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Book part
Publication date: 20 August 2012

Tannista Banerjee

Purpose – The cost of new drug development is increasing every year. Pharmaceutical companies use R&D joint ventures, mergers, and outsource different stages of…

Abstract

Purpose – The cost of new drug development is increasing every year. Pharmaceutical companies use R&D joint ventures, mergers, and outsource different stages of pharmaceutical R&D activities for a faster and cost minimizing method of innovation. Pharmaceutical companies outsource R&D activities to independent small biotech or pharmaceutical companies that specialize in different stages of pharmaceutical R&D. This chapter examines the determinants of the payment structure of research contracts between large bio/pharmaceutical companies and specialized research firms.

Methods – Determinants of R&D contracts are analyzed using detailed R&D contract data between bio/pharmaceutical companies and independent research firms for 10 years. A multinomial logit model is used in order to understand the determinants of three different types of contracts; royalty contracts, fixed payment contracts, and the mixed contracts.

Findings – Under uncertainty, the likelihood of a royalty contract rises for the early stages of the research and with the patent stock of the research firm. It is more likely to observe both royalty and fixed payment if the pharmaceutical client has past contracts with the same research firm. The results also suggest that if Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is more stringent in any disease area in reviewing the new drug application, then the likelihood of signing pure royalty contract decreases.

Implications – Understanding the nature of R&D contracts and the effects of FDA's behavior on the pharmaceutical R&D contract is important because these contracts not only affect the cost of new drug invention but also the quality and the rate of invention.

Value – Results are useful for both the pharmaceutical companies and the economic/business researchers.

Details

The Economics of Medical Technology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-129-8

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Oscar Tamburis and Isabella Bonacci

The growing success of open innovation practices in many firms raises the question of whether such principles can be transferred for reinventing public sector

Abstract

Purpose

The growing success of open innovation practices in many firms raises the question of whether such principles can be transferred for reinventing public sector organisations. A paradigm based on principles of integrated collaboration, co-created shared value, cultivated innovation ecosystems, unleashed exponential technologies and extraordinarily rapid adoption is the so-called Open Innovation 2.0. The development of this approach reflects the perception that the innovation process has evolved. This study aims to explore new ways to study healthcare networks as key tool for innovation creation and spreading, by deploying the emergent paradigm of Open Innovation 2.0.

Design/methodology/approach

The study investigates the impact of clusters, or localised networks, involving industrial, academic and institutional players, in the (bio)pharmaceutical setting; the aim is to enrich the line of inquiry into cluster-based innovation by applying a social network analysis (SNA) methodology, with the aim to provide new perspectives for recognising how the set of interactions and relationships in the (bio)pharmaceutical context can lead to higher levels of knowledge transfer, organisational learning and innovation spreading.

Findings

Starting from the top ten (bio)pharmaceutical companies, and the top ten contract research organisations (CROs), the study helps understand that: the combination of the single big pharma company and the CROs to which great part of the work is externalised, can be compared to a community of transaction that deals with the supply and demand of a specific kind of goods and services; clusters can comprise either a single one or more communities of transaction; virtual CROs act as a community whose all components participate to the creation of value (co-creation), thus comparable to a certain extent to a community of fantasy.

Originality/value

Based on the novelty of the OI2/SNA combination approach to deal with the “complex” (bio)pharmaceutical industry, the outcomes of the present study mean to highlight: a comprehensive perspective for understanding the dynamics of modularity and their implications for innovation networks; the presence of innovation networks as main mean to promote and support paths of knowledge creation and transfer.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2019

Despoina Filiou, Heinz Tusselmann and Lawrence Green

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of alliance experience in firm innovation; it argues that, while cumulative alliance experience has a marginally…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of alliance experience in firm innovation; it argues that, while cumulative alliance experience has a marginally diminishing contribution to likelihood of firm innovation over time, frequent engagement in alliances and an expanding alliance portfolio inhabit an enhancing role. This reveals new dimensions to the role of alliance experience as an antecedent to firm learning in managing alliances and to the development of alliance capabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper estimates a range of models identifying the relationship between alliance experience and firm innovation. The panel data sample captures the full range of firms active in the UK bio-pharmaceuticals sector during the early stages of its development observing them from 1991 to 2001. An exploratory case study analysis is employed to shed light on the nuanced factors linking frequent engagement in alliances to the development of practices for efficient alliance management.

Findings

The paper shows that cumulative alliance experience has a marginally diminishing contribution to likelihood of firm innovation over time, while frequent engagement in alliances and the ensuing expansion of alliance portfolios enhance firm innovation. The exploratory case analysis demonstrates a link between frequent engagement in alliances and the development of processes for alliance management that could collectively reflect alliance capabilities.

Originality/value

Contribution derives from a longitudinal analysis of an original panel data set that maps the UK bio-pharmaceuticals sector over the initial period of its development. The paper sheds light on factors that can compel firms to form alliance capabilities, and extends a currently thin body of work on the foundations and antecedents to alliance and alliance portfolio capabilities.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Yuan‐Chieh Chang, Yi‐Che Chen and Ting‐Kuei Kuo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the strategic technology outsourcing of corporate ventures from an integrated perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the strategic technology outsourcing of corporate ventures from an integrated perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model argues that technology sourcing modes are jointly determined by the technological regime, industry‐specific factors and resource‐based view (RBV), as well as firm‐specific factors. Four Taiwanese top publicly traded pharmaceutical companies dedicated to biotechnology are studied.

Findings

This paper demonstrates that firms most likely to outsource technology are characterized by the following technological regime factors: reliant on external sources of innovation, tight IPR protection, path independent from the existing technology trajectory, less complexity, easy to codify and having resource‐based (RB) factors: irrelevant to the core competence, weak complementary assets, and autonomous innovation.

Practical implications

Current approaches generally focus on technology sourcing with a single strategic theory. New venture managers can apply the list of four industry‐specific factors and three firm‐specific factors of sourcing technologies to determine the appropriate sourcing modes (internal vs internal).

Originality/value

There has been little research on how technology sourcing can be done from a holistic, strategic angle. This paper demonstrates that technology sourcing strategy could be properly done by integrating multi‐levels, industry, firm and governance factors in a coordinated plan.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2019

Vahid Marandi, Seyyed Habibollah Tabatabaeian, Parivash Jafari and Morteza Azarnoosh

The Iranian bio-pharma industry was the first high-tech industry in the country, which had succeeded to develop innovative products. Despite past successes, there are…

Abstract

Purpose

The Iranian bio-pharma industry was the first high-tech industry in the country, which had succeeded to develop innovative products. Despite past successes, there are bottlenecks preventing the industry from meeting the national standard and plans for excellence. The purpose of this paper is to find out the challenges impeding further innovation of the firms in the industry and find solution to the issues. Based on these findings, the authors recommend a set of policies that might be of interest to the new-comer countries in biotechnology.

Design/methodology/approach

The institutional structure of the industry, its market situation and the players are studied using a qualitative method based on an institutional approach and an appreciative theory.

Findings

Ten challenges were found after examining the pyramid of technological capabilities. Moreover; conflicting approaches in the policies made for the national health system and industrial development are identified. Adoption of policy coherence has been highlighted as a necessary strategy to harmonize and integrate the approaches required to play a role in bio-production global market actively.

Practical implications

A unique focal point for the country’s strategic plans should be assigned, and the supply-side policies with demand-side policies must be balanced.

Originality/value

This paper is an evidence-based effort to bring policy coherence as an approach in sectoral level, while political settlement lies in governance level. The opportunities for improvement are highlighted in the Iranian bio-pharmaceutical sector, as a key technology. Moreover, the findings could be used as lessons-learned for new-comers countries.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Antonio Toma, Giustina Secundo and Giuseppina Passiante

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the main Intellectual Property (IP) protection strategies adopted in the R&D phases of a company operating in the bio

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the main Intellectual Property (IP) protection strategies adopted in the R&D phases of a company operating in the bio-pharmaceutical industry, according to an open innovation (OI) approach.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to assess how R&D intensive firms adopt IP strategies during OI practices, this research uses a single case-study design. The case has been studied over an extended period of time (from 2008 to 2015), triangulating data and information by means of multiple interviews with different key informants and projects documents. The novelty of the research justifies the use of a single case study.

Findings

The study reveals how a mix of formal and informal tools for IP protection are used, with a final attempt to maintain control over different technological solutions during their validation process and profiting from stable R&D collaborations with research partners.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study relate to the single case study methodology as well as to some peculiarities of the analyzed company and of the Bio-Pharmaceutical industry.

Practical implications

Research managers could find some food for thought in the adoption of OI approaches for reducing costs and risks associated with technological uncertainty, with particular attention to the strategic role of IP rights.

Originality/value

Despite knowledge protection being widely recognized to be a critical issue for implementing OI approaches, how IP strategies should be used in the different phases of R&D is still debatable. Moreover, few empirical studies relate to the adoption of optimal combinations of IP tools in relation to the different R&D phases in such technology intensive industries as the bio-pharmaceutical industry.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Antonello Cammarano, Mauro Caputo, Emilia Lamberti and Francesca Michelino

The purpose of this paper is to provide a patent-based framework for investigating the effect of previous and current open innovation (OI) adoption on firms’ knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a patent-based framework for investigating the effect of previous and current open innovation (OI) adoption on firms’ knowledge management strategies and type of innovation output.

Design/methodology/approach

Patent data are employed for gauging innovation practices, exploitation vs exploration strategies, specialization vs diversification choices and type of innovation. The study is performed on a sample of 1,280 patents granted to 66 top R&D spending bio-pharmaceutical companies. The year of analysis is 2010.

Findings

The previous recourse to specific innovation practices influences the current practice selection. R&D collaboration, outsourcing and mergers and acquisitions are employed to pursue exploration. Past purchase of patents increases the likelihood to achieve architectural and radical innovation in current activities.

Research limitations/implications

The work recommends the use of patent data to gauge many key elements for knowledge and innovation management. Results exhort scholars to investigate innovation practices at the knowledge domain level in order to detect specific behaviors.

Practical implications

The study provides a methodology for supporting decision-makers in assessing firms’ OI adoption, also performing the benchmark with competitors and R&D partners. Given the high computational effort required for applying the methodology, the authors are planning to give access to the software specifically developed for this study.

Originality/value

The work contributes to the current debate considering the effect of a combination of innovation practices on knowledge management strategies and type of innovation output, with a particular focus on OI activities. Moreover, the separation between the impact of previous and current innovation practices provides useful insights.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part
Publication date: 20 August 2012

Kristian Bolin and Robert Kaestner

Medical technology broadly defined to include all aspects of the process of treating disease (e.g., pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and surgical procedures) is…

Abstract

Medical technology broadly defined to include all aspects of the process of treating disease (e.g., pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and surgical procedures) is profoundly important for individual health and, consequently, also for general welfare. Advances in medical technology hold out the prospect of both improved population health and increased general welfare. However, because of the nature and extensive regulation of the markets for health care goods and services, the development and application of medical technologies differs fundamentally from nonmedical technological advances. In this volume of the series of Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research, entitled The Economics of Medical Technology, we present several papers that provide theoretical and empirical evidence about the market for medical technology.

Details

The Economics of Medical Technology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-129-8

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Mehran Ebrahimi, Anne‐Laure Saives and W. David Holford

The purpose of this paper is to aim to characterise the knowledge management process of the ageing human capital, within the sectors of aeronautics and bio‐technologies in Canada.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to aim to characterise the knowledge management process of the ageing human capital, within the sectors of aeronautics and bio‐technologies in Canada.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology consists of: cross‐search of literature towards the elaboration of a theoretical map; and collection of data involving semi‐directed interviews followed by a thematic and statistical analysis of the textual data.

Findings

Management's knowledge of social and relational knowledge, especially those of ageing workers, appears to be scarce, thus resulting in ageing workers being perceived as surpassed by technological and scientific progress. This conception deprives the company of an important source of knowledge capitalisation. A model relevant to the evaluation of company practices related to inter‐generational aspects of knowledge management should include six basic dimensions, namely: management philosophy (a managerial style favouring projections and proximities), strategic analysis (knowledge, memory and learning strategy), organisational analysis (information management system and knowledge creation process), operational analysis (places of socialisation), competencies (relational and communicational know‐how, individual memory and capacity of judgement), and the role of ageing personnel (activation of organisational and human resource networks).

Research limitations/implications

Further validation is required across an enlarged population, with the aim of operationalising the observed concepts within a practical evaluation guide of company practices related to inter‐generational aspects of knowledge management.

Originality/value

By centering the analysis on highly qualified ageing individuals, the authors discerned a phenomenon showing that even within highly technological contexts knowledge management is far from systematically integrating those recognised a priori as carriers of knowledge.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Rajesh Kr. Singh, Ravinder Kumar and Pravin Kumar

In the present context of a health-concious society, management of pharmaceutical supply chains has become more complex because it involves the life-saving interest of…

Abstract

Purpose

In the present context of a health-concious society, management of pharmaceutical supply chains has become more complex because it involves the life-saving interest of human being and requires the participation of different stakeholders such as pharmaceutical manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, customers, information service providers and regulatory agencies. Limited research is available in the area of pharmaceutical supply chains. This paper aims to find the gaps in the literature by reviewing research papers on different strategic issues of supply chain management in the pharmaceutical sector.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 136 research papers, mainly from refereed international journals, were reviewed to identify the issues of supply chain management (SCM) in the pharmaceutical supply chain. On the basis of a review, gaps are identified and research agenda is proposed.

Findings

It is observed from review that the pharmaceutical sector is not widely researched in developing countries because of many complexities in this supply chain. The share of pharmaceutical firms in the global market is also not very significant. Based on an extensive review of pharmaceutical supply chains, research gaps are identified in different areas such as inventory management, new product development, process development, capacity planning, network design, plant design, pipeline and development management, outsourcing logistics activities, reverse logistics, Lean manufacturing, green SCM and implementation of E-business processes and performance management. These strategic issues have been further classified into three broad categories, i.e. resources, processes and performance.

Originality/value

This paper explores major strategic areas of pharmaceutical supply chains for research. Findings of the paper will be highly useful for researchers to decide direction of future research.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

1 – 10 of 759