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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2015

Norman E. Youngblood

Digital inclusivity is about making web sites available to users regardless of a user’s device or disability. This study seeks to find out how accessible and mobile ready…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital inclusivity is about making web sites available to users regardless of a user’s device or disability. This study seeks to find out how accessible and mobile ready state library web sites are and if there is a relationship between web site accessibility and mobile readiness.

Methodology/approach

I examined web site accessibility through automated code evaluation and manual code inspection of the web site homepage. I evaluated mobile readiness by comparing how homepages displayed on a desktop computer vs. a smart phone.

Findings

Most state library web sites had accessibility problems, including missing alternative text for images (82%), inaccessible forms (54%), and poor contrast between text and background (56%). Only 36% of the sites were mobile ready. A Spearman rho analysis of accessibility and mobile readiness found that the more accessible a site is, the more likely it is mobile ready (and vice versa).

Research limitations/implications

While this study identified accessibility and mobile readiness issues, it does not address why these problems exist. In addition, the unit of analysis was limited to the web site homepage. The study’s results emphasize the need to combine manual code inspection with automated analysis, particularly for images’ alternative text.

Practical implications

The study suggests that state libraries need to take greater care in meeting accessibility standards, particularly easily followed standards such as providing appropriate alternative text for images.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of state libraries in organizing and funding local libraries, there has been little research to date on state library web sites.

Details

Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities and the Inclusive Future of Libraries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-652-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Larry D. Groppel, John Tucker, Wesley Owens and Regina Youngblood

The Dallas Independent School District (DISD) is the 12th largest school district in the US with an operating budget of approximately $1.04bn and a diverse enrolment of…

Abstract

The Dallas Independent School District (DISD) is the 12th largest school district in the US with an operating budget of approximately $1.04bn and a diverse enrolment of more than 158,000 students. The district encompasses roughly 351 square miles, primarily within the boundaries of the City of Dallas, Texas. In November 2001, the Board of Trustees requested a bond election be held to address overcrowding with additions and new construction, and to improve existing buildings. Voters showed strong confidence and trust in the district when, in January 2002, they approved a $1.37bn bond programme to build 21 new facilities and add to or renovate all existing schools. The DISD Board of Trustees has selected competitive sealed proposal as the primary contracting method for construction under the 2002 Bond Programme. This method allows selection of qualified and competent general contractors who can meet the rigorous schedule and complex demands of multiple urban construction and renovation–construction projects. The intent of this paper is to give the reader a brief overview of the competitive sealed proposal process as it relates to school construction in the state of Texas, and how DISD has implemented this procurement method for its recent bond programme.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Sandra Renfro Callaghan, Chandra Subramaniam and Stuart Youngblood

This paper aims to directly test the assertion by proponents of executive stock option repricing that repricing leads to increased management retention. Previous studies…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to directly test the assertion by proponents of executive stock option repricing that repricing leads to increased management retention. Previous studies find either no effect or decreased retention following stock price repricing. This paper uses a more precise research design to re-examine the relationship between stock option retention and management retention.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use an empirical methodology and construct a sample of 158 firms and 201 repricing events, and a control sample of 201 non-repricing firms. They then examine executive turnover in the four years following the stock option repricing event.

Findings

It was found that, consistent with agency theory, stock option repricing actually results in greater executive retention. Specifically, CEO retention is significantly greater for repricing firms relative to non-repricing firms for up to three years following the repricing date, and non-CEO executive retention is significantly greater for two years.

Research limitations/implications

Firms continue to restructure management through stock option repricing. However, recent option repricing has been undertaken during a period when the economy is in decline, making it is difficult to disentangle effects of option repricing on management retention. Hence, this paper uses repricing data from an earlier period, from 1992-1997, when the economy was good.

Originality/value

Many firms argue that when stock options are out-of-the-money and managerial talent is in demand, repricing executive stock options is necessary to retain managers. Previous studies find contradictory or no support for this view. Using a much more precise methodology, this paper shows that firms do retain managers when they reprice their options compared to when they do not.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2001

Ursula Ströh and Miia Jaatinen

In the new millennium, organisations are going through rapid changes and the role of strategic management is challenged. When the organisation is threatened by…

6093

Abstract

In the new millennium, organisations are going through rapid changes and the role of strategic management is challenged. When the organisation is threatened by environmental changes such as crises or competition as a result of information technology development or increased customer demands, the need for communication increases. During high change situations, when the publics of the organisation become involved in the change issues, they actively seek information about the issues. If the organisation could utilise communication management more effectively and in a twoway, participative way, they would build more positive relationships with the publics involved and reorganise themselves out of disorder. Strategic planning will become even more important, but will have to change to a contingency approach and emphasise flexibility and relationship building. This paper looks at organisational processes during change and how they can be managed by communication. Implications are drawn from chaos, postmodern and complexity theory as well as the contingency view of communication. The authors create a framework for scanning and analysing processes and settings, and suggest an alternative strategic, symmetrical and ethical communication approach to respond to problems. They present a new paradigm that emerges as a response to polarisation and treats communication as more receiver‐centred, stakeholder‐based, relationship‐building‐oriented and of strategic importance. This paper lays a foundation for an alternative perspective to the central problems of the communication discipline against the background of new emerging multidisciplinary approaches.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2007

Charmine E.J. Härtel and Debra Panipucci

Just as a rotten apple makes other apples around it begin to decay, so too can people influence others within their vicinity, particularly in terms of destructive emotions…

Abstract

Just as a rotten apple makes other apples around it begin to decay, so too can people influence others within their vicinity, particularly in terms of destructive emotions and behaviors. Trevino and Youngblood (1990) adopted the term ‘bad apples’ to describe individuals who engage in unethical behaviors and who also influence others to behave in a similar manner. In this chapter, the ‘bad apple’ metaphor is adopted to describe the employee whose actions and interactions create and maintain destructive faultlines and unethical exclusion behaviors that negatively impact the emotional well-being and effective and ethical performance of the team. In particular, the chapter examines the way in which ‘bad apples’ use destructive emotion management skills through the manipulation of emotional levers of others, what motivates them to do so and the implications it may have on management.

Details

Functionality, Intentionality and Morality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1414-0

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Ken Cottrill

Executives who don't think they need to gather competitive intelligence set themselves up for a very hard fall.

Abstract

Executives who don't think they need to gather competitive intelligence set themselves up for a very hard fall.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

David C. Wyld, Coy A. Jones, Sam D. Cappel and Daniel E. Hallock

Lawrence Kohlberg's (1969) concept of cognitive moral development (CMD) has been one of the most investigated constructs in the field of social psychology, with over one…

Abstract

Lawrence Kohlberg's (1969) concept of cognitive moral development (CMD) has been one of the most investigated constructs in the field of social psychology, with over one thousand studies reported investigating this construct in only two decades of research. However, what is the relationship of this theoretical construct to actual decision making and behavior? Blasi (1980, p. 4) opined for the criticality of moral judgement research to both ethical decision making and ethical inquiry, stating that “without judgement, an action, no matter how beneficial, would not be moral.” Relating Kohlberg's model to business decision making and behavior has been central to the building of theoretical frameworks of the ethical decision making process engaged in by individuals. The models of this process proposed by Trevino and Youngblood (1990), Trevino (1986), Bommer, Gratto, Gravender, and Tuttle (1987), Ferrell and Gresham (1985), Ferrell, Gresham, and Fraedrich (1989), Swinyard, DeLong, and Cheng (1989), and Jones (1991) all contained cognitive moral development as a factor in their respective models of ethical decision making.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 17 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Mark D. Youngblood

253

Abstract

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2007

Gregory G. Manley, Juan Benavidez and Kristen Dunn

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a measure designed to assess constructs that predict ethical decision making (EDM) among employees.

1988

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a measure designed to assess constructs that predict ethical decision making (EDM) among employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach was to target individual difference variables that are theoretically linked to EDM. This was done by generating biodata items/scales of the constructs of interest.

Findings

Two biodata scales were developed to measure locus of control and conscientiousness. Both of these scales had significant criterion‐related validities with EDM (rs=0.42 and 0.40, respectively) and predicted significant and unique variance of EDM beyond the variance predicted by trait‐based measures of the same constructs. Biodata scales exhibited little or no subgroup differences (less potential adverse impact). Research limitations/implications – Participants were working various jobs and a variety of settings, so results generalize to this eclectic population more so than one particular industry. Further research should attempt to examine effects in a specific applied setting.

Practical implications

This study outlines a method of item and scale development that produces homogonous scales that predict EDM and that can be tailored for specific organizational use.

Originality/value

The paper provides a theoretical rationale for why biodata methodology is superior to trait‐based measures and practical value for the use of biodata in measuring individual difference constructs.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1997

Mark D. Youngblood

“A new breed of companies is emerging that seems to thrive on chaos. These companies — which I call ‘Quantum Organizations’ — operate on an organic model that closely…

Abstract

“A new breed of companies is emerging that seems to thrive on chaos. These companies — which I call ‘Quantum Organizations’ — operate on an organic model that closely mirrors the functioning of natural systems.”

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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