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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Mohamed Syazwan Ab Talib, Siti Salwa Md. Sawari, Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid and Thoo Ai Chin

The emergence of the Halal food market as one of the largest consumer food markets has encouraged firms to implement Halal food certification. However, the theoretical gap…

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3311

Abstract

Purpose

The emergence of the Halal food market as one of the largest consumer food markets has encouraged firms to implement Halal food certification. However, the theoretical gap in Halal studies and the unequal focus of Halal food certification research prove the deficiency of theoretical development and understanding. Hence, this paper aims to ascertain the theoretical background of Halal food certificate implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews and synthesises literature focusing on Halal certification, food certification and the Institutional Theory factors that could potentially explain the impetus of Halal food certificate implementation.

Findings

The Institutional Theory offers a suitable explanation that grounds the motivation to implement Halal food certification. The highly institutionalised Halal industry comprising government regulations, Muslim demands for Halal foods and intense industry competition instigate Halal food certificate implementation. Three propositions are presented and a conceptual model is developed.

Research limitations/implications

The notions of this paper are based on the institutional perspective, i.e. the external motivation factors. An alternative view on a management theory that explains the internal motivation factors would provide a more comprehensive interpretation of reasons to implement Halal food certification. Nevertheless, the Institutional Theory offers strong understandings behind the motivation to implement Halal food certification.

Practical implications

Discussions and propositions from this paper could contribute to theory formation that is unique to Halal or Muslim food certification. This paper could also provide a sense of direction for researchers in mapping out future research undertakings.

Originality/value

The paper presents a valuable understanding of the dynamic of the Institutional Theory in the field of Halal food certification. It is the first attempt that considers the institutional isomorphism of government decree, consumer demand and inter-firm competition as motivation factors of Halal food certificate implementation.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Anna Che Azmi, Romzie Rosman and Normah Omar

The purpose of this study is to understand the reasons behind the different patterns of Sharīʿah non-compliant income (SNCI) disclosures amongst Islamic banks and, in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the reasons behind the different patterns of Sharīʿah non-compliant income (SNCI) disclosures amongst Islamic banks and, in particular, the extent to which Islamic banks make SNCI disclosures. The process involved in gaining and maintaining moral legitimacy forms the framework for this study.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews were conducted with managers of Islamic banks involved in the reporting of SNCI in company annual reports.

Findings

The interview findings show that Islamic banks prefer to use procedures to gain and enhance moral legitimacy amongst their customers, business partners and staff. The constraints and challenges that Islamic banks face in SNCI reporting make this a popular means of securing moral legitimacy. However, these practices may not lead to enhanced and more communicative SNCI disclosures by Islamic banks.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that explains the motivations behind SNCI reporting by Islamic banks and frames these motivations under the moral legitimacy framework.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Mohd. Fuad, Sawari, Razi Hassan and Faruk Abdullah

Considering the popularity of the premium savings certificate (PSC) of the National Savings Bank of Malaysia (Bank Simpanan Nasional (BSN)) the paper aims to justify the…

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2042

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the popularity of the premium savings certificate (PSC) of the National Savings Bank of Malaysia (Bank Simpanan Nasional (BSN)) the paper aims to justify the Shari'ah compliancy of this product by analyzing its underlying contracts and to propose a Shari'ah compliant savings certificate, if the current practice is invalid in the Shari'ah.

Design/methodology/approach

Inductive methodology is first used to obtain a basic understanding of this product and the characteristics of Shari'ah approved contracts as well as the views of the jurists. Interviewing method is also used to acquire first‐hand information when the inductive method is not sufficient. Afterwards, an analytical approach is adopted to justify the validity of this contract with the Shari'ah principles. Finally, an innovative methodology is used to propose a Shari'ah compliant savings certificate.

Findings

The paper argues that the underlying contract used in PSC violates the conditions of wadi'ah contract, as in wadi'ah, the bank is not allowed to spend the money for investment, but in practice, BSN uses the money for investment. Therefore, the underlying contract in PSC turns into qard (loan) contract. Since the scholars unanimously declare that giving any kind of benefit like prizes to the creditor is riba, then PSC is considered as invalid according to the Shari'ah. On the other hand, although PSC might seem like gambling, it is different from gambling as the prizes given to PSC are from a third party. The paper proposes implementing mudarabah contract in PSC where the bank is allowed to invest according to its interest and the depositors share the profit and loss but the huge fluctuation of profit and loss could be shrunk by a special fund method.

Originality/value

In particular, it attracts the attention of BSN management to change their product's features. In general, it discovers a non‐Shari'ah compliant feature of savings certificates and outlines the feature of a Shari'ah compliant saving certificate for the practitioners of Islamic banking all over the world.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Mustafa Mohd Hanefah, Muhammad Iqmal Hisham Kamaruddin, Supiah Salleh, Zurina Shafii and Nurazalia Zakaria

The existence of internal control for Sharīʿah-compliance promotes reasonable assurance that the Islamic financial institution’s (IFI’s) objectives are achieved in the…

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1935

Abstract

Purpose

The existence of internal control for Sharīʿah-compliance promotes reasonable assurance that the Islamic financial institution’s (IFI’s) objectives are achieved in the following categories, namely, the effectiveness and efficiency of operations, the reliability of financial reporting and the level of compliance with applicable laws and regulations, as well as accounting and auditing standards. Sharīʿah non-compliant income (SNCI) is an important issue in IFIs’ operations. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to identify issues related to governance and internal control of SNCI in selected IFIs in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a case study approach to gather data on the measures of governance and risk management in relation to the internal control for SNCI in IFIs. Interviews were conducted with officers of the Sharīʿah and internal audit departments on internal control practices regarding SNCI.

Findings

Regulator’s guidelines on SNCI are simple and brief, lacking rigour in terms of governance, risk management and audit procedures. The section on SNCI is only a brief statement within the Bank Negara Malaysia’s Guidelines on Financial Reporting for Islamic Banking Institutions and also in the Operational Risk Integrated Online Network system operated by IFIs. Most of the respondents in the interviews suggested that there should be a proper guideline in determining the classification of SNCI. Second, although IFIs have established the purification account to manage SNCI, the real practice varies from one IFI to another. Third, although there are supposedly documented procedures established in relation to management and administration of SNCI, the following events still occur in practice, namely, no authorisation from the Sharīʿah Committee (SC) on various types of income channelled to the SNCI account; unauthorised use of SNCI for other purposes; SNCI not being reported in the annual financial reports; and distribution of SNCI prior to obtaining the SC’s consent. Fourth, there is an absence of Sharīʿah risk assessment conducted on operational risk by IFIs to identify any potential Sharīʿah non-compliant event.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to the importance of Islamic corporate governance theory and Sharīʿah risk management, as well as strengthening the case for reporting SNCI to shareholders. It also contributes to the body of knowledge on the capability of the management in managing the internal control system of IFIs’ SNCI.

Originality/value

A new internal control assessment matrix is proposed for Sharīʿah-compliance in IFIs.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

David Rae

Entrepreneurial learning is an important area of enquiry which is not well understood in either the academic study of entrepreneurship or the practical development of new…

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6287

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial learning is an important area of enquiry which is not well understood in either the academic study of entrepreneurship or the practical development of new entrepreneurs. The article aims to explore two questions: first, how do people learn to work in entrepreneurial ways – are there significant processes and experiences in their learning, which can be related to existing learning theories? Second, can a useful framework to understand entrepreneurial learning be developed and applied both in entrepreneurial practice and conceptually by educators?

Design/methodology/approach

The article includes a brief critical review of the theoretical literature in the areas of entrepreneurship and learning. Thematic discourse analysis is used to interpret the life story narratives of three entrepreneurs in the creative industries. Material from their learning experiences is used to support the development of a conceptual model. This demonstrates connections between the emergence of entrepreneurial identity, learning as a social process, opportunity recognition, and venture formation as a negotiated activity.

Findings

The principal finding is to propose a conceptual framework of entrepreneurial learning as a triadic model, including major themes of personal and social emergence, contextual learning, the negotiated enterprise, and a group of 11 related sub‐themes.

Practical implications

Applications of the model in entrepreneurship education, work‐based learning and practice, are proposed, within and beyond the context of the creative media industry.

Originality/value

The paper develops an original and distinctive conceptual understanding of entrepreneurial learning through analysis of entrepreneurs' experiences, based on a social learning and constructionist perspective.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Kim Hua Tan, Mohd Helmi Ali, Zafir Mohd Makhbul and Azman Ismail

Much has been written about the importance of external integration for the integrity of food products. To achieve food integrity, all actors along the supply chain have to…

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1607

Abstract

Purpose

Much has been written about the importance of external integration for the integrity of food products. To achieve food integrity, all actors along the supply chain have to be fully integrated and comply with an assurance system or process. The more complex the supply chain operations are, the greater will be the need for integration. This research paper investigates the impact of external integration on compliance with halal standards, as an example of product integrity within the food industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 1,000 food manufacturers was conducted. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to test the effect of external integration on compliance with halal standards.

Findings

The results showed that there were links between halal assurance system and external integration. Nevertheless, it was discovered that only customer integration mediated the relationship between the halal assurance system and product quality and production cost.

Practical implications

The practical implications of the findings extend to managers in the food industry who might pursue supply chain integration as a structure to achieve excellence. The findings suggested that the deployment of a halal assurance system has a positive effect on operational performance. Furthermore, the results show that managers who wish to implement the halal assurance system should carefully invest in an external integration strategy, depending upon the operational performance improvement intended.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first studies to investigate the effects of external integration on halal food in general and is the first empirical investigation of the effect of safeguarding halal integrity on operational performance.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

H. Kanbach, J. Wilde, F. Kriebel and E. Meusel

A new concept of 3D‐electronic packaging is presented: Si‐on‐Si multi‐chip module flip‐chip technology with arrays of fine etched and filled vertical electrical…

Abstract

A new concept of 3D‐electronic packaging is presented: Si‐on‐Si multi‐chip module flip‐chip technology with arrays of fine etched and filled vertical electrical interconnections (vias). Arrays of vias with a high number of interconnections, and not only peripheral interconnections are used. A 3D Si‐on‐Si stack package demonstrator has been realized consisting of four Si‐substrates each representing a system level and containing four thinned and flip‐chip assembled chips. The chips are flip‐chip mounted on the flat side of the Si‐substrates. When interconnecting the Si‐substrates by bump technology the chips submerge into cavities on the rear side of the adjacent Si‐substrate. The chips also test the technology and quality of the electronic packaging, and therefore contain a set of thin film heaters, junctions for temperature measuring, Al‐meanders for stress and strain measuring and daisy chains for conduction path monitoring.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

M. Kabir Hassan

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591

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Oldrich Bures and George A. Lopez

Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990, the international community took vigorous, unprecedented steps to curb Saddam Hussein's military ambitions. The central…

Abstract

Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990, the international community took vigorous, unprecedented steps to curb Saddam Hussein's military ambitions. The central component of these actions was a set of comprehensive arms, aviation, maritime, and economic sanctions, each imposed by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). When the multinational coalition forces ousted Iraq from Kuwait the following year, the UNSC made these sanctions and embargoes a component of the armistice agreement. Over time, these sanctions were subsequently used as leverage to press for Iraqi compliance with relevant UNSC resolutions calling for Iraqi disarmament.1

Details

Putting Teeth in the Tiger: Improving the Effectiveness of Arms Embargoes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-202-9

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Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2016

Gwenaëlle Oruezabala and Simon G. Peter

Equity crowdfunding offers a wide audience – the crowd – the possibility of financing a business project by choosing the beneficiary in accordance with the positive impact…

Abstract

Equity crowdfunding offers a wide audience – the crowd – the possibility of financing a business project by choosing the beneficiary in accordance with the positive impact of the investment on society or the environment. This new funding mode may be located between venture capital and microcredit. In Africa, the phenomenon is embryonic but could find its place in the microfinance system since it is based on the widespread traditional model of “tontines.” We first observed the crowdfunding platforms dedicated to Africa and conducted interviews in Gabon with microfinance institutions and small business owners. This empirical work then led us to mobilize new institutional theory to suggest a conceptual broadening of the participatory financing system, with a view to enhancing local economic development in Africa.

Details

International Perspectives on Crowdfunding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-315-0

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