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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Haipeng Jin, Gianna Moscardo and Laurie Murphy

This paper aims to draw upon the notion of practice as performance from social practice theory to unravel the onsite process of Chinese outbound tourist shopping.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to draw upon the notion of practice as performance from social practice theory to unravel the onsite process of Chinese outbound tourist shopping.

Design/methodology/approach

The study took a mixed methods approach. Qualitative data were collected via 110 participant observations conducted in Australia, and quantitative techniques were used to analyse the data in Leximancer.

Findings

Chinese tourist shopping practices are performed on site through a range of intra-personal and inter-personal embodied actions, with the patterns these actions constitute being different across shopping settings. The frequency of inter-personal actions also reflects the importance of social interactions and communications in the shopping performances of Chinese tourists, some of which are conducted with people not present in the settings via social media.

Originality/value

This study uses a social practice framework from sociology to examine in detail how Chinese outbound tourists shop on site. The embodied actions identified in the study present a rich and detailed picture of the flow of Chinese tourist shopping performances. This allows for improved understanding of the forces for change in this aspect of Chinese outbound tourism.

摘要

本研究采用混合研究方法,以在澳大利亚收集的110个参与式观察作为质性数据,并通过运用Leximancer软件来对这些数据进行量化分析。

目的

本研究旨在运用社会实践理论中实践作为展演的概念来揭示中国出境游客购物的现场过程。

发现

中国出境游客的现场购物实践通过一系列自我具身行动与人际具身行动而得以展演,并且由这些具身行动所构成的模式因购物环境的差异而有所不同。人际具身行动的频繁出现体现了社会互动与沟通在中国游客购物展演中的重要性。其中,一些社会互动与沟通是与不在现场的他者借助社交媒体进行。

原创性

本研究运用社会学中的社会实践概念来详细地研究中国出境游客如何在现场进行购物。文中所发现的具身行动展示了一幅丰富且详实的中国游客购物展演流程的画卷。这为更好地理解中国出境游客购物变化的影响因素提供了新的思路。

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El estudio adoptó un enfoque de métodos mixtos. Los datos cualitativos se recopilaron a través de 110 observaciones de participantes realizadas en Australia, y se utilizaron técnicas cuantitativas para analizar los datos en Leximancer.

Propósito

Este estudio se basa en la noción de práctica como desempeño de la teoría de la práctica social para desentrañar el proceso in situ de las compras turísticas chinas en el exterior.

Resultados

Las prácticas de compras turísticas chinas se realizan en el sitio a través de un conjunto de acciones intrapersonales e interpersonales incluidas, constituyendo estos patrones diferentes entornos de compra. La frecuencia de las acciones interpersonales también refleja la importancia de las interacciones sociales y las comunicaciones en las actuaciones de compras de los turistas chinos, algunas de las cuales se realizan con personas que no están presentes en los entornos a través de las redes sociales.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio utiliza un marco de práctica social de la sociología para examinar en detalle cómo los turistas chinos emisores compran en el sitio. Las acciones incluidas identificadas en el estudio presentan una imagen rica y detallada del flujo de actuaciones de compras turísticas chinas. Esto permite una mejor comprensión de las fuerzas para el cambio en este aspecto del turismo emisor chino.

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Article
Publication date: 22 April 2020

Domhnall Melly and James Hanrahan

This paper aims to review the state of national biosecurity planning. The authors recognised tourist vectoring can increase the risk of invasive alien species (IAS) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the state of national biosecurity planning. The authors recognised tourist vectoring can increase the risk of invasive alien species (IAS) and disease; representing substantial biosecurity risk for tourism destinations worldwide. This research assesses the provision of biosecurity mitigation measures within national biosecurity plans and guidelines internationally. The author’s position in this issue contends that a lack of sufficient biosecurity risk management and planning in place for tourism could have severe impacts on a destination’s environment, society, and economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors systematically reviewed national biosecurity planning through a mixed-method research approach. Frist, essential criteria identified from international literature allowed for content analysis to assess specific national biosecurity plans and strategies. Second, qualitative data was then gathered by conducting semi-structured interviews within national governing bodies and organisations.

Findings

Planning for tourism biosecurity varies around the world with some destinations demonstrating highly evolved plans such as Hawaii, New Zealand, and Australia. However, this is not the case in Ireland where planning for biosecurity at a national level is severely limited. Biosecurity planning, pathway management, communication, quarantine and plans for tourism risk are inadequate to prevent the introduction and spread of IAS and disease in Ireland. Recommendations offer destinations globally and with “island status” an opportunity for biosecurity to be improved by using surveillance, communication, guidelines and specific capacities at the border stages within a specific national biosecurity plan.

Originality/value

This review on the state of national planning for biosecurity provides new knowledge specifically for tourism destinations worldwide, which can adopt the essential elements identified within this research for a national tourism biosecurity risk framework.

恢复

目的

本文旨在审查国家生物安全计划的状况。作者认识到, 游客媒介可以增加外来入侵物种(IAS)和疾病的风险。代表了全球旅游目的地的重大生物安全风险。这项研究评估了国际上国家生物安全计划和指南中生物安全缓解措施的提供。作者在此问题上的立场认为, 缺乏足够的生物安全风险管理和旅游业规划可能会对目的地的环境, 社会和经济产生严重影响。

设计/方法论

作者通过混合方法研究方法系统地审查了国家生物安全计划。第一, 从国际文献中确定的基本标准允许进行内容分析, 以评估特定的国家生物安全计划和策略。其次, 通过在国家理事机构和组织内进行半结构化访谈来收集定性数据。

发现

在全球范围内, 旅游生物安全的计划各不相同, 有些目的地还展示了高度发展的计划, 例如夏威夷, 新西兰和澳大利亚。但是, 在爱尔兰, 情况并非如此, 因为在爱尔兰国家级的生物安全计划受到严重限制。生物安全计划, 途径管理, 沟通, 隔离以及旅游风险计划不足以防止IAS和疾病在爱尔兰的传入和传播。建议为全球目的地以及具有”岛屿地位”的国家提供了通过在特定国家生物安全计划内的边境阶段利用监视, 沟通, 指南和特定能力来改善生物安全的机会。

创意/价值

这项对国家生物安全计划状态的审查为世界各地的旅游目的地专门提供了新知识, 这些知识可以采用本研究中确定的国家旅游生物安全风险框架的基本要素。

Propósito

Este documento tiene como objetivo revisar el estado de la planificación nacional de bioseguridad. Los autores reconocieron que la vectorización turística puede aumentar el riesgo de especies exóticas invasoras (EEI) y enfermedades; representa un riesgo sustancial de bioseguridad para los destinos turísticos de todo el mundo. Esta investigación evalúa la provisión de medidas de mitigación de bioseguridad dentro de los planes y directrices nacionales de bioseguridad a nivel internacional. La posición del autor en este tema sostiene que la falta de suficiente gestión y planificación del riesgo de bioseguridad para el turismo podría tener graves impactos en el medio ambiente, la sociedad y la economía de un destino.

Metodología de diseño

Los autores revisaron sistemáticamente la planificación nacional de bioseguridad a través de un enfoque de investigación de métodos mixtos. Los primeros criterios esenciales identificados a partir de la literatura internacional permitieron el análisis de contenido para evaluar planes y estrategias nacionales de bioseguridad específicos. En segundo lugar, los datos cualitativos se recopilaron realizando entrevistas semiestructuradas dentro de los organismos y organizaciones nacionales de gobierno.

Recomendaciones

La planificación de la bioseguridad turística varía en todo el mundo, y algunos destinos demuestran planes muy evolucionados, como Hawai, Nueva Zelanda y Australia. Sin embargo, este no es el caso en Irlanda, donde la planificación de la bioseguridad a nivel nacional está severamente limitada. La planificación de la bioseguridad, la gestión de vías, la comunicación, la cuarentena y los planes de riesgo turístico son inadecuados para evitar la introducción y propagación de EEI y enfermedades en Irlanda. Las recomendaciones ofrecen a los destinos de todo el mundo y con el “estado de la isla” una oportunidad para mejorar la bioseguridad mediante el uso de vigilancia, comunicación, directrices y capacidades específicas en las etapas fronterizas dentro de un plan nacional de bioseguridad específico.

Originalidad/Valor

Esta revisión sobre el estado de la planificación nacional para la bioseguridad proporciona nuevos conocimientos específicamente para destinos turísticos en todo el mundo que pueden adoptar los elementos esenciales identificados dentro de esta investigación para un marco nacional de riesgo de bioseguridad turística.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 76 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2020

Pascal Scherrer

This paper aims to track the evolution of an innovative Aboriginal tourism business model with deliberate social and community enterprise objectives in a remote setting.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to track the evolution of an innovative Aboriginal tourism business model with deliberate social and community enterprise objectives in a remote setting.

Design/methodology/approach

It adopts an in-depth exploratory case study approach to discover key characteristics of an emerging tourism enterprise. The qualitative data sources include publically available planning, promotional and organizational materials, in-depth interviews with key informants and on-site observations. Yunus et al.’s (2010) social business model provides the framework for the case analysis.

Findings

Findings highlight the gradual deepening of Indigenous engagement – from simply providing a place for a non-Indigenous tourism business – to running a fully Indigenous-controlled, staffed and themed on-country tourism business. Complementing existing non-Indigenous tourism experiences reduced the need for start-up infrastructure and market recognition, thus reducing business risk for the Traditional Owners. Despite substantial changes in the business structure in response to political and maturation factors, the core motivations seemed to remain strong. The business model facilitates value creation to stakeholders in varying ways.

Research limitations/implications

The contextual nature of Indigenous tourism reflects limitations of qualitative case study methodology.

Practical implications

The resulting business model provides a contextually appropriate structure to engage in tourism for achieving cultural and societal goals. It mitigates against the identified risk of low market demand for Indigenous tourism experiences by connecting with established non-Indigenous tourism products, while also allowing for product offering independent thereof.

Social implications

Social benefits are high and have potential for replication in similar contexts elsewhere.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the emerging research on culturally appropriate business models in Indigenous tourism contexts and validates a strategy to overcome low demand. It offers a model that for the tourist facilitates a sustainable experience which enables co-production while for the hosts fosters community resilience, intergenerational learning and improved livelihoods. The case highlights opportunities for further research into the interrelationship, dependencies and thresholds between the social and economic profit equations, particularly in the context of the culture conservation economy.

旅游服务文化:澳大利亚原住民旅游商业模式的演变

目的(不超过100个字)

本文追踪了以社会及社区企业为主的偏远地区的创新原住民旅游商业模式的演变。具

设计/方法/方法(不超过100个字)

本研究采用深入的探索性案例研究方法来发现新兴旅游企业的关键特征。定性数据包括可公开获得的计划, 促销和组织资料, 与主要信息提供者的深入访谈以及现场观察。 Yunus等人(2010)的社会商业模型提供了案例分析的框架。

结果(不超过100个字)

调查结果凸显了土著人参与度的逐步深化–从简单地为非土著人旅游业务提供场所, 到经营完全由土著人控制, 配备人员以及进行主题化的国家旅游业务。丰富现有的非土著旅游体验, 可以减少对启动基础设施和市场认可的需求, 从而降低了传统业主的业务风险。尽管由于政治和成熟因素, 业务结构发生了重大变化, 但核心动机似乎仍然很强。研究得出的商业模型通过各种方式促进了利益相关者的价值创造。

研究限制/含义(限制100个字)

土著旅游的性质反映了定性案例研究方法的局限性。

实际含义(限100个字)

本研究中的商业模型为通过旅游业实现文化和社会目标提供了一种适当情景下的结构。通过与成熟的非土著旅游产品建立联系, 目的地缓解了针对土著旅游体验的低市场需求风险。同时本文之方案还为其独立旅游产品开发提供了可能。

社会影响(限100个字)

此商业模式的社会效益很高, 并且有可能在其他类似情况的地方进行复制。

创意/价值(限100个字)

本文为土著旅游背景下文化相关的商业模式的新兴研究做出了贡献, 并提出并验证了克服低需求的策略。它为游客提供了一种可持续发展的体验模式, 使人们可以实现体验共创, 同时为居民提供的模式则可以提高社区的适应能力, 代际学习机会和改善生计的途径。该案例强调了进一步研究社会与经济利益之间的相互关系, 依存关系和阈值的机会, 尤其是在文化保护经济的背景下。

关键词

土著旅游, 价值创造, 共创, 文化保护经济, 社会企业, 金伯利地区

Turismo para servir a la cultura: la evolución de un modelo de negocio de Turismo Aborigen en Australia

Objetivo (límite de 100 palabras)

Este documento analiza la evolución de un modelo de negocio del Turismo Aborigen innovador, con un objetivo social común y empresarial determinado en un entorno remoto.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque (límite de 100 palabras)

Adopta un enfoque profundo y exploratorio de estudio de caso para descubrir las características claves de una empresa turística emergente. Las fuentes de datos cualitativos, incluyen materiales de planificación, promoción y organización de acceso público, así como entrevistas en profundidad con informantes claves y observaciones in situ. El modelo de negocio social de Yunus et al. (2010) proporciona el marco para el análisis de casos.

Resultados (límite de 100 palabras)

Los hallazgos destacan la profundización gradual de la implicación indígena, desde proporcionar simplemente un lugar para un negocio de turismo no indígena, hasta un total control de la gestión del negocio turístico con personal y temática indígena. Complementando las experiencias existentes de turismo no indígena, se redujo las necesidades iniciales de infraestructuras y reconocimiento del mercado, disminuyendo así el riesgo comercial para los Propietarios Tradicionales. A pesar de los cambios sustanciales en la estructura empresarial que los factores políticos y de maduración provocan, las motivaciones centrales parecían mantenerse fuertes. El modelo de negocios facilita la creación de valor a las partes interesadas de diversas formas.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación (límite de 100 palabras)

La naturaleza contextual del turismo indígena refleja las limitaciones de la metodología de estudio de caso cualitativa.

Implicaciones prácticas (límite de 100 palabras)

El modelo de negocio resultante proporciona una estructura contextualmente apropiada para la implicación de las comunidades indígenas en el turismo y poder lograr objetivos culturales y sociales. Mitiga el riesgo identificado de la baja demanda del mercado de experiencias de turismo indígena, al relacionarse con productos turísticos no indígenas establecidos, al tiempo que permite la oferta de productos independientes de los mismos.

Implicaciones sociales (límite de 100 palabras)

Los beneficios sociales son altos y tienen potencial de replicación en contextos similares en otros lugares.

Originalidad/valor (límite de 100 palabras)

El documento contribuye a la investigación emergente sobre modelos de negocio apropiados, desde el punto de vista cultural, en contextos de turismo indígena y valida una estrategia para superar la baja demanda. Ofrece un modelo que por un lado, facilita al turista una experiencia sostenible permitiendo la coproducción, mientras que para los anfitriones, fomenta la resiliencia comunitaria, el aprendizaje intergeneracional y mejora los medios de ganarse la vida. El caso resalta las oportunidades para una mayor investigación sobre la interrelación, las dependencias y los límites entre la ecuación de beneficios sociales y económicos, particularmente en el contexto de la economía de preservación cultural.

Palabras clave

Turismo indígena, creación de valor, coproducción, economía de preservación cultural, empresa social, región de kimberley

Tipo de papel

Trabajo de investigación

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Susanne Becken, Ali Reza Alaei and Ying Wang

Destination monitoring is crucial to understand performance and identify key points of differentiation. Visitor satisfaction is an essential driver of destination…

Abstract

Purpose

Destination monitoring is crucial to understand performance and identify key points of differentiation. Visitor satisfaction is an essential driver of destination performance. With the fast-growing volume of user-generated content through social media, it is now possible to tap into very large amounts of data provided by travellers as they share their experiences. Analysing these data for consumer sentiment has become attractive for destinations and companies. The idea of drawing on social media sentiment for satisfaction monitoring aligns well with the broader move towards smart destinations and real-time information processing. Thus, this paper aims to examine whether the electronic word of mouth originating from Twitter posts offers a useful source for assessing destination sentiment. Importantly, this research examines what caveats need to be considered when interpreting the findings.

Design/methodology/approach

This research focusses on a prominent tourist destination situated on Australia’s East Coast, the Gold Coast. Using a geographically informed filtering process, a collection of tweets posted from within the Gold Coast destination was created and analysed. Metadata were analysed to assess the population of Twitter users, and sentiment analysis, using the Valence Aware Dictionary for Sentiment Reasoning algorithm, was performed.

Findings

Twitter posts provide considerable information, including about who is visiting and what sentiment visitors and residents express when sending tweets from a destination. They also uncover some challenges, including the “noise” of Twitter data and the fact that users are not representative of the broader population, in particular for international visitors.

Research limitations/implications

This paper highlights limitations such as lack of representativeness of the Twitter data, positive bias and the generic nature of many tweets. Suggestions for how to improve the analysis and value of tweets as a data source are made.

Practical implications

This paper contributes to understanding the value of non-traditional data sources for destination monitoring, in particular by highlighting some of the pitfalls of using information sources, such as Twitter. Further research steps have been identified, especially with a view to improving target-specific sentiment scores and the future employment of big-data approaches that involve integrating multiple data sources for destination performance monitoring.

Social implications

The identification of cost-effective ways of measuring and monitoring guest satisfaction can lead to improvements in destination management. This in turn will enhance customer experience and possibly even resident satisfaction. The social benefits, especially at times of considerable visitation pressure, can be important.

Originality/value

The use of Twitter data for the monitoring of visitor sentiment at tourist destinations is novel, and the analysis presented here provides unique insights into the potential, but also the caveats, of developing new, smart systems for tourism.

研究目的

目的地监控对理解绩效和确立区别关键点至关重要。游客满意是目的地绩效的关键动力。随着社交媒体上用户生成内容的快速增长, 研究其游客提供的大量数据变成可能, 这些数据体现了游客的旅游体验。分析这些消费者情绪的数据对目的地和有关企业的吸引力巨大。研究社交媒介情绪数据和满意度与更广泛地对智慧旅游和实时信息处理等方面的研究和谐一致。因此, 本论文旨在检验Twitter帖子中的在线口碑效应是否成为测量目的地情绪的有用数据。更重要的是, 本论文检验在研究结果中哪些领域应该着重考虑研究。

研究方法

本论文集中研究了澳大利亚东海岸的一处旅游目的地, 黄金海岸。本论文使用地理信息过滤的处理方式, 有关黄金海岸的tweets为样本, 进行分析。本论文分析了元数据, 使用VADER数算, 检测了Twitter用户人口和情绪分析。

研究结果

Twitter帖子提供相当多的信息, 包括谁是游客, 当游客发布有关旅游目的地的tweets的时候, 拥有什么样的情绪。研究结果还指出了一些挑战, 包括twitter数据的“杂音”, 用户并不能代表广大研究对象的事实, 特别是国际游客。

研究理论限制

本论文强调了几点限制, 如Twitter数据的代表性、积极偏见、大多数tweets千篇一律等。本论文对如何提高分析结果和使用tweets作为数据源的价值提出了几点建议。

研究理论意义

本论文对非传统数据以对旅游目的地监控的价值做出贡献, 尤其是强调了使用信息数据的弊端, 如Twitter。未来研究方向应该着重研究目标明确的情绪指数, 以及运用大数据分析方法, 分析多个数据源来检测旅游目的地性能。

研究社会意义

本论文确立的经济有效的方法以衡量和监控游客满意度, 对提高目的地管理有着巨大帮助。同时, 这也可以提高游客体验和甚至提高当地居民的满意度。社会利益, 特别有的时候很大的旅游压力, 是巨大的。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2018

Lintje Sie, Kelly Virginia Phelan and Shane Pegg

The purpose of this study is to assess the relationships between older travelers’ self-determined motivations, memorable travel experiences and overall satisfaction with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the relationships between older travelers’ self-determined motivations, memorable travel experiences and overall satisfaction with educational holidays. This study also examined the mediating effects of memorable travel experiences on the relationships between motivations and overall satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrative model using a pre-post travel approach was used as the framework for this study. A total of 361 valid pre- and post-travel surveys were gathered from Australians 50 years or older who participated in educational tour packages.

Findings

Results found “personal development” and “learning” dimensions of intrinsic self-determined motivations were the main decision making factors for older adults to engage in educational tourism. “Learning” was the main driver to influence memorable experiences and overall satisfaction. Findings also revealed “local culture” and “excitement” dimensions of memorable experiences were found to influence their overall satisfaction with the trip. These two dimensions were found to be significant factors that partially mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation (“learning”) and overall satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study contributed to developing a theoretical framework that assessed antecedents and outcomes of older adults’ motivations and travel-related behaviors.

研究目的

本论文旨在研究老年游客的自我决定、印象深刻的旅游体验、和整体满意度之间的关系, 以教育假期为研究背景。本论文还研究了印象深刻的旅游体验对于动机和满意度之间的中间调解作用。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用旅游前-旅游后的一体化模型作为理论框架, 使用来自澳大利亚年龄为50岁以上的教育旅游团游客为样本, 收取了361份有效旅游前-旅游后问卷。

研究结果

个人发展和各种自我决定动机的学习因素成为主要决定老年人游客参与教育旅游团的原因。学习成为主导印象深刻的体验和整体满意度的原因。印象深刻的体验中的当地文化和兴奋度等因素成为主导其对整个旅游过程满意度的原因。这两个因素(当地文化和兴奋度)也部分地中间调解内部动力(学习)和整体满意度的关系。

研究原创性/价值

本论文对于老年游客动机分析和旅游行为的相关文献具有理论贡献。

关键词

老年人 PLS-SEM, 、整体满意度, 、教育旅游, 、印象深刻的体验

纸张类型

研究论文

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Leonie Cassidy and Anja Pabel

This study aims to investigate tourists’ propensity to use travel review websites (TRWs) during the pre- and post-travel stages from a cultural perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate tourists’ propensity to use travel review websites (TRWs) during the pre- and post-travel stages from a cultural perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study is guided by the positivist paradigm. Data were obtained from an online survey, focussing on Australia, Canada, India and Malaysia.

Findings

The results indicate significant relationships between country of residence and the time research begins prior to an international or domestic holiday being undertaken; between country of residence and trust levels for information on TRWs; and country of residence and whether or not respondents post reviews on TRWs. These results are discussed using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. Long-term orientation shows a moderate cultural influence of respondents’ trust of information on TRWs, while a country’s individualistic or collectivist orientation has a strong influence on respondents’ posting/not posting a review on a TRW.

Research limitations/implications

Care should be taken when generalising the findings beyond the study population, as no randomisation occurred with survey distribution.

Practical implications

The results of this study have implications for managers of tourism businesses wishing to better facilitate information-sharing behaviours of their customers through TRWs.

Social implications

The cross-cultural comparisons used in this study add value to tourism studies, particularly when comparing Eastern and Western societies.

Originality/value

The study adds to the knowledge base on consumer pre- and post-trip online behaviours, considering the effect of country of residence and any influence from Hofstede’s cultural dimensions.

研究目的

本论文从文化角度出发, 旨在研究游客在旅游前和后两阶段对旅游点评网站的使用。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用定量分析, 采用实证主义模型, 网络问卷取样来自澳大利亚、加拿大、印度、和马拉西亚等国家。

研究结果

研究结果表明, 在国际或者国内假期之前, 国家和搜索时间有显著关系;国家与网站信息可信度有显著关系;国家和是否游客发布旅游点评有显著关系。研究结果依据Hofstede文化维度理论。长期倾向调节了文化因素对网站点评信息信任度的影响。国家个人主义和集体主义导向对游客发布旅游点评有强烈影响。

研究理论限制

问卷采样未采用随机抽样方式, 因此, 研究结果的概括推广性值得谨慎对待。

研究实践意义

研究结果对旅游业经理有重要启示, 尤其是意图通过旅游点评网站促进游客信息分享行为。

研究社会意义

研究结果对比跨文化区别, 对旅游学研究有重要价值, 尤其是做东西方社会研究对比。

研究原创性/价值

本论文对消费者旅游前和后两阶段的网上行为做了研究, 尤其是在居住国家和Hofstede文化维度方面的影响研究, 对相关文献做出理论贡献。

关键词 旅游点评网站、Hofstede、在线问卷调查、游客行为、旅游前、旅游后

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

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