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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2022

Yue Yuan, Ping Wang and SongYuan Tian

Drawing upon the literature on person-leader supplementary fit literature, this study aims to positions dissatisfaction with organizational performance as a difficult…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon the literature on person-leader supplementary fit literature, this study aims to positions dissatisfaction with organizational performance as a difficult condition that moderates the relationship between leader-employee congruence/incongruence in creativity goal and employee innovative performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper data were collected from 226 leader-employee dyads from several information technology companies in China. Polynomial regression combined with the response surface methodology was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Three conclusions were drawn. First, employee innovative performance was maximized when leaders and employees were congruence in creativity goal. Second, in the case of congruence, employee had higher innovative performance when a leader's and an employee's creativity goal matched at high levels. Third, dissatisfaction with organizational performance moderated the effect of leader – employee congruence in creativity goal on employee innovative performance.

Originality/value

This study enhanced theoretical developments by considering the importance of leaders' congruence with employees in creativity goal for the first time. Additionally, the research results provided better practical guidance for how to help employees recover from difficult condition and continue to participate in innovation.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2022

Tamania Khan and Muhammad Zahid Iqbal

While studying the association between leader–member exchange (LMX) quality and employee work outcomes, the existing scholarship has generally focused on employee…

Abstract

Purpose

While studying the association between leader–member exchange (LMX) quality and employee work outcomes, the existing scholarship has generally focused on employee perspectives of LMX quality. Being more inclusive, this study utilizes role theory to incorporate the dyadic (in)congruence in LMX quality and their effects on ratee feedback seeking behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Data elicited from N = 156 matched rater–ratee dyads comprising engineers working with telecommunication organizations of Pakistan. Purposive sampling was done to ensure that rater–ratee dyads were in continuous contact by their customized employee portals.

Findings

Results of polynomial regression analysis revealed that leader–member congruence in their perceptions of LMX quality enhanced member's feedback seeking behavior. Asymmetrical incongruence, i.e. the member perceived higher LMX quality than the leader, is found to predict member's feedback seeking behavior, even higher than both levels of congruence (high- and low-quality LMX).

Research limitations/implications

The scope of this study was members' reactions to performance appraisal. However, other performance appraisal outcomes are plausible such as, leader performance. This study explored the objective incongruence, yet subjective congruence can be more conclusive about the results of the present study.

Practical implications

LMX incongruence is more detrimental to members in high interaction situations. When the member perceives lower quality LMX than the leader, expectations regarding resource exchanges and behaviors are more likely to be unfulfilled for the member. Feedback seeking behavior being a member related outcome is likely to be affected more negatively in such conditions of incongruence. Second, it is likely that when there is a high degree of incongruence among the dyads, LMX congruence may become more critical to the members which in turn may give them a sense of belongingness within the dyad. Third, the relationship between leader–member dyads is affected by the social interactions facilitating the members' opinion sharing.

Originality/value

The study suggests that to fully grasp the implications of LMX theory, we need to consider the viewpoints of both the dyadic members at the same time.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 25 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Atri Sengupta and Shashank Mittal

Person-environment (PE) fit theory suggests that value congruence (fit) leads to the job pursuits intention (Cable and Judge, 1996) which is also influenced by cultural…

Abstract

Purpose

Person-environment (PE) fit theory suggests that value congruence (fit) leads to the job pursuits intention (Cable and Judge, 1996) which is also influenced by cultural norms (Ma and Allen, 2009). Due to stringent job market condition along with its people, as a part of collectivistic culture, having poor self-concept consistency, value congruence may unfold different phenomenon in Indian context. Therefore, the present study intends to explore the existing fit theory on different cultural norms and different job market condition with entry-level job pursuits as participants.

Design/methodology/approach

The fit was measured both objectively and subjectively in a mixed method research design. Top 100 institutes ranked in NIRF (National Institutional Ranking Framework) (under Management category) were approached for data collection and 41 institutes agreed to participate. Data were collected in four phases from 2,714 entry-level job pursuits and domain experts based on web-based job advertisements. Krippendorff's alpha was calculated for measuring objective fit, and the subjective fit was measured through quadratic structural equation modeling with response surface analysis.

Findings

Findings revealed lack of value congruence objectively; and no influencing role of subjective fit in job pursuits intention. This indicated that neither Indian employers nor entry-level job pursuits were concerned about value congruence. The post-hoc analysis suggested that poor self-concept consistency as a cultural norm led to such atypical findings.

Originality/value

The present study suggests that fit may lead to different phenomena of entry-level job pursuits intention with different contextual and cultural norms.

Article
Publication date: 31 March 2021

Jae Youn Chang and Wi-Suk Kwon

This study aims at examining the role of the e-store brand personality congruence/incongruence of a multichannel apparel retailer in the formation of consumers' perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at examining the role of the e-store brand personality congruence/incongruence of a multichannel apparel retailer in the formation of consumers' perceived e-store brand fit and e-store patronage intention, based on the concept of image congruence.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted with a US national sample of 458 female consumers (20–50 years old) who had shopped for clothing online.

Findings

Results revealed that e-store brand personality incongruence in three personality dimensions had a negative impact on consumers' e-store patronage intention directly as well as indirectly by reducing the consumers' global perception of the e-store brand fit. Further, the retailer's relevance to the consumer moderated the relationship between the perceived e-store brand fit and e-store patronage intention in that this relationship was significantly greater among consumers with a high (vs low) perceived self-relevance of the retail brand.

Practical implications

The findings highlight the importance of symbolically integrated cross-channel brand management for multichannel apparel retailers by clearly identifying their brand personality and carefully crafting it into their e-store interface design and e-store visual merchandising to convey the brand personality.

Originality/value

This study expands the application of image congruence to the cross-channel image congruence phenomenon in multichannel retailing environments by examining the e-store brand image congruence employing both direct and indirect approaches.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Maria Eugenia Ruiz-Molina, Miguel-Ángel Gómez-Borja and Alejandro Mollá-Descals

One key issue to be addressed in multichannel retailing strategies has to do with ensuring the consistency of the retailer offerings between the brick-and-mortar and the…

Abstract

Purpose

One key issue to be addressed in multichannel retailing strategies has to do with ensuring the consistency of the retailer offerings between the brick-and-mortar and the online stores to offer their customers a seamless experience. This study assesses whether perceived congruence may be relevant to identify segments of heterogeneous based on their online loyalty levels as well as other constructs and variables related to the customer relationship with the retailer for two different product categories.

Design/methodology/approach

From the responses of apparel and electronics multichannel shoppers to an online survey, a CHAID algorithm was performed to identify the most relevant congruence attribute(s) perceived by customers for predicting their loyalty levels toward the online store.

Findings

The results have allowed the identification of five segments of online shoppers, both for apparel and for electronics retailing, so that customers showing the highest scores in all congruence attributes also showed a higher loyalty toward the online store.

Research limitations/implications

This study presents a first insight into the link between perceived congruence and online loyalty in retailing using a CHAID segmentation-based approach by differentiating various dimensions of perceived congruence for two product categories.

Practical implications

The results obtained allow for inferring a series of strategies and actions that retailers can adopt for improving perceived congruence between physical and online stores along with a series of dimensions, and ultimately, increase online loyalty.

Originality/value

As the interest of the literature on perceived congruence between offline and online stores is relatively recent, this exploratory research contributes to shedding light on the implications of specific congruence dimensions between the offline and the online store in terms of consumer online loyalty in all multicategory setting.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2021

Andreas Aldogan Eklund and Miralem Helmefalk

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise and provide a future research agenda for (in)congruence regarding cues between products, brands and atmospheres.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise and provide a future research agenda for (in)congruence regarding cues between products, brands and atmospheres.

Design/methodology/approach

A semi-systematic literature review was conducted. The aim was to assess, critique and synthesise (in)congruence, which was found in the literature to be dispersed and interdisciplinary, and to propose a theoretical framework in the marketing domain.

Findings

Firstly, the review reveals that sensory and semantic cues are interrelated in products, brands and atmospheres. It illustrates that these cues are the foundation for (in)congruence. Secondly, the findings show various theoretical foundations for (in)congruence. These explain where and how congruence occurs. Lastly, a theoretical framework for (in)congruence and a future research agenda were developed to stimulate further research.

Research limitations/implications

A theoretical framework was developed to enrich the theoretical knowledge and understanding of (in)congruence in the marketing domain.

Practical implications

The review reveals that products, brands and atmospheres have spillover effects. Managers are advised to understand the semantic meaning carried by cues to foster various outcomes, to estimate the trade-offs when modifying (in)congruent cues for products, brands and atmospheres.

Originality/value

The developed theoretical framework advances and deepens the knowledge of (in)congruence in the marketing domain by moving beyond the match and fit between two entities and by revealing the underlying mechanism and its outcomes.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2021

Zoleikha Abbasi, Jon Billsberry and Mathew Todres

The purpose of this paper is to integrate research conducted on work values, political values and cultural values to develop a new heuristic model of values that can be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate research conducted on work values, political values and cultural values to develop a new heuristic model of values that can be applied to workplace outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper that draws upon the work values, political values and cultural values literatures and the “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion” hypotheses to advocate an integrative conceptual model spanning these constructs.

Findings

Integrating the three types of values with the underlying hypotheses of “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion”, an internally consistent two-factor model of values is developed. This heuristic model argues that one set of factors causes value congruence and its associated outcomes and a different set of factors causes value incongruence and its associated outcomes. By conceptualizing value congruence and value incongruence as a two-factor theory, the idea is advanced that people do not assess value similarity and value dissimilarity unidimensionally, but these are two separate dimensions supported by different theoretical hypotheses and processes.

Originality/value

Previous conceptual work on values has isolated different types of values and considered them separately. A contribution is made by integrating the three main streams of values research. The paper is the first to advocate a two-factor theory to values and the first to incorporate the “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion” hypotheses. The model repositions the focus for future research on value congruence and incongruence.

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Hector Bajac, Miguel Palacios and Elizabeth A. Minton

The purpose of this paper is to understand how congruence influences product evaluations in an international Latin culture context, as moderated by the public vs private…

1380

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how congruence influences product evaluations in an international Latin culture context, as moderated by the public vs private nature of the product and user-image vs product-personality congruence.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were recruited from two universities in Spanish-speaking, Latin cultures: Spain – Latin Europe (n=340) and Uruguay – Latin America (n=400). All participants were asked to indicate product-personality congruence (i.e. congruence between one’s self and the product) and user-image congruence (i.e. congruence between a product’s typical user and the product) for two private and two public products.

Findings

Two types of congruence (product-personality and user-image) positively influence brand evaluations more for publicly consumed than for privately consumed brands for consumers in both Latin cultures, with effect sizes being greater than prior research in other cultures.

Research limitations/implications

This research supports congruence theory in showing that similarity between a consumer and a brand leads to more favorable attitudes. Limitations include the sole use of student subjects and examination in only two countries of Latin culture.

Practical implications

Regardless of a brand’s personality, brands should seek consumers with similar personality traits, especially in Latin cultures.

Originality/value

This research addresses several limitations in prior research by examining both publicly and privately consumed products in one study, exploring congruence across Latin cultures, and testing products not confounded by addictive properties.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Nilesh Arora, Sanjeev Prashar, Sai Vijay Tata and Chandan Parsad

Brand managers frequently use well-known celebrities to position their brands and capture consumers’ attention to improve the brand’s market share. The attachment of a…

1854

Abstract

Purpose

Brand managers frequently use well-known celebrities to position their brands and capture consumers’ attention to improve the brand’s market share. The attachment of a celebrity with a brand creates a human image for a brand and helps in personifying its image. The consumer perceives the brand as an individual and relates his personality, as well as the personality of the celebrity with that of the brand. It becomes pertinent for marketers to understand how brand-celebrity personality congruence and brand-consumer personality congruence affect the brand reputation, uniqueness and purchase intentions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the two personality congruence aspects – brand & celebrity personalities and brand & consumer personalities, and their impact on the reputation of the brand and its uniqueness. Further, the paper aims to examine the impact of the brand reputation and brand uniqueness on purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study uses Aaker’s five-factor personality scale to study the personality congruence effects on brand reputation, brand uniqueness and purchase intentions. The literature review was carried out to categorize factors related to celebrity personality, brand personality and consumer personality. The data for this study was collected through questionnaires from 1,235 respondents. In the first step, congruencies between celebrity, brand and consumer personality were determined. This was followed by a two-stage structural equation modelling for assessing the model fit and testing the hypotheses.

Findings

From the study results, it is observed that brand-celebrity congruency influences brand reputation and brand uniqueness. However, brand-consumer congruency had an effect only on brand reputation and not on brand uniqueness. Both brand reputation and uniqueness have favourable impact on consumers purchase intentions.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature on celebrity endorsement by extending the discussion with personality-based congruence. The research deciphered two aspects of identification, i.e. consumer-brand personality congruence and brand-celebrity congruence. The paper hypothesized the favourable association between brand personality and consumer personality congruence and brand uniqueness. However, it was observed that brand personality-consumer personality identification had an insignificant influence on brand uniqueness. This is contrary to the findings of some studies in the literature. Further investigation of this relationship in the future may add a new dimension to the identification context.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Jessica Mayer, Nadia Zainuddin, Rebekah Russell-Bennett and Rory Francis Mulcahy

The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of perceived threat, brand congruence, and social support on consumer coping strategies for a preventative health service.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of perceived threat, brand congruence, and social support on consumer coping strategies for a preventative health service.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey of 570 women aged over 50 in one Australian state was conducted (users and non-users of the service). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

A competing models approach reveals that threat on its own is associated with avoidance coping; however, when brand congruence is high, there is an association with active coping. Social support appears to have a buffering effect on threat and is associated positively with active coping and negatively with avoidance coping.

Originality/value

The study findings suggest that threat appeals should be used with caution in increasing participation in transformative preventative health services due to its double-edged sword effect (increasing both avoidance and active coping). When consumers have social support, this results in active coping and buffers avoidance coping. This research offers useful insights for social marketing and transformative service research.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

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