônio Márcio Tavares Thome

This paper explores how organizational capabilities and path dependence affect the implementation of supply chain (SC) sustainability initiatives. Through the lenses of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores how organizational capabilities and path dependence affect the implementation of supply chain (SC) sustainability initiatives. Through the lenses of contingency and evolutionary theory, the paper addresses the underexplored supply chain dynamics that enhance or inhibit sustainability trajectories.

Design/methodology/approach

Using in-depth multi-case studies for theory elaboration, five supply chains were studied through open-ended interviews with SC members, secondary data collection and site visit observation. The design consists of a combination of deductive and inductive approaches to elaborate theory on supply chain dynamics and enhanced sustainability trajectories.

Findings

The empirical study shows that learning is a fundamental condition for supply chains as they implement sustainability initiatives, and that exploitation capabilities are more frequently used than exploration capabilities. Path dependence plays a role in the outcomes of supply chain sustainability initiatives, which are influenced by both path dependence and contingencies of the contexts in which these systems operate.

Research limitations/implications

This paper puts forward five propositions that emerge from the literature and from the field study results. Although this is an exploratory research bounded by geographical limitations and the limited number of SC cases, the goal of elaborating theory may open up several promising avenues for future large-scale and longitudinal research studies.

Practical implications

By enhancing our understanding of the dynamics of supply chain sustainability trajectories, decision-makers, scholars and policy-makers can better understand how supply chains learn, how they employ SC member capabilities and how they deal with stakeholder resistance.

Originality/value

This paper extends supply chain sustainability theory by addressing the knowledge gap that exists with regard to understanding the dynamics of evolving supply chain sustainability trajectories. This paper sheds additional light on this important topic and contributes in multiple ways to the sustainable supply chain management literature.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 40 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Billy Wadongo and Magdy Abdel-Kader

– The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework that explains how performance management (PM) affects the organisational effectiveness in the third sector.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework that explains how performance management (PM) affects the organisational effectiveness in the third sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopt a two stage process in developing the theoretical framework; a systematic review of literature and theoretical developments of the framework. The underlying principles for developing the theoretical framework are mainly based on prior theoretical justification and empirical research in management accounting and international development fields.

Findings

Drawing upon contingency theory, the authors propose a theoretical framework explaining how the contingency variables affect PM and organisational effectiveness in the third sector. The authors discuss the justification for contingency theory as well as its weaknesses in the PM research. The authors also highlight how a modified Performance Management and Control Framework could be used to identify PM practices in the third sector. The organisational effectiveness can be measured using the four domains the authors suggest in this paper. Finally the authors put forward propositions that can be empirically tested in future studies.

Research limitations/implications

This conceptual paper opens an opportunity for future empirical research to cross-validate the model in a large survey through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling.

Practical implications

This paper helps researchers and practitioners to understand how modern PM tools integrate with third sector characteristics to optimise the effectiveness of individual organisations.

Originality/value

Integrating insights across disciplines, this paper strengthens cumulative knowledge on conceptualisation of PM and effectiveness within the third sector.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 63 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Matthew J. Giblin

Studies of police organizations typically involve examining predictors consistent with structural contingency theory while comparatively fewer have examined the…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies of police organizations typically involve examining predictors consistent with structural contingency theory while comparatively fewer have examined the applicability of institutional theory. The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of institutional factors on the elaboration of organizational structure, specifically the incorporation of a crime analysis unit into a police organization's structure.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained using a 2002 mail survey of law enforcement agencies focusing on the crime analysis function and environmental factors influencing the organization of that function. Additional information complementing the survey data was obtained through telephone interviews with representatives from 12 of the surveyed departments.

Findings

Multivariate results show that, consistent with contingency theory, size is an important predictor of structural elaboration. Analyses and interview responses suggest that institutional factors, particularly accreditation standards, may play some role in shaping organizational structures.

Research limitations/implications

The survey was returned by 160 agencies for a response rate of 56 percent but analyses were based on relatively small samples of 67‐77 agencies. Telephone interviews were conducted using a purposive, non‐probability sampling method.

Practical implications

The results of this exploratory study provide insight into factors contributing to the adoption of structures and strategies in policing.

Originality/value

The research is one of only a small number of studies in policing to explicitly test propositions derived from institutional theory, particularly the concept of institutional isomorphism.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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