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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Annie Cossins

One of the key contributions of feminist criminology has been to recognise the cultural significance of the concepts of sex and gender, bodies and social practices in…

Abstract

One of the key contributions of feminist criminology has been to recognise the cultural significance of the concepts of sex and gender, bodies and social practices in order to conceptualise men’s engagement with crime, including the dominance of men as perpetrators of crimes of violence against women.

This chapter focusses on the #MeToo movement which has revealed the stark contrast between women’s experiences of sexual assault and sexual harassment, and the extent of men’s perceived entitlement to women’s bodies. By theorising the regulatory processes by which different bodies are ‘moralised’, it is possible to see how cultures are created by reference to the values ascribed to different bodies as well as what different bodies do. The author considers the applicability of moral regulation theory to show how processes of sexualisation, including sexual assault and harassment, constitute identity formation and considers whether resistance in the form of the #MeToo movement amounts to a powerful enough challenge to introduce cultural and structural changes.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-956-4

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Joy Leopold, Jason R. Lambert, Ifeyimika O. Ogunyomi and Myrtle P. Bell

The purpose of this paper is to propose that #MeToo is a social movement which has been more effective in changing norms around and increasing understanding about the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose that #MeToo is a social movement which has been more effective in changing norms around and increasing understanding about the prevalence and destructiveness of sexual harassment than decades of laws and organizational policies have been.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses communication, management and psychology literature on social media, public shaming and social movements to propose that #MeToo is a social movement that has changed perceptions of and knowledge about sexual harassment and assault. #MeToo provides voice to previously silenced targets and incentives for individuals to avoid perpetrating harassment and for organizations to deter sexual harassment at work and sanction it if it occurs.

Findings

The paper discusses individuals who have been publicly shamed and terminated for bigoted behavior outside of work, and organizational leaders who have been ousted after social media postings, as organizations attempt to distance themselves from the perpetrators of bigotry and sexual misconduct. Since #MeToo, some cities have passed laws prohibiting organizations from requiring sexual harassment targets to sign non-disclosure agreements.

Practical implications

Sexual harassment is associated with high individual costs and organizational costs, including costs of turnover, lost business and reputational damage. The #MeToo movement provides incentives for organizations to be more proactive and vigilant in their attempts to deter sexual harassment, and to appropriately address it when it occurs.

Social implications

Sexual harassment has widespread effects on women’s daily lives and careers. #MeToo gives voice to harassment targets, changes norms of silencing them, and increases awareness of harassment as unacceptable, harmful behavior.

Originality/value

The paper positions #MeToo as a social movement, with the ability to change the seemingly intractable problem of sexual harassment in ways laws have not.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Stephanie Nicholson, Julie McColl and Elaine L. Ritch

By the end of this chapter, you should be able to demonstrate an understanding of:

The theories of diffusion.

Diffusion and social movements.

Diffusion and the #MeToo campaign.

Abstract

By the end of this chapter, you should be able to demonstrate an understanding of:

The theories of diffusion.

Diffusion and social movements.

Diffusion and the #MeToo campaign.

Details

New Perspectives on Critical Marketing and Consumer Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-554-2

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Kimberly T. Schneider and Nathan J. Carpenter

The purpose of this paper is to examine 2,102 #MeToo tweets and focuses on the content of the tweets and social reactions to these tweets. For a subsample of 912 tweets…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine 2,102 #MeToo tweets and focuses on the content of the tweets and social reactions to these tweets. For a subsample of 912 tweets that included disclosures of sexual assault or harassment, the incident type and context, along with coping were also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

#MeToo tweets were retrieved from a 24 h time period immediately after the initial tweet prompting responses. Both sentiment analysis and content and context analyses were performed.

Findings

Although the overall sentiment of tweets indicated a negative tone, the majority of positive social reactions indicated validation and belief of survivors, offered emotional support and called for social change. Targets who disclosed generally described workplace harassment and assertive coping responses.

Research limitations/implications

Sentiment analysis can be limited given a lack of context. Not all targets using #MeToo shared details of their harassment or assault; those who did reported using more assertive coping responses than traditional samples of survivors.

Practical implications

Social media platforms offer unique opportunities for targets to share personal stories and receive emotional and social support they may not have access in-person.

Social implications

#MeToo provided targets with a groundswell of social and emotional support, along with a less frequent amount of backlash against the movement.

Originality/value

A multimethod approach was used with both sentiment analysis and text coding to examine #MeToo, allowing for a description of types of incidents shared, coping strategies and social reactions.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2020

Frida Jernberg, Anna Lindbäck and Annie Roos

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the representation of male entrepreneurs in the media has changed in the after-effects of the #metoo movement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the representation of male entrepreneurs in the media has changed in the after-effects of the #metoo movement.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors perform a discourse analysis and visual analysis of how male entrepreneurs in the Swedish business magazine Affärsvärlden are represented. A centre-margin analysis is laid out, focusing on who and what constitutes (or endeavours to constitute) the legitimate male entrepreneur.

Findings

The results of the analysis show that male entrepreneurs are represented with different discursive success factors. These success factors are linked to a driven personality, a high-status leisure activity, a supportive but invisible family, a focus on financial measures and a global outlook. Marginally, there has been a change towards more humbleness, and a shift from financial growth to turnover, in the representation of entrepreneurial masculinities after the #metoo movement.

Research limitations/implications

To bring about a more equal norm regarding male entrepreneurial identity, more space and attention must be given in the media to the subordinate masculinities of entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

Previous gender research on entrepreneurship has, to a large extent, focussed on female entrepreneurs and research focussed on male entrepreneurs is conspicuous in its absence. However, the male entrepreneur, just like the female entrepreneur, needs to relate to, be compared with and adapt to a norm of how the ideal entrepreneur should be. Therefore, it is important to establish and illuminate who the male entrepreneur is assumed to be, to better understand and question that role.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Rita Gardiner, Wendy Fox Kirk, Leigh Fine and Faith Ngunjiri

Abstract

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Content available

Abstract

Details

Online Anti-Rape Activism: Exploring the Politics of the Personal in the Age of Digital Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-442-7

Abstract

Details

Connecting Values to Action: Non-Corporeal Actants and Choice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-308-2

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Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Amentahru Wahlrab, Sarah M. Sass and Robert Edward Sterken

“The Need to Disrupt Social Control” discusses three examples: sexual assault, civil rights, and state security, and how all three involve social control forces that…

Abstract

“The Need to Disrupt Social Control” discusses three examples: sexual assault, civil rights, and state security, and how all three involve social control forces that promote or permit the oppression of individuals, groups, and societies. Amentahru Wahlrab, Sarah M. Sass, and Robert Edward Sterken Jr. briefly provide examples of how social control can be disrupted including #MeToo (sexual assault), the American Civil Rights Movement (civil rights), and the Arab Spring (authoritarian regimes) to illustrate how social control has been disrupted in these areas. The chapter illustrates how patriarchal norms allow for sexual assault by those with power within contexts, such as Hollywood, academia, business, and politics. Sexual assault survivors and bystanders often do not report instances of assault due to informal social norms permitting such actions and fear of personal and professional harm.

On a different level, the jail in the American south was one of the most feared institutions for African Americans. It was not uncommon for an African American to never return from what would be a night in the “drunk tank” for a white person. Black Americans stayed “in their place” due to the threat of the jail cell. Finally, the chapter details how tyrants use the full weight of state security forces, including the police and the military, to maintain their control. Fear of security forces is routinely encouraged by arrests, torture, and even disappearance (of people) at the hands of the security forces. “The Need to Disrupt Social Control” concludes that in these cases, social control maintains an oppressive order of some kind, thus social control is understood as a potential negative.

Details

Political Authority, Social Control and Public Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-049-9

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Online Anti-Rape Activism: Exploring the Politics of the Personal in the Age of Digital Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-442-7

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